Saturday, September 14, 1968
TH'E MICHIGAN DAILY
By PETER ARNETT
Associated Press Writer
First of Two Parts
SAIGON - How soon can the he
million American troops in Vietnam b
gin turning the burden of the war ov
to the Vietnamese military and sta
The prevailing Saigon viewpoint se
this goal realized only years from no
unless a settlement is negotiated. TI
arming of the Vietnamese with mo
than 200,000 M16 automatic rifles, ha
of them already delivered, is seen as t
initial phase of a long rebuilding proce
And yet because of the peculiar w
the Vietnam war is being fought, pa
ticularly the general acceptance thi
military victory in the classical sense
unreachable because of the war's "limit
there is another viewpoint that sugge
American boys can start moving out rig
now without any appreciable military i
Just as another quarter of a milli
American troops brought into Vietna
would not necessarily win the war, ma
believe the converse applies: A quari
of a million troops pulled out wou
ndt necessarily lose it.
Civilian and military viewpoints on t
prospects do not necessarily coincide, bi
the view that American force levels cou
and should be reduced has already be
placed in circulation in the top gover
ment levels in Washington, accordingl
senior Americans here. Its proponen
see the wars costs-about $30 billion th
year-as the major irritant within t
United States over Vietnam.
"A half million American famil;
worry about their men in Vietnam, b
40 million families worry about their do
'lars over here. We must satisfy the
American public's distaste for spending
money in an area as unproductive as
this," one senior American official com-
be- 'Some Americans here believe that a
ver phased reduction of U.S. troops could
art begin immediately, paring the number to
200,000 by 1972. One of the proponents
ees knowledgeable regional director of the
.ow is John P. Vann, an influential and
he U.S.-backed pacification program.
Ere Vann would cut deeply into the ela-
alf borate military structure built by the
he former commander of U.S. troops and
ss. now chief of staff of the Army, Gen.
ay William C. Westmoreland.
The' U.S. high command jealously
Tat guards its establishment in Vietnam.
is Vann admits his proposal is provocative-
s, "It would need a hard-headed secretary
sts of defense to push it through."
ht Senior U.S. field commanders are
n- against pulling out any American troops
in the foreseeable future. Lt. Gen. Rich-
on ard G. Stillwell, commander of the area
Lm that includes the battle-scarred demili-
ny tarized zone, comments: "No troop com-
ter mander will ever admit he has too many
The commanders argue that under the
he ceiling of 550,000 U.S. troops for Viet-
ut nam imposed pn the military, an econ-
ld omy of forces" strategy is already being
en practiced inmost of the country. This is
n- the minimum deployment of forces in
to one area, to permit the maximum de-
its ployment in another.
his Only around Saigon itself and in the
he two northernmost provinces are there
enough forces to amply meet maximum
ies enemy pressure. Elsewhere the allies re-
ut act tho enemy thrusts by rapidly massing
ol- the limited foi'ces available.
American efforts in Vietnam pre-
sumably are based on the assumption
that Vietnamese will eventually take
over the defense burden, but critics see
the opposite taking place in some areas.
"We could- nursemaid the Vietnamese,
army forever," one civilian official com-
"We saved them in 1965, and we built
them up. Now they have a second chance,
and they say they are nearly ready to
do the job themselves. Maybe they can.
God knows we should find out."
/Several factors are seen as possibly
speeding up the time for a partial Amer-
One is improved weaponry in the
Vietnamese army. All 158 maneuver bat-
talions in the regular forces have received
the M16 automatic rifle with chrome-
plated chambers and strengthened recoil
buffers to prevent jamming. Local mili-
tia forces have started getting the M16,
giving them equal if not better firepowezr
than the Viet Cong for the first time
The U.S. commander in Vietnam, Gen.
Creighton W. Abrams, is "showing con-
siderably less patience for high-level ex-
cuses from the Vietnamese than did
Westy," according to one official.
Another factor is that a decision to
start moving Americans out would allow
maximum leverage to be used against
the Vietnamese government. Pacification
director Vann, who in eight years in Viet-
nam has sought for more leverage to get
things done, believes that if the right
response was received from the govern-
ment there would be no reduction of
the over-all military effort with fhe de-
parture of some Americans, but just a
transference back to the Vietnamese.
Tomorrow: The National Attitude
on job security
in Brooklyn area
NEWYORK (P) - A city-wide
teachers' strike paralyzed the na-
tion's largest school system yes-.
terday for the second time within
the week, and most of its 1.1 mil-
lion pupils once again were denied
classroom education. Only about
22,600 children showed up.'
Mayor J o h n V. Lindsay, sur-
rendering the role of peacemaker
in the bitter dispute to State Ed-
ucation Commissioner James E.
Allen Jr., called the situation "ex-
tremely complicated and tension-
Center of the deadlock with the
AFL-CIO United Federation of
Teachers over job security is the
experimental Ocean Hill-Browns-
ville local school district, where
10 ousted white teachers have
been denied reinstatement.
Rhody McCoy, administrator in
the area, said he was asking the
-state to take over the district from
the city's Board of Education.
There were scattered instances
of disorder in areas where resi-
dents protested the closing of the
schools by the 55,000 UFT mem-
bers. Only 2,900 teachers report-
ed for classes.!
Windows were smashed in a
Lower East Side school. In t h e
South Bronx, a small fire was set
at the door of a school. A b u s
driver was arrested and accused
for threatening a picketing teach-
er at a Brooklyn h i g h school.
Pickets at some other schools were
taunted by onlookers.
'At Ocean Hill-Brownsville, a
black and Puerto Rican slum area
in Brooklyn, the district's eight
schools were kept open . under
heavy police surveillance. Clara
Marshall, vice chairman of the
district school board, surveyed the
scene at Junior High School 271
and said "This doesn't look like
a school, it looks like a police pre-
However, the Board of Educa-
tion reported that only 159 of the
city's 900 public schools were op-
en, and called the latest strike
more effective than the earlier,
Fortas denies. request
WASHINGTON (,P)-Justice Abe
Fortas declined an invitation yes-
terday to return for further ques-
tioning by the Senate Judiciary
Committee investigating his nom-
ination for Supreme Court Justice.
In a letter sent to Committee
chairman Sen. James O. Eastland
(D-Miss), Fortas said there wes
"a lack of precedent"-he is the
firstanomineerto be quizzed by a
congressional committee - but
gave no specific explanation for
turning down the invitation sent
Fortas had previously testified
before the committee during a
four day grilling in July. He said
in his letter he now believed his
"proper course of action is re-
spectfully to decline to appear
In'a surprise move, the Judiciary
Committee summoned as its first
witness 1. J. Tennery, dean of the
law school at Arierican Univer-
sity. The committee was expected
to call Sgt. Donald Shaidell of the
Los Angeles City Vice devision.
Fortas was paid $15,000, raised
by a former law partner to teach
a nine-week summer course at the
law school here Tennery said.
Five "men of considerable
means" contributed $30,000 to
launch the new course, Law and
the Social Environment, Tennery
continued. Paul A. Yorter solicited-
the tax-deductible contributions,
"We compete to get good brains
in the student. body and good
brains as teachers," Tennery said.
Porter, who headed the govern-
ment's Office of. Price Adminis-
tration in World War II, was For-
tas' law partner before the justice
went to the court in 1965.
The third partner was Thurman
Arnold, a former head of the Jus-
tice Department's antitrust divi-
sion, The firm is known' now. as
Arnold Porter. Fortas' wife,
Carolyn Agger, is also a member.
Tennery, read a statement, then
!was questioned at length.
He stoutly defended his law
school's arrangement with Fortas,
saying: "I do not believe there is
any law school dean in this coun-
try who would not have been over-
joyed to have Mr. Justice Forta's
as a colleague and to have stu-
dents participate in ,this en-
The seminar, an attempt to
draw on several university dis-
ciplines, met two hours a week
for ninie ' weeks with 17 students
attending. The idea, originated at
Yale University, Fortas' alma
mater, and at the University of
Chicago in the 1930s, Tennery
.said, was' to help lawyers become
conversant with sociology and
other non.aw school subjects.
Sen. McClellan shows Fortas letter
IS PROUD TO
BECKY VAN DYKE
Jr. Assoc. Nat'l Advertising
NOT GIVING IN:
ICzchs slow liberalization plan
Red Cross suspends
missions to IBiafra
PRAGUE (P) - Czechoslovakia,
complying with Moscow's de-
mands, formally slowed down its
liberalization drive yesterday while
voicing hope that the Soviet-led
invasion forces will soon begin
withdrawing from this country.
At the same time the Czechoslo-
vak leadership made plain it was
refusing to knuckle under. It de-
CINEMA IIS ACCEPTING STUDENT FILMS IN
BOTH 8 MM AND 16 MM TO SHOW AS SHORTS
BEF-ORE OUR SCHEDULED FEATURES. THIS IS
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nounced "false reports" in Po-
land's and Bulgaria's official par-
ty Iewspapers and prepared a
diplomatic protest to Warsaw.
The National Assembly approv-
ed legislation curbing press free-
dom, a basic tenet of the reform-
ist party leadership, and barred
formation of new political organ;-
izations. The vote was unanimous,
with two abstentions.
The parliament also gave full
support to a government state-
ment that the "new situation" -
meaning the occupation that be-
gai Aug. 20 - forced "modifica-
tions" in the contents and time
schedule of the original liberali-
zation program. It asked a "dis-.
ciplined observance of 1 a w s by
The government statement read
by Premier Oldrich Cernik, an-
nounced that talks will begin
shortly "at the level of govern-
ment delegations about the grad-
ual withdrawal of th e troops'
Svoboda told the assembly that
the post-invasion Moscow accords
between Czechoslovakia and the
Soviet Union were agreed to by
the Prague leaders "to prevent
He said it was "no time for mel-
ancholy and lamentations" a n d
that the accord would achieve a
"solution which would comply
with the honor and the inviolable
rights and interests of our people
and its Socialist future."
Cernik reiterated in the govern-
ment statement that the accord
made complete withdrawal of the
occupation troops dependent on
"normalization" in Czechoslovak-
Urging state and party bodies
to help achieve such conditions by
strengthening the leading role of
the party, Cernik advocated weak-
ening "rightist and other extrem-
ist forces" and reducing the "in-
fluence of World imperialism on
The foremost task at present is,
he ;said, to fulfill the obligations
arising from the Moscow accord
"honorably and consistently."
U.S. denies violating
North Korean waters
wrl rrrr rr
W ANT TO LEARN
First Lesson FREE!!
Tues., Sept. 17, Room 3A Union
By The Associated Press
The State Department said yes-
terday it knows of no violation of
North Korean territorial waters
by the U.S. intelligence . vessel
Banner, a sister ship of - the Pu-
eblo, or by any other American
electronic evesdropping ship.
Press officer Robert J. McClosk-
ey broadened the range of U.S. de-
nials following further charges
aired by the North Koreans in the
controversy over the Pueblo, seized
by the Reds last January 23.
The Reds are claiming that a
February 28, 1966 U.S. Navy order
authorized the U.S* intelligence
craft to sail within three miles of
North Korea and the same dis-
tance off China's Paracel Islands.
claim a 12-m i 1 e limit and the
North Koreans are holding the
Pueblo and its 82 surviving crew-
men on grounds the vessel crim-
inally intruded in to North Korean
Meanwhile in Pyongyang, North
Korea, crewmen of the Pueblo,
in a concentration camp in the
outskirts of the city appear to be
in good health and longing to be
returned home as soon as possi-
A large group of Japanese and
other foreign newsmen were al-
lowed to inspect the inside of the
camp and meet some of the de-
tainees Thursday following an in-
ternational press interview of, part
of the ship's crew at the s a in e
The Pyongyang-arranged for-
eign press interview was the first
permitted since the Jan. 23 cap-
ture of the Pueblo. So also was the
visit to the camp.
The treatment of officers and
sailors was found to conform to
international regulations c O n-
cerning war prisoners.
LAGOS, Nigeria (P)-The Red'
Cross suspended mercy flights into
secessionists, Biafra yesterday be-
cause of fighting near its two
Nigerian military sources said
the 15th Brigade of the federal
3rd Marine Commando Division
was fighting for the airstrip be-
tween the village of Uli and Ihiala
in western Biafra.
The Red Cross in Geneva said
the airstrip was badly damaged
by Nigerian bombs. It was the
airstrip designated in an agree-
ment Sept. 3 by the Nigerian gov-
ernment and the International
Red Cross for energency daylight
Red Cross sources said the other
airstrip at Ohi-Uturu can no
longer be used because the Ni-
gerian forces were rapidly ap-
proaching. It is southeast of the
one between Uli and Ihiala and
has been used for Red Cross night
A spokesman for the Nigerian
high command said federal troops
were under orders not to shell
the Uli 'airstrip until after the
expiration Saturday of the agree-
ment permitting Red Cross day-
The agreement never went into
effect because the Biafrans want-
ed the planes to land at Obilago,
in central Biafra.
The federal army said the Obi-
lago strip blocks the Nigerian
advance to Umuahia, headquarters
of Lt. Col. C. Odumegwu Ojukwu,
head of the seccessionist regime.
The army spokesman said fight-
ing was heavy on all the fronts
surrounding the 5,000 square
miles still held by the Biafrans
after 14 months of civil war. Bia-
fra claimed 29,000 square miles at
secession May 30, 1967.
A federal army! spokesman said:
"If we. capture Uli-Ihiala airstrip,
of course, it will still operate. We
will offer the same facility as at
Enugu and Calabar."
Red Cross planes shuttle relief
supplies from L4agos to those two
towns in federally held Eastern
Radio Biafra said Nigerian air
force jet bombers pounded the
towns of Ihiala, four miles north
of Uli, and Orlu 12 iniles east of
it. The secessionists claimed 50
civilians were killed. The reports
were unconfirmed here.
August Lindt, Swiss diplomat
and Red Cross relief coordinator
for Nigeria, left yesterday morning
in his private plane for Santa
Isabel, Fernando Po.
Red Cross sources said they did
not know when he would return.
a I~l ge
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HHH comes to grips
Pulling up his trousers while contemplating the sea, Democratic
presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey paused on the sands of
Sea Girt, N.J. during* a sojourn with New Jersey Gov. Richard J.
Hughes and his family.
'SPIDER' JOHN KOERNER