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February 06, 1968 - Image 4

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Seventy-Seven Years of Editorial Freedom
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

ROGER RAPOPORT:
The Shape of Things To Come

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Where Opinions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Truth Will Prevail

NEws PHONE: 764-0552

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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 6, 1968

NIGHT EDITOR: LUCY KENNEDY

The Chaos That is China:
The 'Cultural Revolution'-1

HE RECENT visit of Harald Munthe-
Kaas, Peking correspondent for the
Scandanavian News Agency, provides
an excellent opportunity for reflecting
on the fate of China in the wake of
that nation's famous "cultural revolu-
tion."
Munthe-Kaas, a political scientist, is
particularly qualified to discuss the
recent events within China. Still, he
does not consider himself an expert in
Chinese area studies for, as the old
adage goes, "There are no China ex-
perts only various degrees of ignor-
ance."
Nevertheless his long experience in-
side the Chinese "wall" and his resi-
dency in Peking make him one of the
few veterans with a first hand knowl-
edge of what is really happening in
the strife-torn nation.
Munthe-Kaas sees the cultural revo-
lution in its early stages as an attempt
to create in China a "classless, Marx-
Ist Leninist Maoist, society." Unfor-
tunately, though, for the Chinese it
got out of hand.
IN JUNE 1966 the schools were closed
and the students encouraged to par-
ticipate in the cultural revolution. Red
Guard units were formed to promote
that revolution. They ranged in age
from four to 91 with the primary age
group between 12 and 25.
According to Munthe-Kaas the Red
Guards soon factionalized and a bitter
intra-revolutionary struggle resulted.
For example Peking University began
with one Red Guard group and with-
in two months 16 others sprouted up.
As the fighting grew more fierce the
Maoists instructed the army to sup-
port the most leftist or extreme of the
groups in their area. This strategy
backfired. The slighted groups coa-
lesced against the army. Raids of
army compounds were not uncommon
and the violence and turmoil grew to
an even greater scale.
The latest phase of the cultural
revolution came last summer. The
regional commanders of the army ap-
parently got together and decided that
their most important goal would be to
reestablish order, regardless of the var-
ious political inclinations represented.
The army had considerable difficulty
in subduing the masses of urban
China, but by early autumn the situ-
5.tion in the cities was sufficiently
quieted down so that children could
be sent back to school and the nation
could return to, at least, a semblance
of order.
THE RESULT is that the army has
become the center of power in
China. The pragmatists have tempo-
rarily won out, and the revolutionists,
in the wake of their abortive upheaval
have been forced to settle down.
The important question arising out
of the cultural revolution is what is to
be the future of China? Can she put
herself back on her feet, or is the col-
lapse of the government of the world's
most populous country imminent.
Mr. Munthe-Kaas indicated that
China may be headed for disintegra-
tion and chaos. He feels that the vio-
lence of the two year cultural revolu-
tion may have done irreparable dam-
age to China's government.
There are several factors which in-
dicate this. First the cultural revolu-
tion has left tangled mass of confusion
in China's cities.
The displacement of roughly 100 mil-
lion students poses a formidable ob-

stacle to a "return to normalcy." Al-
though the students returned to the
classrooms in October, Munthe-Kaas
testifies that except for a few experi-
mental schools "today, the schools
have not reopened in any meaningful
way."
Schooling seems to consist of reading
the works of Chairman Mao in the
morning and some loosely organized
exercise in the afternoon.
THE PROBLEM does not lie with the
students but rather what is to be

"I'M SORRY," the Northwest Airlines supervisor at
Detroit Metro Airport said, "but we're not accepting
any checks on the Ann Arbor bank. Too many have
bounced."
Had I been smart I would have hopped back on the
limousine and returned to Ann Arbor. What's the point
in going to Washington unless there's some kind of
protest demonstration. going on?
But I had enough cash to pay for a stand-by ticket
on a Thursday evening flight to Washington's National
Airport, appropriatelS the most outmoded major airport
in the country.
Actually I don't regret my going, for I did manage
to learn a few things during the trip. They come from
those "usually informed sources" and I pass them on for
what they are worth.
THE MOST SIGNIFICANT NEWS coming out of
Washington is that the President is expected to issue an
executive order shortly that will suspend the current
policy of drafting the oldest men in the draft pool first.
If the existing policy would be implemented, it would
push the percentage of draftees that are college grad-
uates from the current 5 per cent to about 66 per cent.
(College graduates won't be getting deferred for most
graduate study this year.)
Basically the new plan calls for an equal percentage
of men to be drafted from each age group. For example,
if 19 years old are 15 per cent of the 1-A draft pool, then
15 per cent of one month's inductees will be 19 years olds.
This means that all the colloge graduates who are the
oldest will not all be snapped up immediately-but rather
over a sustained period of time.
The new policy is expected to be announced in re-
sponse to pressure from both the universities and the
army The universities are worried about losing graduate
students and the Army prefers to train younger men-
they're more pliable
THE INCREDIBLE LYNDON JOHNSON apparently
has everything wrapped up for 1968 unless a coronary
gets in the way Not only is he going to win, but he could
actually win as a "peace candidate."
Here's the thinking. First off, McCarthy is a stand-in
without a prayer. Bobby Kennedy is politically dead-
not only has he alienated the college kids and the liberals
(by being too quiet on Vietnam) but the Boston Irish
types are turning off (too -few haircuts too many trips to

Sun Valley). He figures he can't beat LBJ anyway and
since he is optimistic enough to think we'll all be around
in 1972, he's willing to wait.
That brings us to the Republicans. The only sane hope
is Rockefeller. But even if he comes out and runs, his
Vietnam stance will not be much better than Johnson's.
A group of anti-war leaders led by Harvard Prof. Henr:y
Kissinger visited Rockefeller a few weeks ago and tried
to persuade him to run for peace.
Not only did Rocky decline, but he espoused the Dean
Rusk "Munich" linc about containing Communist ex-.
pansion. That's the best the Republicans can offer us this
year.
That leaves Nixor and Reagan both of whose politics
are scarcely worth discussing seriously.
So Lyndon is in relatively good shape. He has the
nomination sewn up and the Republicans have no availa-
ble doves that could possibly secure the nominations.
THERE IS LITTLE SERIOUS DOUBT that Johnson
can get negotiations started when he feels it expedient.
Some figure he has simply been waiting so he could batter
the Viet Cong an( Hanoi into the weakest possible bar-
gaining position.
But the events of the past few weeks seem to in-
dicate that Johnson's military men are going to get him
no closer to the "unconditional" style negotiations he is
looking for. In fact a softening in the negotiation line was
pointed up by the new Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford
in testimony before the Senate Armed Services Commit-
tee on Jan. 25.
Clifford mad, a new negotiating offer. He said that
during negotiations, enemy "military activity will con-
tinue in South Vietnam. I assume that they will continue
to transport the normal amount of goods, munitions,
and men, to South Vietnam. I assume that we will con-
tinue to maintain our forces and support our forces during
that period "
In other words for the first time we are not insisting
that the Viet Cong and Hanoi cease all military action
in the South as a prerequisite to negotiations.
This and similai concessions could easily lead to
negotiations by canpaign time. From there Johnson's
camnaign rhetoric is simple:
"I have started our country in the road to peace in
Vietnam. To change leadership at this crucial time could
injure our delicate talks and eventually cost the lives of
our brave and patriotic boys."

IN ADDITION SOME THINK the Democratic conven-
tion was deliberately scheduled in Chicago's ghetto-based
Amphitheater to prompt , violent demonstrations from
civil rights, anti-way and anti-draft groups. The politi-
cians apparently figure Johnson will win a large sym-
pathy vote from people dismayed by the protesters trying
to break up the convention with demonstrations and the
like.
There is even some talk that Johnson might choose
not to run for reelection. Here's how one top -analyst
writes the speech:
"I am 60'years old, I have had a heart attack. I have
started the country on the road to the Great Society
where a man can breathe fresh air, swim in clean water,
educate his children-. in fine schools, and play pinocchle
on Sunday night. I have started the country on the road
to a lasting and just peace that will preserve the in-
tegrity of Southeast Asia."
One other thought is that Johnson might try to shaft
the Republicans by waiting until after the Republican
convention before dropping out. This move would always
help him appoint his own successor (like Humphrey) to
the detriment of other hopefuls like Bobby.
But the chances of Johnson dropping out seem re-
mote. "Only Lady Bird could probably talk him into it,"
said one Washington observer.
STILL THERE ARE A FEW encouraging signs amidst
all the gloom. One is that Dean Rusk is considered likely
to leave even though Johnson is reelected. And virtually
everyone is up in arms over the way the war is going.
For one thing, those "enemy casualty statistics" for
the past week (over 17,000 dead according to an allied
"body" count) are viewed as vastly inflated, since the
same military sources can't even give a full indication
of which areas we now have under control.
And it is generally acknowledged that diplomatic
handling of the Pueblo incident has been prudent. Even
Dean Rusk now concedes he can't rule out the possi-
bility that the ship slipped out of international waters,
One hope is that talks over the Pueblo will provide
a basis for talks on Vietnam. In 1953 talks on the
Berlin crisis eventually led to the fruitful Geneva con-
ference on Indochina.
But then, that Geneva agreement doesn't seem to
have worked out so well. Perhaps we'll do better the
second time around.

Harald Munthe-Kaas
very eager to return to school - and
get on with a career.
Tne enthusiasm demonstrated at the
outset of the cultural revolution has
apparently been tarnished by the vio-
lence and political intrigue students
were at one time so intimately con-
nected with.
China, though, is having trouble re-
opening the schools. Much of the Chi-
nese faculty refuses to teach again.
They have no desire to educate the
same people who denounced and even
beat them in the furious moments of
the revolution. Moreover much of the
physical plant of the school system
has been destroyed or irreparably
damaged during the two year "vaca-
tion," most particularly furniture and
bodks.
China is faced with a mass of dis-
contented students whose ultimate
desire is to obtain an education as
quickly and efficiently as possible and
then integrate themselves as useful
members of society. With the complete
disruption of the cultural revolution it
seems almost impossible that China
will be able to occupy the students
productively for quite some time. In
this event the students could once
against become a politically disruptive
force, and the next time the students
decide to leave school the catalyst is
unlikely to be state-sponsored or
state-condoned.
The return to normal industrial op-
erations also poses a problem. Although
details concerning China's loss during
the cultural revolution are not avail-
able, journalists have reported that
conflicts have arisen between the old
managers invited back to their jobs
and the revolutionary replacements
installed during the height of the cul-
tural revolution.
Thi. conflict of management will
only intensify the difficulty of restor-
ing a seriously hampered industrial
complex.
1IUNTHE-KAAS spoke of a problem
that is potentially more disruptive
than a discontented student popula-
tion. He maintains that there is, as in
this nation, a vacuous "credibility gap"
between the rulers and the ruled in
China.
This "credibility gap" manifests it-
slf most clearly in the agricultural
population. Munthe-Kaas who has
travelled extensively in rural China
clarns that the peasantry has fallen
outside the rule of Peking. Although
the non-urban communities maintain
the communal structure instituted un-
der Maoism, they have developed an
increasingly evident tendency toward
independence and autonomy.
The party cadres sent out during
the cultural revolution have been as-
similated into the community. The
material incentives introduced after
the failure of the "great leap forward"
have taken deep root. Privaterplots
have become more common in recent
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The Answer is Blowing in Your Mind

4

By JIM HECK
CHARLIE BROWN is alive! He's
got rings in his fingers and
bells on his hair and lives in a
'41 Dodge Truck.
"I want everbody turned on,"
nused one of America's leading
hyppies in a recent interview yes-
terday.
Ever since Charlie quit school
at Berkeley six years ago, "in
grder to educate myself," he has
been traveling the country in a
:ire attempt to "save the world
from the Salve-Makers."
He talks with his local police
and mayor in the hippy area of
california, explaining to them the
meanings of the hippy movement.
"I want to solve their problems.
I represent a large element of
society, so people listen to me,
they have to."
Charlie has run for the mayor-
ship of Berkeley and is presently
-ampaigning for the area Con-
gressional post.
"My opponent is much more
-ompetent than me," Charlie ad-
mits. "But my purpose is to com-
municate. I will have won, even
if I don't get elected."
BUT THE Hippy Movement is
much more effective than Char-
tie's personal attempts in the
realm of political affairs. Charlie
is quick to tell about Sun-Bear,

that hangs jingling from his neck.
"In the fourth dimension we
are all God. The God-Head is in
you. God is a universal mind sub-
stance. We are all one. We are
all God."
"My Life is Scientology and
drugs," Charlies explains. "My
spiritual guides came to me re-
3ently and said, 'Well, CB, it's
time to do the thing.'"
His "thing" turned out to be
taking 1500 micrograms of LSD
:n Easter Sunday. "I was in jail
for two days," he giggled.
SCIENTIOLOGY is the ideology
in which he receives instruction
from his "guru." His guru is an
electronics whiz who works on top
classified defense projects.
The guru works in the "spy-in-
the-sky" project, and has pro-
grammed the computers so that if
the bomb button is ever pushed
nothing will happen.
"He's such a genius they can
go over the program as much as
they like and won't even find a
thing."
All Life, according to Charlie,
is between good guys and bad
guys. The bad guys are the
'Slave-Makers" who work in a
gia.nt conspiracy to "drive people
into the cities where they become
sependent on an economic system
that traps them."

CHARLIE wants to see everyone
head out into the open lands,
"where it is healthier" and where
each man can grow his own food,
build his own house and raise his
own children.
"We will cybernate the indus-
tries, and people will live with
nature."
Charlie was once an Indian,
Little Eagle, by "previous exist-
ness." Existness to Charlie is a
continuing stream of rebirths. The

whole universe is together dne
"existence, one God-Head."
"It's utterly absurd to think
that life on this planet happened
only once. Universes and dimen-
sions are endless and infinite, how
could it be otherwise?"
"Every planet that's like the
earth, is inevitably going to have
an evolution. God is a great en-
gineer. But most of the life on
our planet is not native."
. Charlie thinks that the dif-

ferent races is a good example to
prove originally many men came
from other planets. "I myself,
came from Cyrus II 6,000 years
ago."
HE WARNS peoples of the
world to be hesitant about war.
"If we have a nuclear war, we'll
end up the same way the tpeople
on the planet between Mars and
Jupiter ended up: as asteroids."
Men have corrupted the law, he
feels. "Oour founding fathers set
up a fine system. They set up rule
by law and not of men. They set
up an jinstrument higher than
themselves."
"But then, the Slave-Makers
got control."
Education, too, is stifled. Not
everyone need quit school, Charlie
believes, but "everyone should
drop out at least once."
"Drugs are only one way-my
way. There's music, TV ads."
Charlie explains that after seeing
TV ads he "knew there were a
lot of pot-heads on Madison
Avenue."
"Lots of people do use drugs,
though to get high."
"My sources indicate that Bob
Kennedy had a bad trip on acid.
The whole San Francisco Chron-
icle-all a bunch of pot-heads."
In fact, there are so many pot-
heads in the California legislature,
Charlie feels certain marijuana

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