THE MICHIGAN DAILY
THE MICHIGAN DAILY TUESDAY,
ighest U.S. Court
Prof. Goldberg Says Number'
Of Astronomers May Double
CITY PLANNING PROGRAM:
A&D Course Trains Planne
Phe United States Supreme
art has hit a new low in public
stige, a law professor from New
k State University said recent-
due to "sharp differences in
icial philosophy" and public
'he criticism of the Supreme
art has .never been 'so widely
ed in America as it is today,
>f. Bernard Schwartz said in the
chigan Law Review.
le criticized the frequent ren-
'ing of individual concurring
I dissenting opinions which tend
lower the high court's position.
pantheon that speaks with nine
arate voices can hardly inspire
listener with any' feeling of
He said that nothing takes more
stige from the Court than "con-
nt public articulation of dissi-
Communist China's second Five-
ar Plan calls for more capital
vestment at the expense of per-
rial income, according to a series
three essays on "International
onomics of Communist China."
Published Feb. 6 by the Uni-
rsity Press, the works were
itten by Prof. Charles F. Remer,
xng-hwa Mah and Robert F.
,rnberger of the economics de-
Discussing the per capita in-
mue in China of less than $60
nually, Mah commented that
e Chinese Communists have in-
ted between six and 16 per
ntk of their national income in
pital goods in spite of a four
r cent drop in personal income
e' to population increases be-
'een 1933 and 1956.
This. rate of investment, while
gh for the income level, is com-
,rable to an average 15 to 20
r cent of investment in capitalist
He also conludes that the "sur-
isingly small" loans from Russia
ring the first Five-Year Plan
iointed to only one-and-a-half
r cent of Communist China's
ta1 capital investment. But So-
et projects were really the back-
ne of the Plan, concentrated in
nstruction of metallurgical,
>wer and chemical industries and
He also writes "The Reduction
Soviet loans to Red China and
.e parallel decline in Red China's
ttal trade in 1956 and 1957 lead
e to question how much outside
sistance she may expect in tle
ue Double Capital
"This question becomes more
rious when it Is remembered that
e second Five-Year Plan . .
lls for a-doubled capital .invest-
ent. with an ambitious program
industrialization and without
tsurance of outside assistance,
e Communists will undoubtedly
it more pressure on the Chinese
ople ....to tighten their belts
en further for the sake of a
stant 'paradise,' he said.
Dernberger adds that the Chi-
se Communists in power refuse
slow the industrialization pace,
wing the people little choice.
nmmenting on the theoretical
sis of China's economic develop-
ent, he said Chinese Commu-
sm, through Lenin's imperialism,
s become a bureaucracy domin-
ed by intellectuals.
"In the rise of Chinese Com-
unism an interpretation of the
ternational relations of China
economic terms under the Len-
4st concept of imperialism has
en a factor of importance," ac-
rding to Dernberger.
One of the most difficult prob-
mns facing the United States to-
ty is adjusting to the fact that
e.Chinese Communists seem to
a t' war and peace at the same
ne, he concludes.
[o Talk Here'
Associate Justice John M. Har-
n of the United States Supreme
qurt will speak at the centennial
iservance of the Law School Oct.
to Oct. 24, Dean E. Blythe Sta-
n of the Law School announced.
The other five speakers on the
'ogram are John R. Brown, cir-
ut judge in Houston; Ralph M.
arson from New York; Erwin N.
riswold, dean of the Harvard
LW School; Edward H. Levi, dean
the University of Chicago Law
:hool and Sir Hartley William
iawcross of London, former
ritish representative to the
dence among its members .
Backbiting in public has charac-
terized several sessions of the1
Court during the past term."
This, he explains, threatens to
destroy what had hoped to be
"Earl Warren's main contribution
to the Court." It reflects the basic
differences in the opinion of the
proper role of the Supreme Court
in the American judicial system.
He said that "the leading advo-
cates of the two wings of the Court
are Justice Frankfurter on the one
side, and Justice Black, on the
other ...To Justice Frankfurter,
the judicial lodestar is the doc-
trine of self-restraint . . . (and)
deference to the legislator
"The judge who acts with Jus-
tice Black's approach . . . exhibits
a constant readiness to undo the
work of his predecessors whoever.
he himself would not have made
the initial (decision). To him, the
power to invalidate legislation
must be exercised as if it stood as
the sole bulwark against unwisdom
or the excesses of the moment."
Prof. Schwartz said the Court
tends to line up on these opposing
sides with Justice Black sup-
ported by Chief Justice Warren,
and Justices Douglas and Brennan
while Justices Burton Clark, Har-
lan, and frequently Whittaker side
He also said much of the public
discontent stems from a court
which, "in effect, reverts to the
position of originating lawmaker."
This is bound to happen when it is
composed of men who "give all too
frequent evidence of being un-
versed in the intricacies of our
Such men, he' continues, will
have trouble explaining the bases
for their decisions. "Their opin-
ions will tend to be homilies in
political science. Their language
will be turgid and verbose; their
reasoning prolix and obscure."
The University's vice-president
in charge of business and finance
Wilbur K. Pierpont will serve as
the chairman of the American
Council on Education's Committee
on Taxation and Fiscal Reporting
to the Federal Government during
the current year.
He accepted the committee as-
signment at the request of the
American Council' on Education's
president, Arthur S. Adams.
Pierpont .is in charge of fi-
nancing University operations and
carrying the Regents decisions re-
garding the University's invest-
Space age demands will boost
the number of astronomers in the
United States at least three or
four-fold in the next ten years, a
prominent University astronomer
Estimates have indicated the
number will double in the next 15
years to more than 1,600. There
are approximately 800 astrono-
mers in the United States today.
"This is far too conservative a
figure in my opinion, Prof. Leo
Goldberg, chairman of the as-.
tronomy department said. "The;
present shortage will get much
worse, and doubling the number:
of astronomers will not ease it,"
Many of the new astronomers
will come up by the conventional
routes but many more will be at-
tracted from the neighboring
fields of physics, mathematics and
engineering, Prof. Goldberg pre-
The most pressing shortage ex-
ists in the field of celestial me-
chanics which concerns the orbits
of planets and provides the infor-
mation needed to chart a rocket
course to the moon, Mars and
Venus, the American Astronomical
Society has reported.
Because of limited opportunities
for basic research in celestial me-
chanics, Prof. Goldberg said, few
astronomers have concentrated in
it until now. ,
"The "advent of satellites and
other space vehicles has not
changed this situation, but it has
created a demand for application
of knowledge in celestial mechan-
ics to practical rather than basic
problems," he said.
Meanwhile here at the Univer-
sity, total enrollment in astrono-
my courses has doubled in the
past five years. During the cur-
rent semester more than 900 stu-
dents enrolled in astronomy and
though most have only a general
interest in the subject, the num-
ber of undergraduate students in
the field "has increased sharply
in the past year or two," he said.
"At present, the University has
some 15 graduate students in as-
tronomy but we have already re-
ceived more than 20 inquiries and
applicataions from prospective
new students for next fall," Prof.
In order to meet the increased
demands for teachers and re-
search personnel, it will be neces-
sary for us to double the size of
our teaching and research staff
within the immediate future, he
added. "The areas that will re-
quire the most personnel are those
of radio astronomy and the new
field of astronomical observation
from space vehicles," Prof. Gold-
A good course in city planning I
should give students adequate
training for their future profes-
sion, Prof. John W. Hyde, of the!
architecture and design school
After four years of a general
architectural program with elec-
tives oriented toward the planning
program, the student may choose
the -option of city planning in:
place of the architectural con-
struction option or the airchitec-
tural design program.
At present, eight graduates are
enrolled in the program and at
least that number of undergradu-
ate members are anticipated, Prof.
Hyde said. *
Dp Practical Problems
In a planning design or studio
course such as City Planning 90
in the architectural and planning
division, students undertake prac-
tical problems while attempting to
identify basic principles of city
and regional planning. These
problems are intended to stimu-
late the student to identify and
solve the capital development re-
quirements of contemporary ur-
ban communities and metropoli-
tan areas, Prof. Hyde continues.
The first six weeks of this first
course in the program of four se-
mesters are devoted to the analy-
sis of needs and the development
of a small community. After pre-
liminary regional business and lo-
cations studies, transportation
studies and more detailed neigh-
borhood planning, the planners'
begin work on more localized
The class is grouped into sever-
al "planning task forces," each of
which prepares its own estimates
of needs within the problem area.
Community concepts and objec-
tives, housing, education, govern-
ment and community facilities,
transportation, public lands and
recreation are the c a t e g o r i e s
studied in detail in addition to the
physical and economic resources
and potentialities of the area.
Studies in, the Ann Arbor area
must be closely related to the ex-
panding needs and patterns of the
Detroit Metropolitan Region.
Treat Urban Renewal
More advanced courses deal
with problems of urban renewal,
specialized functional researches
and more complex problems in
urban area and regional develop-
Prof. Hyde pointed out that
both classes in research and in de-
sign problems are practical and
theoretical and, in practice, pro-
fessional planner's specialized re-
search studies would consider the
questions in this way.
In addition to the studio courses,
in planning, the advance under-
graduate and graduate program
include substantial work in the
social sciences and in related er
gineering fields. Collaboratin
architects study particular arch;
tectural problems involving sp
cific building sites and complex
and emphasize the design
structures while what planne
concentrate on broader comm
nity and area problems.
In general, a major planni
problem is studied through t;
entire semester, Prof. Hyde e
plained. The emphasis is on
broad education with substant:
penetration into the professior
field. This semester the problem
under study include the develo
ment of the areas contiguous
the North Campus, renewal of t
central business district of Ar
Arbor, an urban residential r
newal problem, study of the Pl
mouth, Michigan, urban area a:
an extensive study of industr
development in the Plymouth i
The continued growth of t
University and of Ann Arbor
likely, Prof. Hyde said, to resi
in expansion both in the Nor
Campus area and in the Nort
west Ann Arbor area known
Honey Creek, and because a lar
part of the facilities for scienti
research will be concentrated
and near the North Campus, e
tensive housing and other cod
munity facilities will be needed
addition to the industrial resear
laboratories which are already 1
ing encouraged to locate in t
STAR SHINE-Although the number of astronomers is expected
to increase three-to-four-fold in the next ten years, according to
Prof. Leo Goldberg, there will still not be enough trained men to
handle telescopes like this. The greatest shortage, he predicts,
will be in the field of celestial mechanics.
A new project designed to im-
prove physics teaching in the
metropolitan Detroit area was re-'
The project will be jointly spon-
sored by the University and Wayne,
The University, with the back-
ing of several Detroit business
firms will offer a three-semester
physics program designed for high
school physics teachers. Wayne
will provide laboratory facilities
for the class, which will begin on
The class will be limited to'
twenty. Applications are now being
accepted at the University Gradu-
ate School in Ann Arbor and at
the University Extension Center,
60 Farnsworth Avenue in Detroit.
The course carries three hours
credit toward a degree of Master:
of Education. The course charges
will be $40.50 each semester. Fel-
lowships of $200 or more per
semester are available to partici-
pants in the program.
A one-hour elementary com-
puter techniques course designed
primarily for undergraduates will
be offered by Prof. Bernard A.
Galler of the mathematics de-
partment this semester.
Students will learn to commu-
nicate with computers using ordi-
nary algebraic language.
The course is open to anyone
with at least one year of college
Greater efforts and increases in
research were called for in the
field of ship -design by Prof. Rich-
ard Couch of the engineering col-
These increased efforts are nec-
essary, he said, to keep ships in
pace with the rapid technological
advances being made in other
He added that ship designers
could reduce the cost of ship con-
struction by greater attention to
details and still design ships that,
through the use of new techno-
logical advances, would go faster,
be niore seaworthy and maneuver-
He called on naval architects
and engineers to put more "sci-
ence", and less "art" into ship de-
Emphasizing the need for more
exhaustive research, he pointed to
the 12 million man-hours spent
designing the B-52 as compared
to the 430,000 man-hours spent
designing one of the latest me-
dium-sized passenger vessels.
He continued that if the tech-
niques., of aircraft design were
applied "to ship design and opera-
tion they would enable greater
improvements to be made in ships
without the necessity of the cost
of actually building a prototype
This sort of research would also
be economically feasible, he said.
For example, a three to five per,
cent increase in hull and propeller
efficiency is possible by a moder-
ate program of naval tank test-
ing of a scale model.
"A model program would cost
from $5,000 to $25,000, depending
on the size of the model tank used,
for a single screw ship. But on the
basis- of today's fuel prices, which
can run from $100,000 to one mil-
lion dollars annually for a ship,
it is obvious that the model test-
ing costs would be paid off very
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SU' Scientists Discover Way
To See' Sinole Atomic Flash
Two University physicists have
discovered a way to photograph a
light so weak it must be intensi-
fied 100,000 times to be picked up
by the most sensitive photographic
The tiny flash, the light from
the path of a single atomic par-
ticle, lasting only a millionth of
CALLED WORST ALLERGY CASE:.
Pansey's Sneezes May Solve Allergy Problems
"Pansy," a flop-eared terrier
has become a full-fledged member
of a team of allergy researchers
at the University Medical Center.
She was brought here by her
owner after suffering greatly from
the Indiana ragweed season. She
was treated by Dr. Roy Patterson,
an instructor in internal medicine
and a specialist in allergy studies.
Pansy adopted Dr. Patterson im-
mediately and has remained with
him ever since.
Signs of Hayfever
The terrier suffers from the
three major signs of ragweed
asthma: hayfever, bronchial asth-
ma and skin eruptions. This is
quite rare in animals.
In addition the animal shows a
positive reaction to the skin test
Dr. John M. Sheldon, head of
the allergy division of the Medical
Center commented that "Pansy
has the worst case of hayfever al-
lergy" that he has ever "seen in
man or beast."
Since that observation the ani-
mal has become even more impor-
tant in the allergy research pro-
Dr. Patterson feels that through
experiments done on Pansy much
can be learned about human al-
Pansy has been entering into
the spirit of the research with ca-
nine enthusiasm. She is an inter-
ested spectator in Patterson's
work, following him around the
laboratory as he tries to solve the
mysteries of allergies.
Patterson hopes eventually to
discover the effects of fresh and
old pollen, and the change in po-
tency of pollen over time.
In addition he hopes to explore
the possibilities of a permanent
Pansy, may, help us to answer:
these questions. For as Patterson1
observes "If we can help her, we
can help anybody."
The long suffering dog has been
treated with anti-histamines, epi-
nephrine, babas and ointments.
Dr. Patterson said that these dif-
ferent medications have been quite
successful in relieving her symp-
toms but they are continuing in
hopes of discovering what drugs
help her the most.
"Allergic animals are far more
rare than allergic people," Dr.
Patterson continued.. "Animals
have generally been ignored, al-
though they could prove a valu-
able aid. I wish we had a dozen
just like Pansy," he added.
During the ragweed season, she
lives at home with Dr. Patterson
in order that he can keep a pro-
fessional eye on her condition. The
rest of the year she stays at the
University animal quarters.
KAb ., ', - ': r."'V. :s --..n ,
a second, is produced along the
trail left by the atomic particle
speeding through a scintillating
A sciitillation effect similar to
this occurs when electrons strike
the screen of an operating tele-
vision picture tube.
Prof. Martin L. Perl and Prof.
Lawrence W. Jones, both of the
physics department, have been
working on the luminescent cham-
ber about nine months under the
combined sponsorship of the Of-
fice of Naval Research, Project
MICHIGAN and the, Michigan
Phoenix Atomic Energy Progra'm.
A similar development is known
to have been proceeding in Russia
and primitive photographs of par-
ticle tracks in a l u m i n e s c e n t
chamber were published by the
Russians four years ago.
SIncontrast to the typical tele-
vision screen, which has millions
of electrons striking it every in-
stant, the luminescent chamber
has made it possible to photograph
the light from the path of a single
Parts of the luminescent cham-
ber could be used by astronomers
in satellites to obtain pictures of
fa rdistant stars or galaxies..
If it is made of yarn,
Sthe Yarncraft Shop
has the yarn and
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ACHOO-Pansy, the dog described as having the "worst case of
hayfever allergy I have seen in man or beast" by Dr. John M.
Sheldon, is playing a part in allergy research at the University's
Medical Center. She is being treated by Dr. Roy Patterson.
Thwere is no finer
V dentin e's Da-y p
U L K * A I*I *
i w. ,.1
Our laundry divides each bundle received into several
parts. Each part goes into a net bag. The net bags filled
with clothes go into the' washer. Suds and water run
freely through the open mesh of the nets. Yet the nets
protect clothes from tangling and knotting. Have your
clothes washed in nets regularly to protect them and get
wrww In or 1