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April 02, 1968 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1968-04-02

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Tuesday. April 2, 1968


Page Three

TusdyApil2 168THIMCIGA AL


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Court Puts Local Government
Under One Man, One Vote Rule'


Sigerian war Ai ..
Deadline Set U11111I~I,1diU



preme Court yesterday put local
government under its one man,
one vote rule.
The historic 5-3 decision ex-
tends the rule to an estimated
80,000 units of local government
throughout the land.
Justice Byron R. White gave
the decision in a case from Mid-
land County, Tex., where Mayor
Hank Avery of Midland City ask-
ed that the county governing body
be apportioned on a population
The ruling extends a step taken

by the court four years ago in
interpreting the mandate of the
equal protection clause of the 14th
Amendment to the Constitution.
It is that in elections for Con-
gress and for state legislatures
districts must be drawn so that
the vote of citizens is substantially
equal in weight.
14th Amendment
"The question now before us,"
said White, "is whether the 14th
Amendment likewise forbids the
election of local government offi-
cials from districts of disparate
size. As has almost every court

which has addressed itself to this
question, we hold that it does."
"A city, town, or county may no
more deny the equal protection of
the laws than it may abridge free-
dom of speech, establish an offi-
cial religion, arrest without prob-
able cause or deny due process of
the law,.' White wrote.
The majority with White com-
prised Chief Justice Earl Warren
and Associate Justices Hugo L.
Black, William 0. Douglas andE
William J. Brennan Jr.
, Harlan, who has been thel
court's most outspoken opponentj
of the "one man, one vote" ideol-t

For Sunday
Ibo Secessionists
Told to Surrender
Or Risk Total Defeat
' LAGOS, Nigeria (A'-The chief
of federal Nigeria's military gov-
ernment marked Sunday his dead-
line for ending the country's civil
war by offering secessionist Biafra
peace talks or total military de-
In a speech recorded for broad-
casting Sunday night, Maj. Gen.
lYabuku Gowon. 33, indicated the
, conditions for talks would amount
to surrender by the former East-




Stock Market Trading
Climbs to All-Time High

ogy, wrote that: "These adven- ern region, which declared in-
tures of the court in the realm of dependence May 30.
political science are beyond its As he spoke, federal troops were
constitutional powers." reported closing in on heavily
'Frankly Astonished' ,populated region. But resistance
He said he was "frankly aston- was expected to be heaviest in the
ished at the ease with which the '10.000 square miles still in seces-

By The Associated Press
Prices zoomed to a spectacular
advance and trading volume on
the New York Stock Exchange
soared to an all-time high yester-
The stock market's high powered
rally followed President Johnson's
de-escalation of the Vietnam war
and announcement that he would
not seek re-election.
The Dow Jones average of 30
VC Kill Ratio
On Increase
SAIGON (I)-Allied forces are
killing an average of six enemy
troops for every man they lose
in over all combat, military of-
ficials said Sunday.
By some operations in recent
weeks have produced double and
even triple that ratio in favor of
the allies, if the U.S. and South
Vietnamese reporting system is
The most prominent example of
the increase is in Operation Xuyet
Thang-Resolve to Win-in which
Allied forces have killed 2,147
enemy and sustained only 206

industrials spurted 20.58 points to court has proceeded to fasten'
861.25. upon the entire country at its low-
Volume vaulted to 17.73 million est political level, the strong arm
shares, topping the previous rec- of the federal judiciary, let alone
ord 16.41 million shares traded ' a particular ideology which has
on Oct. 29, 1929, the day of the been the subject of wide debate
historic market crash, and differences from the begin-


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Brokers said they felt John-
sons curtailment of the bombing
of North Vietnam was the major
factor behind the market's rally.
Elsewhere in the financial world
London's gold market reopened
and with indications gold's mone-
tary role may be diminishing,
there was no major bonanza for
speculators whose buying rush
closed the market 17 days ago.
This weekend's agreement in
Stockholm to create "paper gold"
-a new form of international
credits for world trade-dealt
speculators their biggest blow in
In effect, the world's major
non-Communist trading nations,
excluding France, agreed to ac-
cept each other's paper promises
to repay part of their trading
debt wifhout the security of gold.
This could be the first step on a
long road leading to the end of
gold as money, meaning a decline
in the demand for the metal and
drop in its price.

ning of our nation."
Harlan noted that in the present
case, although the court's "ap-
proach is intended to afford 'equal
protection' to all voters in Midland
County, it would seem that it in
fact discriminates against the
county's rural inhabitants."
Oil rich Midland County in the
prairies of Western Texas has a
population of about 70,000. The
Commissioners Court, the county
governing body, has five mem-
bers. One, the county judge, is
elected at large from the entire
county and votes only to break a
tie. The other four are chosen
from districts.
In December 1962, Avery, a one
time independent oil operator and
architect, began a suit attacking
this apportionment system.
Meanwhile, last term, the Su-
preme Court considered similar
claims that the one man, one vote
doctrine should be applied to local
government in Alabama, Michi-
gan, New York and Virginia. It
did not give a definite answer
Yesterday, speaking through
White, it said: "When the state
delegates lawmaking power to lo-
cal government and provides for
the election of local officials from
districts specified by statute, or-
dinance or local charter, it must
insure that those qualified to vote
have the rights to an equally ef-
fective voice in the election

'sionist hands and it was apparent
government troops would not meet
k Gowon's target date, set at the
first of the year.
Biafran Capital
Gowon's regime has several
times claimed victory was immi-
nent since the war began July 6.
One of his officers once boasted
the federals could march into the
Biafran capital of Enugu in a few.
hours. It took three months.
As a condition for talks, Gowon
said, Biafra must renounce seces-
sion and accept being split into
three Nigerian states under a pro-
gram that took effect yesterday.
Short of supplies and money,:
the Biafrans have been reported3
backing away from insistence onj
recognition of their sovereignty asj
a condition for talks.
One reason they have held out
so long is belief that defeat will
result in a massacre of the eight1
or nine million Ibo tribesmenc
among the region's 13 million in-
IThe Ibos, well organized andt
adept in business, have been ob-
jects of tribal hate in other Nige-
rian regions. Some 30,000 weree
killed in three outbreaks of vio-
lence in the Moslem dominatedt
Northern region in 1966.
Gowon pledged Sunday that thet
federal government would do all1
in its power to insure that "not
Ibo man is molested or intimidatedZ
anywhere in this country."
Gowon told newsmen .he would
regard as a sincere offer of sur-t
render "a personal message, writ-t
ten or by radio," from Lt. Col. C.
Oumegwu Ojukwu, 34, head ofa
the secessionist government. c

--Associated Press
Viet Cong Body Taken to Grave in Garbage Cart
Bo.mbing Limit Results
In -More Strikes on DMZ

SAIGON (OP) - U.S. planes sitions encircling the U.S. Marine
pounded the southern panhandle base at Khe Sanh south of the
of North Vietnam yesterday, pos- zone in the northwest corner of
sibly a prelude to intensified at- South Vietnam. U.S. warplanes
tacks on enemy supply lines now have been averaging about 200
that -most of the North is off strikes a day around Khe Sanh.
limits to air blows. Thailand Bases

THURSDAY and FRIDAY, April 4, 5
Directed by Mbx Reinhardt, 1'935
Based on the play by William Shakespeare. Star-
SATURDAY and SUNDAY, April 6, 7
Directed by Carl Dreyer, 1928
The last day in the trial of Joan and, her execution.
"The distillation of a decade of creative film mak-
ing on the Continent"
CALL 662-8871

. President Johnson's order to
end the bombing of most of North
Vietnam, including the heartland
around Hanoi, the capital, and
the chief port of Haiphong, could
mean harder blows at supply
But he permitted air raids in
the southern panhandle of the
North around the demilitarized
Informed sources said most of
the day's strikes were aimed at
truck convoys, storage areas and
weapons positions in the Dong Hoi
area about 50 miles north of the
demilitarized zone between North
and South Vietnam.
Strike DMZ
The sharp curtailment of bomb-
ing in the North meant that Air
Force planes and Navy fighter
bombers from carriers in the Gulf
of Tonkin can strike heavier blows
around the demilitarized zone and
the Ho Chi Minh trail route of
supply through Laos.
Greater air attacks also can be
launched at North Vietnamese lo-

U.S. Navy planes have been con-
centrating on the Northern tar-
gets. There are three aircraft car-
riers normally in the Gulf of Ton-
kin about 100 miles off North
Vietnam. The Air Force has been
raiding the North from six bases
in Thailand and several in South
Johnson's order also ended the
offshore bombardment of most of
the North, usually carried on by
U.S. destroyers, a ,cruiser and an
Australian destroyer.
In his Sunday night address,
Johnson said the bombing was be-
ing halted over about 90 per cent
of North Vietnam. Officials in
Saigon and Washington declined
to give specific areas.
The secrecy was seen here as
part of a move for use in bargain-
ing with North Vietnam for peace.
Some sources hinted that the
bombing restriction might extend
to Vinh, 130 miles north of the
demilitarized zone.
Many military men, who would
not be quoted by name, were cri-

tical of the decision that brought
a partial halt in the bombing
Others welcomed the President's
action, saying they believed it
might bring about a speedier end
to the war.
Artillery Hits
U.S. Air Base
SAIGON UP)-The Viet Cong
shelled Saigon's Tan Son Nhut
airport early Tuesday, the first
attack on the big military civilian
complex since President Johnson
ordered bombing of North Viet-
nam curtailed.
South Vietnam's biggest oil tank
farm, at Nha Be six miles south of
the capital, was shelled for the
second straight day, the U.. Com-
mand reported.
The attack on the Nha Be-
tank farm appeared heavier, al-
though a spokesman said he had
ao details of damage. Shell and
Esso oil companies have instal-
ations at Nha Be and a military
facility is nearby.
Nha Be was hit by about 90
mortar rounds yesterday.



To Activate
15,000 Men.
ministration plans to tap as many
as 60,000 reservists to back the
Vietnam war effort and bolster
the readiness of uncommitted
military forcesswatching the home
Defense officials disclosed the
planned mpves yesterday while
cautioning that the exact size of
the reserve mobilization could
vary up or down depending on
Pentagon studies now under way.
The first impact will come to-
morrow when the Pentagon is due
to order up perhaps 15,000 re-
servists, mostly Army.
Tet Offensive
Several thousand are needed in
Vietnam to provide support for
combat units which were rushed
to South Vietnam in February
following the Communists' Tet
holiday offensive.
In addition, Gen. William C.
Westmoreland has asked that one
of the units which was flown to
Vietnam during the emergency
buildup-the 27th Marine Regi-
mental Landing Team -be re-
placed by Army troops. A few
thousand new troops-some regu-
lar, some reserve - will be ex-
changed for the Marines, officials
President Johnson announced
Sunday night that an additional
13,500 men would be needed for
the war, raising the over all U.S.
co mitment to 549,000 in coming
months. The previously announced
authorized level was 525,000 and
about 511,000 are there now.
Further Call
In future weeks or months, of-
ficials said, there will be a further
call up of reserves, expected not to
exceed 50,000, to help restore the
nation's Strategic Reserve Force,
an active duty combat aggrega-
tion kept in the United States to
meet emergencies in remote areas.
Officials were not more spe-
cific as to the possible size of this
last call up but indications were
the military would like a division
size force-roughly 45,000--to re-
build the Strategic Reserve force.
The reserve call up will involve
mainly Army units, plus a few
Navy construction outfits and pos-
sibly Air National Guard units.
Manpower Bind
A reservecall up has long been
urged by military leaders to help
ease the manpower bind. Because
of Vietnam the Strategic Reserve
Force (SRF), which has supplied
men to go to the Dominican Re-
public, among other areas, has
dwindled to less than five full di-
Specific units which will be
called up were not identified. Of-
ficials said, however, some will
come from the selected Reserve
Force, an assembly of specially
chosen Army reserve and National
Guard units which have been
maintained at a high level of
readiness the past two years.
Units now in the SRF include
the 28th Infantry Division of
Pennsylvatia, the 38th Infantry
Division of Indiana and the 47th
Infantry Division of Minnesota.
Four Brigades
In addition there are four bri-
gades in the SRF, any one of
which might be affected: the 67th
Mechanized in Nebraska and
Iowa, the 69th Infantry in Kansas
and Missouri, the 49th Infantry
in California and the 29th Infan-
try in Hawaii and California.
The make up of the SRF is
scheduled to be changed around
in the next month or so. How-
ever military men expected the
original SRF group would be tap-
ped for manpower in the call up
since it already has had exten-

sive training.
Men called up as part of the
replenishing of the Strategic Re-
serve Force would not go to Viet-
Officials said there might be
several stages of reserve call ups
in order to provide Westmoreland
with periodic supplies of man-
power replacements.
University Charter
Caledonian Airways
$230 Roundtrip

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has mystified THOUSANDS OF STUDENTS on four conti- f
nents! He will perform his artistry in FLAME AND ILLUSION{
to reality for which he has been paid $100 per minute.

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ROOM 7:30 P.M.

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- - -

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Petitions for
of the '69 UNION-LEAGUE

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Creative Arts



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