100%

Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Share

Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

The University of Michigan Library provides access to these materials for educational and research purposes. These materials may be under copyright. If you decide to use any of these materials, you are responsible for making your own legal assessment and securing any necessary permission. If you have questions about the collection, please contact the Bentley Historical Library at bentley.ref@umich.edu

December 09, 1977 - Image 25

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Detroit Jewish News, 1977-12-09

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS Friday, December 9, 1977 25


1897-1977: History of the Zionist Congress

The Jewish News Special
London Correspondent

The rabbis issued a call to
stay away from the Con-
gress "out of love for the
German fatherland." One
would have imagined that
"protest rabbis" existed
only in Germany but some
also cropped up in Russia,
America, Hungary, England
and elsewhere. They de-
fined the "high mission
which the Jews had to fulfill
in the world" — a mission,
a rabbi from America inter-
preted, even in "Kishinev,
Teheran and the Yemen."
But the outburst helped the
cause. Enthusiastic declara-
tions of support followed
from all parts of the world.

The Jewish community of
Munich • was against • the
Congress being held in their
"beloved — town. Herzl,
therefore, decided to con-
vene it in Basle. As an
international medical con-
ference was due in Moscow
on Aug. 25, and a few Zion-
ists like Dr. M. Mandels-
tamm and Dr. M.T. Schni-
rer had promised to attend,
Herzl postponed the First
Zionist Congress to Aug. 29.
Some 200 delegates and
observers from all over the
world rallied to Herzl's call
— political, practical, rel-
gious and socialist Zionists.
Actually, the exact number
cannot be established. The
attendance list of the pro-
ceedings contained 197
names, including relatives
of delegates, observers and
guests. Altogether they rep-
resented 117 local Zionist
associations.
A society with 100 mem-
bers could elect one dele-
gate. The number of voters
increased by the Sixth Con-
gress (1903) from 100 to 200.
Later there had to be at
least 5,000 members to elect
one delegate. Originally, the
Congress was held an-
nually; from 1901, every two
years, and now every five
years.

It was a public Congress,

The First Congress was
not just a Jewish platform
for decision-making, but
also a tribune for the infor-
mation of all "civilized peo-
ples" about the aim of Zion-
ism.
The world actually listen-
ed to the speeches of Theod-
or Herzl and Max Nordau.
Governments asked their
ambassadors for reports
about the Congress and Zi-
onism. Diplomatic observ-
ers sauntered about the
Basle Stadtkasino, where
the Congress took place,
and sent confidential re-
ports to their governments.
A few people like Nahum
Sokolow and Israel Zangwill
did not come to the First
Congress as committed Zi-
onists, but left Basle firm
friends of the new move-
ment. Ahad Ha'am was also
present, but he remained an
opponent of modern Zion-
ism. Dr. Desider Schalit
was the first to use the
"Congress Hammer." It is
customary at all Congresses
for one of the leading mem-
bers of the Congress Bureau
to tap three times with the
hammer immediately be-
fore the official opening.

Herzl considered that the
participants of the First
Congress would constitute
the future aristocracy of the
Jewish people. At the first
Congresses, after Nordau's
traditional address on the
"Position of the Jews," 10 to
15 delegates followed with
individual reports from dif-
ferent countries. There
were also addresses on Jew-
ish art, Jewish history and
the physical culture of the
Jews.

As a rule, the Congress
proceedings are as follows:
after a festive opening and
delivery of greetings, the
election of a presidium, con-
sisting of leading members
of the various parties, takes
place. Following the report
by the chairman of the Con-
gress Court, on the election
results of delegates, ad-
dresses are delivered on
past political work, the
problems of the Zionist
movement, funds, coloniza-
tion, immigration, educa-
tion, etc.
At the same time, various
committees are formed
which draw up proposals for
the plenum. The outstanding
feature is the "general de-
bate" and replies of the -
executive. Then the rappor-
teurs of the committees pre-
sent their proposals and, fi-
nally, the election of the
president of the Zionist Or-
ganization (Z.0.), the exec-
utive, the actions com-

mittee, the Congress Court,
etc.

Members of the first Con-
gresses were organized into
"Landsmanschaften." The
delegates from each coun-
try formed a closed group.
Zionist parties — General-
Zionists, Mizrachi, Poale
Zion, Revisionists, Mapam
— developed only after a
few years.

Equality of women dele-
gates, even at the First Con-
gresses, was secured by
Miss Marie Reinus. Each
delegate had to be at least
24 years of age and was
required to write his age in
the appropriate column.
Women were exempted
from this rule.
A few members of the
"Samson" group, of Sophia,
were the first to reach Basle
on foot. Robert Gutmann,
the painter, with . his green
bow tie, was one of the "foot
sloggers." He walked to al-
most every Congress and
Chaim Weizmann used to
say, "Now Congress can
start. Gutmann has ar-
rived." During the war,
Gutmann was a victim of
the Nazis. Jacobus H. Kann,
a member of the Zionist
Executive, died in There-
sienstadt and Robert Strick-
er, the Zionist leader of Aus-
trian Jews, was murdered
in Auschwitz.
The Central Office- of the
Z.O. was at first in Vienna
(president: Herzl ), then in
Cologne (David Wolffsohn)

Read Carefully Before
Using But Use

and Berlin (Otto Warburg).
During the First World War
a Zionist Bureau was
opened in neutral Copenha-
gen and after the Balfour

Declaration (1917) the Zion-
ist headquarters moved to
London (Weizmann and
Sokolow) and later trans-
ferred to Jerusalem.

FIRE SALE

HEAVY DUTY CORREGATED
REINFORCED 4 DRAWER

TYPEWRITERS

FILE CABINETS

$6996

LETTER SIZE LEGAL SIZE

$ 2595

$ 29 96
Any Trade-Ins Accepted. Repair Dept. on Premises. We
buy Used Furniture. HIGHEST PRICES PAID—WANTED
- ANY STANDARD OR ELECTRIC TYPEWRITERS.

0

olc

STENO CHAIRS
$29$9

CASH REGISTERS

$69 96

f"--
‘.

EXECUTIVE

r

DESK
$3999

CHAIRS
$69.

i4e.--'----
e
t \*
a
....1.___
----....

t

MANNY CHUDNOW'S
I DAILY
OFFICE ~1 1
BETTER BUSINESS
' 9-5:30
MACHINES
U
EQUIPMENT CO.
J
1
SUNDAYS
OFFICE
FURNITURE 231 W. Nine Mile Rd., Ferndale • 548-U04 12-4
• BRING AD FOR FREE GIFT • BRING AD FOR FREE GIFT

• BRIN G AD FOR F REE GIFT • BR ING AD FO R FRE E GI

Following the publication
of "The Jewish State," The-
odor Herzl began, in 1896, to
translate his ideas into
deeds. Herzl, dreamer and
visionary, statesman and
leader, was also one of the
greatest organizers of the
Jewish people.
His approach was quite
different: Zionism meant,
for him, the concern of the
whole world and he wanted
an international platform, to
draw the attention of all the
nations to the demands and
desires of the Jews.
On March 6-7, 1897, a con-
ference took place in Vienna
with Herzl as chairman.
About 10 persons attended
and it was decided to call a
Zionist congress. Herzl had
hardly sent out the in-
vitations to the First Con-
gress, which should, as orig-
inally planned, have opened
in Munich on Aug. 25, 1897,
when a storm broke. Anti-
Zionists and leaders of the
Rabbinical Association in
Germany protested.

and Herzl invited journal-
ists, so that all the pro-
ceedings would be reported.
Herzl regarded Zionism not
merely as "an internal af-
fair of the Jewish people,
but also as a political ques-
tion affecting all civilized
nations.

1• BRING A D FOR FREE GIFT•

By JOSEF FRAENKEL

SEMI Bp1101

This is a ballot for electing delegates to the 29th
World Zionist Congress. If you are one of the
900,000 American Jews who belong to a Zionist

organization, your ballot will arrive in the mail

during the week of December 12

It may take patience to read through all the

platforms and slates. But please do. In this

year when Zionism is again under attack, it is

essential that each of us participate in the
democratic process which is a hallmark of

A

Zionism.

Casting an informed ballot for the slate of your

choice is the best way of proclaiming:

"I Am

SLATE#7 olrwri

World Zionist Congress Ballot rIclose

INIPORI:1,:T: nth

A Zionist!"

ARZA — The Association of Reform Zionists
of America — is a proud participant in this

democratic process. Our ties are with Israel's

The ARZA Slate: Proven Community Leaders

people; not with any political party. We seek
for Israel's Reform and Conservative Jews the

Rabbi Alexander M. Schindler, Westport. Conn.

Mr_ Nathaniel E Hess, Port Washington, N.Y

Alvin Hamburger, Atlanta, Ga.

Rabbi Roland B. Gittelsohn. Boston. Mass.
Mrs Max Nussbaum (Ruth), Los Angeles. Calif.

Rabbi Herbert Baumgard. Miami. Fla.
Prof Harry M Orlinsky, New York, N.Y

Mrs Charles Hyman (Frances),

same rights and recognition enjoyed by the

Robert L. Adler, Chicago, Ill.

Rabbi Meyer Heller, Los Angeles, Calif

Herbert Ginsberg. San Francisco, Calif.

Prof. Alfred Gottschalk. Cincinnati, Ohio

Orthodox community. Our goal is an end to

Donald Day. Buffalo, N.Y
Mrs . Irving S Benjamin, Cincinnati, Ohio
Rabbi Jerome Mahno, Danbury, Conn .

Rabbi Murray Saltzman, Indianapolis, Ind.

Mrs. David M. Levitt (Norma), Great Neck, N.Y.

Rabbi Ely E. Pilchik, Short Hills, N.J.

Rabbi Jerome K Davidson, Great Neck, N.Y.

Rabbi Murray Rothman,

Teaneck, N.J.

Newton, Mass.

Rabbi Laurence Rubinstein, Levittown, Pa.

the Orthodox-imposed ban on non-Orthodox
marriages, funerals and conversions taking

Rabbi David Polish. Chicago, III.

Judge Emil N. Bear. Brooklyn, N.Y.

Emil Mogul, New York, N.Y.

Tracy H. Ferguson, Syracuse, N.Y

Norman Eichberg, Los Angeles, Calif

Miss Jan Bean, Chicago. Ill.

Rabbi Leon Kronish, Miami, Fla.

Rabbi Stephen Schafer. Philadelphia. Pa

Milton Pearlmuter, Short Hills, N.J

place in Israel. We want all Jews to be

Mrs. David Steine (Peggy). Nashville, Tenn.
, 1r. Matthew H. Ross. New York. N.Y

Robert Kat/. Canton, Ohio

Mrs Michael Pelaeie (Natalie). Flint, Mich

Rabbi Alan Mayor Sokobin, Toledo, Ohio
Kenneth Rosett. New Rochelle, N.Y.

Theodore K. Broido. New York, N.Y.

Herz) Mendelsohn, Chicago. III

Mrs. Barnett Brickner (Rebecca), Cleveland. Ohio

Jack Rockower, Philadelphia, Pa.

Rabbi Albert Lewis. Los Angeles, Calif

Rabbi Ira S Youdovm, Westfield, N.J.

Irvin Bogatin, Memphis, Tenn

welcome in the Jewish State, not only those

whose credentials are respected by an
entrenched minority. We want Israel to

abides in our own communities as an

essential strength.

Rabbi Robert Kahn, Houston. Texas

AvramBondarin, New York, N.Y.

Mrs Leonard Spring IHelenel, New York, N Y

Leonard Pevar, Kennett Square. Pa.

J Jacques Stone, New York, N.Y

Rabbi Joseph Asher, San Francisco, Calif
Rabbi Balfour Brickner. New Yorf . N.Y.

Gilbert Titles, Great Neck, N.Y.
Rat bi Martin Weiner. San Francisco, Calif

Your vote will show how strongly we American

Zionists feel about the inalienable religious



Rabbi Joseph Glaser. Scarsdale. N.Y.

Mrs. Bernard Kreshtool (Constance). Wilmington, Dela.

Rabbi Donald Berlin, Baltimore, Md.
Rabbi Sheldon Zimmerman, New York, N.Y

rights of all Jews.

We hope that you will vote A RZA

Robert Canvasser, Pleasant Ridge, Mich

Albert Vorspan. Hewlett, N.Y.

Mrs Irving Hollobow (Bea), Chicago. III.
E.M. Rosenthall, Fort Worth, Texas
Mrs. Joseph Mahler ILillian), Huntington Woods, Mich.

Mrs. Harvey Ammerman (LeneIII. Washington. D.0

know the harmony of Jewish pluralism that

Slate # 7

But most of all, we hope that you will vote!

Rabbi Joseph Klein, Worcester, Mass

Ms. EleanOr Schwarz/, NEV., York, N.Y
The Hon. Abner Mikva. Chicago. III

Mrs Julian Ansel! (Sarah), Boston, Mass
Rabbi A-miel Wohl, New Rochelle, N.Y.
Girard Daniel, Mamaroneck, N.Y.

Rabbi Joshua O. Haberman, Washington, D.C.

Rabbi Daniel Jeremy Silver. Cleveland, Ohio

Mrs Maurice N. Eisendrath

Purdys, N.Y.

Rabbi Albert Plotkin, Phoenix, Ariz.
Morton Kemper, Baltimore, Md.
Rabbi Eugene LIOCrldrl, Washington. D C

Rabbi Ernst Lorge. Chicago. III
Mrs. C M. Newman (Racquet). Los Altos Hills, Calif

Rabbi Simeon Maslin, Chicago. III

Marshall Blair. Northridge, Calif

Rabbi Howard Greens-tem, Jacksonville, Fla
Rabbi Free Schwartz. Chicago, III

Rabbi Howard Shapiro, Springfield, N.J.
Ms. Edith Miller, New York. N Y.

Rabbi Charles A. Krololf, Westfield. NJ

Rabbi Samuel Stahl. San Antonio, Texas

Ben Chem°, Milwaukee. Wit('

Mrs Paul Fear 'mutter (Rose). Short Hills N J.
Robert Benjamin. Clearwater. Fla.
Rabbi Alan Smith. Englishtown. NJ

Mrs Maurice Samuel (Edith), New York, N.Y
Rabbi Norman Kahan, Roslyn Heights. N
Rabbi Max Shapiro. Minneapolis, Minn

Lee Goldin. Malibu, Calif
Rabbi Milton Grafinan. Birmingham. Ala

Rabbi Daniel SVme, New York. N.Y.
Dr Charlene Hyde, Westwood, Calif

Back to Top

© 2021 Regents of the University of Michigan