WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 19, 1967
IBE MICHIGAN DAILY
WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 18, 1967 THE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE SEVEN
(Continued from Page 1)
there were doing work that was
classified in some manner. Staff
research, likewise, may result in
dual reports for the government
and the public.
For example, last year a stu-
dent working on his doctoral dis-
sertation at Cooley under Air
Force sponsorship wrote a two-
volume thesis on "A Study of Ran-
dom Acess Discrete Address Com.-
munivations Systems," which dealt
with computer theory. The first
volume, which dealt with theoreti-
cal considerations, was public and
constituted the actual dissertation.
The second volume, which was
classified, dealt with potential ap-
plicationsrof the theories.
Some dissertation work conduct-
ed under a classified contract re-
sults in fully declassified reports.
Last spring, a student received a
PhD for work in "The Design of
Signals to Achieve Minimum Am-
plitude Variations," a study of
communications theory. Although
the research itself was classified,
the student wrote only a public
To work on a classified project
or to get access to classified ma-
terial, a person must do three
things. First, he must be cleared
by the Pentagon to the level of the
material with which he will be
working. A person with a "classi-
fied' clearance can use only "clas-
sified" material while a person
with a "secret" clearance has ac-
cess to both "classified" and
"secret" material and so on.
Second, the facility at which
a person works as well as the
person himself must be cleared.
Third, when a person seeks ac-
cess to classified material, he must
have "a need to know." This
means the Defense Department
must be convinced that the person
has a legitimate reason for ob-
taining the material.
Officials point out that often
only a small portion of a project
may be classified. However, under
Defense Department security rules,
if any part of a project is classi-
fied, the entire project must be
classified. Also, a project which in
itself has no military applications
but which, for research purposes,
must have access to classified ma-
terial must be classified.
Generally security measures are
tightly enforced. For example last
week a University official visiting
WRL was stopped three times
when he walked down a short
corridor without an escort.
"For convenience's sake" an ef-
fort is made to obtain security
clearence for all staff members
at both WRL and Cooley, Evaldson
and Butler said. According to
Evaldson, all of WRL's 270 aca-
demic employes and appjroxi-
mately 170 student employees are
cleared or in the process of being
cleared. He said clearence usually
takes about three months to ob-
Butler said that of Cooley's staff
of 80, including 48 students, all
are cleared except for 10 or 11 for-
eign nationals who are unclear-
John W. Wagner, security offi-;
cer in the Office of Research Ad-
ministration, has responsibility
for processing of security clear-
ance applications and for the phy-
sical security of research facili-
ties on Main and North Campus.
Wagner said the basic qualifi-
cations for clearance are that the
person be a U.S. citizen or, under;
certain circumstances, a perma-
nent residentmalien,and that he
be at least 18 years old. He said'
that, to the best of his knowledge,
no university applicant who met;
those qualifications has ever been
The responsibility for physical
security of laboratories and docu-
ments is largely in the hands of
research personnel and Sanford
Security Service. At WRL, San-
ford Security guards are station-
ed in buildings where classified
work is done. At Cooley, the
guards patrol only at night.
Evaldson said the more obvious
security measures in force at WRL
are largely a result of the layout
of the buildings-numerous labs
il old buildings with multiple en-
trances and exits-which makes
control of persons entering the
Wagner said the most serious
after-hours security difficulty he
has encountered is that research-
ers occasionally leave safe-files
unlocked at the end of the day.
Beyond the simple nuisance,;
security restrictions impose some
real problems on researchers. A
major problem is the transfer of
military projects t
Because of mili
tions, much inform
to apply developmer
uses remains classif
pressed a concern
the availability of r
ings for civilian use
ing up the declass
cess. "We like to1
among the leadersi
mation," one said.
Morgan, director of
feared Physics Lab,
on classified i Connolly cites the case of manu- lock up all files at the end of the
o declassified facturer who got a government day were "a nuisance."
S. |contract for the development of a "We'd be better off without
tary applica- gas laser for the Defense Depart- them," he added.
nation needed ment. Willis E. Groves, director of
nts to civilian The contract was classified, so Project MICHIGAN, an Army
ied, research- the developer was prohibited fiom sponsored $2.5 million-a-year pro-
selling the laser he developed to ject on battlefield surveillance
at WRL ex- the public. research, said that doing work for
for increasing While the firm was working on the Department of Defense and
research find- the government contract, its com- accepting the attendant security
and for speed- petitor, who had lost the con- restrictions "allows us to research
ification pro- tract, moved and grabbed a large on things that are important
think we are share of the lucrative civilian rather than things we can
in seeking in- market. afford."
on of infor- "To date." Connolly continued, "Across the board," Groves
"the Defense Department has not continued, "we are proud of the
led to a se- yet declassified any equipments fact that we have contributed to
said Joseph developed under Defense Depart- a stronger nation.
the WRL In- ment contract or other systems Total Support
citing a case related to such military systems. "If we could have our total
..... .*,.*.*.*.*.*:*.ri"*.*is*i::::::: .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"Several of the lectures to be presented in this course will be
classified at levels up to and including Secret. Therefore, course at-
tendance will be restricted to U.S. citizens holding a final (not
interim) Secret security clearance. In order to facilitate the
answering of questions which may arise during the course, proper
security clearance will be required for all attendees as a condition
of admission to any lecture or demonstration. Need-to-know
certification is also necessary. The U.S. Air Force Avionics Labor-
atory will provide security sponsorship of the course."
-"Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar,"
course description in the University publication
"Engineering Summer Conferences."
where Defense Department secur- "... The Pentagon has develop-
ity restrictions stymied develo,)- ed a complex mathematical for-
ment of a civilian application. mula by which capabilities of in-
"The earth science people were frared systems can be measured
very interested but they needed as a means of making classifica-
to know more than they were tion determinations.
permitted to know," he added. "The formula guarantees ,ioth~-
"Since 1962," Morgan con tin- ing to those who may wish to do
ued, "we've made extremely slow away with those old and meth-
progress" in speeding the declass- eaten segments of the security
ification process. blanket. But development of the
present support all from non-De-
fense Department sources, I don't
think we'd elect it as an alterna-
tive," Evaldson said. "The De-
fense Department has been such
a strong leader."
Defense research is "in the
mainstream of historical science,"
Holter said. "Archimedes invent-
ed Greek fire and Leonardo Da
Vinci designed tanks."
"The trend is toward much
less classified work," said Hans-
ford W. Ferris, chairman of the
electrical engineering 'department.'
"Of course, that's not to say we
don't wvant classified work: in
many cases, you get much further
along with classified work.
"Basic ideas are not classified,"
he continued. "When you get into
development, lead time is the
only thing you have against a
"In a technical field," Ferris
added, "you can cut off your life
blood and be two years behind
without classified work. Some of
our literary college colleagues
aren't able to understand this
distinction. We feel a technical
man has the freedom to choose
what he does or does not do."
"When people say 'don't do
classified research,'" said Groves,
"they are talking about something
that will be a long time in com-
ing. Military research gives these
guys (scientists and engineers) a
chance to move and cash in."
Tomorrow: A Closer Look
at Willow Run Labs
one more thing
Neat discreet bags
for pad disposal
come FREE in each
pretty new box of
"A lot of people in the military
think Michigan has been taking
the lead in the drive to open in-
formation," Zissis said. "This is
the direction in which we want
The problem of declassification
has led some profit-oriented pri-
vate companies to stay away from
military research because of re-
strictions on development for ci-
vilian markets. Writing in the
Sept. 11, 1967, issue of the trade
journal "Electronic News," Ray
formula-and nothing more than
the formula-after six years (of
study) is certain to deprive the
military of more valuable re-I
search a n d development re-
sources," he concluded.
Researchers at WRL expressed
mixed feelings about working un-
der the restrictions imposed by
classification. Marvin Holter, head
of WRL's Infrared and optical
senses laboratory, said some re-
strictions, such as the need to
-Daily-Thomas R. Copi
A UNIFORMED GUARD watches the lobby of the director's office
at Willow Run Laboratories. All visitors to the lab must stop here,
sign in and be issued badges. The poster on the wall reads:
"Securty, Too, Depends on Teamwork."
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