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December 01, 1967 - Image 5

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-12-01

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exploring Ideology of SNCC:
Revolution or Violent Talk?

Senate Passes Bill Barring INVALUABLE DOCUMENTS:

At-Large House Elections
WASHINGTON (A') - Senate redistricted in accord with court

'U' Collections To Receive
Philippine Historical Papers

approval yesterday completed con-
gressional action on a bill barring

Associated Press News Analysis
ATLANTA-Guerrilla war and
black rebellion have become new
themes for the young Negro lead-
ers of an organization once
known for its nonviolent sit-ins
and Freedom Rides for civil rights.
"We have no alternative but to
use aggressive, armed violence,"
said one of the leaders, Stokely
During an August trip to Cuba,
he proposed urban guerrilla war
by Negroes in the United States.
Carmichael, 26, belongs to the
Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Comnfittee (SNCC) a small band
of self-styled revolutionaries who
are no longer students, nor non-
Vocal Power
During a year as SNCC chair-
man, Carmichael vocalized Black
Power, the mystique of the new
militants, and led the organiza-
tion to unpopular and extremist
positions, creating all-Negro poli-
tical parties, opposing the military
draft, the Vietnam war and call-
ing for Negroes to take up arms.
His successor as SNCC chair-
man, H. Rap Brown, has followed
"Wet are at war!'" Brown shout-
ed to a crowd of Negroes in New
York not too long ago. "We are
caught behind enemy lines and
you better get yourselves some
Field Travels
Carmichael relinquished the
SNCC chairmanship last May, say-
ing he would return to the field
to organize.
The field has taken him far. He
has embraced Cuba's Castro, de-
nounced U.S. capitalism and "im-
perialism," and paid his respects
to Communist North Vietnam af-
ter yelling his antidraft slogan
across America-"Hell, no! I ain't
He hopped from England to,
Cuba, to Vietnam and Algiers.
Other SNCC men traveled
abroad also. They included George
Washington Ware who went to
Cuba and SNCC's former program
director, Cleveland L. Sellers, who
attended a Communist-dominated
ban-the-bomb convention in Tok-

The angry speechesshave stirred
demands in Congress and else-
where for prosecution-on charges
of sedition or treason, or some-
thing. One proposal would revoke
the citizenship of the Trinidad-
born Carmichael.
But despite all the angry SNCC'
talk, there has been no sign of
an actual program of guerrilla war
or armed rebellion. In fact it has
very little discernible program.
"You don't conduct guerrilla
war through the public press," re-
marked one of the now inactive
organizers of SNCC.
It is true that the violent talk,
the calls for guerrilla war, appeal
to some Negroes, perhaps many of
the restles youth. Carmichael and
Brown are conceded "substantial"
following among Negroes by vet-
eran civil rights workers in other
SNCC has a very small mem-
bership, estimated at no more
than 100 by informed sources. A
year ago, it was about 230.
It has some campus affiliates.
Carmichael's summer tour of Ne-
gro campuses heightened interest,
if not support, and brought a
warning by one college adminis-
trator that Black Power had per-
meated the campuses.
Financial Trouble
"They're really in terrible fi-
nancial trouble," a source said.
That is not unusual now. But in its
heyday, SNCC had strong finan-
cial and moral support from many
sources, especially college cam-
"Today the response is to Snick,"
said Atlanta attorney Howard
Moore Jr., whomoften defends
SNCC and its members in the
courts. "Snick is the vanguard of
the movement. Snick has intro-
duced the revolutionary ideas."
And, indeed, SNCC sometimes
has been ahead of the bigger,
slower moving or more conserva-
tive civil rights organizations. It
has forced others to take stronger,
more militant stands.
When Dr. Martin Luther King
Jr. shifted to a more outspoken
stand opposing U.S. policy in Viet-
nam, he drew considerable criti-
cism and lost some supporters.

at-large election of House mem-
utd NCC had taken a tronger bers except for next year's elec-
stand more than a year before. tions in Hawaii and New Mexico.
SNCC began with King's help- By a 54-24 roll-call vote the
as a student arm of the nonvio- Senate yielded to the insistence of
lent movement. It grew out of the House that an exception be
lunch counter sit-ins, made for these two states, which
When King launched the 1965 always have elected their two
voting rights drive in Alabama, House he ers cttdl teirather
SNCC, which had preceded him House members at large rather
in Selma, joined the nonviolent than from districts.
ranks but grew more impatient The Senate originally had voted

Sen. Birch Bayh (D-Ind.) said
that not only in his own state but
in California, New York, Pennsyl-
vania and other states candidates
for Congress might have to run
at large.
Baker, backed by Sen. Edward
Brooke (R-Mass.), said an im-
portant principle is at stake andj
contended that if the Senate
stood fast, the House might yield.
Hawaii's senators, Republican
Hiram L. Fong and Democrat

with each march.t
Carmichael went to work int
Lowndes County to organize ae
Negro third party under the Blackt
Panther emblem. j
After his election as SNCC t
chairman, Carmichael emphasized '
political power, third parties, Ne-
gro control of their communities.
No WhitesV
Whites were no longer welcome
in SNCC. A former member saide
he know of no whites in the or-y
ganization now. "There werec
about four out of 100 last Septem- v
ber," he said. But in 1964, SNCCr
had about 50 whites in the 250-
member group and some werea
Other civil rights organizations
-notably the Congress of Racial,
Equality-have eased whites out
of leadership posts to varying de-{
grees as part of a trend toward
black leadership, but SNCC is thea
only one without any whites.
Carmichael at the time dis-
claimed any violent connotations
in Black Power. But with the fail-
ure of a Black Panther politicalt
slate in the Lowndes County elec-1
tions, however, he took an in-s
creasingly militant tack-within a
few months hitting the campuses
with calls for Negro students tor
take control.-
Militant Movesc
His definition of terms changed.f
In Cuba, he defined Black Power
as "unification of the Negro popu-
lation to fight for their liberation
and to take up arms."I
Even more violent speeches came
from new SNCC chairman Brown.
Brown, 23, is a relative newcomer
to SNCC, and was unknown pub-
licly before his election.
Carmichael's foreign travels have
drawn criticism from some snick
But former SNCC member Bond,
who maintains contact with the
organization, gave this explana-
tion: "The whole idea is to inter-
nationalize what most people con-
sider strictly a domestic problem."
One assessment of the small,
radical SNCC is provided by the
man who was keynote speaker at
the first meeting in 1960. He is
the Rev. James Lawson, a pastor
in Memphis, Tenn.
"The hysterical wing of our
society will try to smash Snick,"
he said. "That's a real danger. If
that does not happen and Snick
runs its course under present lead-
ership, it will become a fringe
group in the civil rights move-

to require that all states entitled

to more than one congressman IDaniel K. Inouye, and Sen. Clin-
elect their representatives by dis- ton P. Anderson (D-N.M.) urged
tricts. Sen. Howard Baker Jr. (R- that their states be allowed to de-
Tenn.) led an unsuccessful fight fer establishing congressional dis-
to persuade his colleagues to tricts until after the 1968 elec-
stand by this principle. tions.
Eliminate Gerrymandering ~~U~
The ban on at-large elections *~/ Ii.
was all that was left of legislation 'e
designed to eliminate gerrymand-
ering and set standards limiting WASHINGTON W-~These in-1
variations in the population of creases in minimum postal rates
congressional districts in accord have been approved by both the
with the Supreme Court's one- Senate and House and will take
man, one-vote rulings, effect in January:
The legislation bogged down in -First class letters-from 5 to
a deadlock between the Senate 6 cents.
and the House. -First class cards-from 4 to 5
The prohibition on at-large Airmail letters-from 8 to 10
elections except in Hawaii and Ascents.
New Mexico in 1968 was attached -Airmail cards-from 6 to 8
as a rider to a private relief bill cents.

The acquisition of a microfilmed
copy of the papers of the late
Philippine Commonwealth Presi-
dent Manuel Quezon will make the
University a prime research cen-
ter for Philippine history, accord-
ing to Prof. David Steinberg of
the history department.
"The papers are fantastically
valuable. No one knows for sure
what is in them," Steinberg ex-
Quezon was president of the
Philippine Commonwealth from
1935 to 1944. He led the country
through its crucial period of prog-
ress toward independence and
World War II when the country
was ravaged.
Stored in Rackham
jUnder an agreement with the
Philippine National Library, which
currently holds the papers, the
University will pay the $8,000 cost
of sorting, arranging, and micro-
filming the papers. In return, the
University will keep a copy of the
microfilms in the Michigan His-
torical Collection, in the Rackham
Building. The original microfilm
and the papers are to remain in
Because Philippine records be-
fore Quezon's time were sparse, the

papers will be an invaluable re-
source for research. Quezon was,
"one of the most important South-
east Asian leaders of the 20tH cen-
tury-a predecessor of Sukarno,"
Steinberg said. His papers-some
180,000 letters, speeches, diaries,
scrapbooks, pictures, and other
documents-will give much insight
into his thoughts and his dealings
with such men as Franklin D.
Roosevelt and Douglas MacArthur.
Add to Knowledge
"The period covered by the pa-
pers is a critical one in both Phil-
ippine and U.S. history. Our chief
experiment in imperialism will al-

three years to complete. It is
urgent that the papers be mic-
rofilmed now, Steinberg said, be-
cause in another 10 years they
will be too decayed to be usable."
They have been flooded twice, and
the tropical weather is hard on
paper," he explained.
Philippine Collection
The Quezon papers will be a
valuable addition to an already
strong Philippine collection at the
University. The collection now in-
cludes the manuscripts of Michi-
gan alumnus Frank Murphy,
former Governor - General and
first High Commissioner of the

ways be of interest to historians, Philippines, and of former Univer-
Warner noted. "With the collec- sity professors J. Ralston Haydon,
tions the University already has, Murphy's Vice-Governor-General,
the Quezon papers will add a val- and Dean C. Worcester, who

uable dimension to our knowledge
of this period."
Since 80 per cent of Manilla was
destroyed in World War II, those
papers that remain are invaluable,
Steinberg said. The University has
expert librarians and archivists
now working on the papers. A
$6,000 grant from the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare'
will defray most of the cost of
filming the collection.
The project will take two to

served on the first Philippine
At the request of Dr. Robert
Warner, director of the Michigan
Historical Collections, Dr. David
Sturdevant of Muskingum Col-
lege began field work for the pro-
ject in 1964. University President
Harlan Hatcher wrote Philippine
President Ferdinand Marcos about
the project. Steinberg then travel-
ed to the Philippines to complete
the agreement.

admitting Dr. Ricardo V. Samala
as an immigrant entitled to perm-
anent residence.
'Cause Chaos'
While Baker urged rejection of
the House amendment excepting
Hawaii and New Mexico, other
senators argued this would kill
any chance for passage of the bill.
Sen. Sam J. Ervin Jr. (D-N.C.)
said it would cause chaos in next
year's congressional elections be-
cause at-large elections could be
forced in states that have not yet

-Second class regular--nonad-
vertising matter from 2.8 to 3.4
cents per pound, the minimum
from 1 cent to 1.3 cents each.
Other rate increases differ in
the Senate and House versions
and will have to be compromised
before a final bill can be passed.
The House version would raise
third class rates to a minimum
3.8 cents per piece, from the pres-
ent 278 cents. The Senate bill
would go to 3.6 cents in January
and 4 cents a year later.

_ _ _1

, ,,
I 3


t Directory



Protesters at NYU Force
Dow Recruiter Off Campus

FRIDAY at 8:00 P.M.
A New Torah Service with Music Composed by Isadore Freed,
the late music director of Temple Israel, Lawrence, Long Island
Director of Program Development of Research Administration and
Assistant Professor of English, College of Engineering
The Evolution of American Identity
John Planer will chant the Service with the Choir directed by
Steven Ovitsky, Joan Spitzer, Organist


NEW YORK (P)-A noisy dem-
onstration by about 200 stu-
dents and faculty m e m b e r s
cut short recruiting by the Dow
Chemical Co. on New York Uni-
versity's Greenwich Village cam-
pus Wednesday.
It was the latest in a series of
similar demonstrations on cam-
puses across the nation, protesting
Dow's manufacture of napalm-a
flammable jelly used in the Viet-
nam war.
Professor Included
The NYU demonstrators includ-
ed Prof. Conor Cruis O'Brien,
former diplomat and one-time
chief of UN operations in the
Congo. He was appointed recently
to a $100,000-a-year humanities
professorship at NYU.
O'Brien told a reporter that he
supported the students because he
considered the Vietnam war "un-
just and immoral." He said it was
wrong for the university to allow
the Dow recruiters on campus.
The students, carrying signs
reading "Dow Deforms Children"
and "Dow Deals Death," broke

into the placement office where
Dow recruiter Larry Silverstein'
was interviewing graduate science
students about possible employ-
ment with the company.
Brendon Sexton, a student lead-
er, demanded a debate with Sil-
verstein, who declined. Silverstein
left after talking with four of the
11 students he had been scheduled
to interview.
A spokesman for Dow said the
other seven will be interviewed
later, either on campus or off.
List Names
At the request of Dr. Harold
Whiteman, chancellor for student
affairs, the demonstrators signed
their names to sheets of paper.
Whiteman said the names-
about 200 students and about
seven faculty members-would be
submitted to the appropriate dis-
ciplinary committees.
Dow has said that napalm ac-
counts for less than one half of
one per cent of its total sales,
but that the company intends to
continue producing it as long as
the government needs it.


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