served. Some swore they had known
THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS
nothing of these events; they had 22—Friday, June 2, 1967
carried out their duties in a state
where by o r der of the Fuehrer
every area was sealed off from mat-
ters outside its limits. But outside
the courts of law, Catholics and
Protestants met in solemn sessions
to confess their responsibility for
what had happened. Collective guilt,
though always rejected, clung to
millions of Germans despite the
philosophical and historical demon-
strations that it could scarcely
While the men who were on trial,
and who were executed, and their
associates, have been evaluated be-
fore, while the story h a s been
recorded again and again, the David-
son account adds data of great
value. Since the holocaust can not
and will not be forgotten, all basic
details are important for the record.
1 block South of 7
Davidson's is a masterful supple-
ment to the record.
Important Addenda to Record of the Holocaust
Compiled in Davidson's 'Trial of the Germans'
Davidson has this to say in rela- industralists. he thought that nam-
Eugene Davidson porforms a
major task in The Trial of the tion to the mass murders and to ing some individually might cause
Germans — Nuremberg 1945-46,' the guilty clique on trial at Nurem others to think they could escape.
Stalin. however, said t ha t those
published by Macmillan. Ile gives berg:
listed were only examples. Krupp
a thorough account of the criminals,
"Even before the United States was there, he said, to show the
their bestialities, their roles as Hit- entered the war, President Roose-
general reason for trying German
ler's associates. and he evaluates velt and Winston Churchill togethe
the Nuremberg trial in a new rec- had warned the Germans that they industralists, and if the Americans
ord that adds invaluably to the would be held accountable for war or British preferred to name an-
other he would have no objection.
history of the holocaust.
crimes. In a statement on Oct. This view was stated more strongly
He is fair in his treatment, indi. 25, 1941, Churchill declared. 'Retri- by the chief American prosecutor
eating not only the injustices but , bution for these crimes must hence- at Nuremberg, Mr. Justice Robert
also some of the motivations to forward take its place among the H. Jackson, who said, 'It has at all
account for reservations in judging major purposes of this war.' These times been the position of the
those who had resisted and those warnings were often repeated in the United States that the great indus-
who attempted not to yield totally course of the war by all the warring trialists of Germany were guilty of
to the crimes. He also deals with nations. In March, 1943, the United crimes charged in this indictment
a sense of realism in judging the States Senate and House of Repre- quite as much as its politicians,
Russians. in accounting for the sentatives in a concurrent resolution diplomats and soldiers.'
much debated Katyn massacre, and declared unanimously: 'The dictates
"The German people themselves
of humanity and honorable conduct
he states: .•
"One, red thread runs through in war demand that the inexcusable were never to be formally indicted.
French prosecution, alone
the trial and hinds in a curious way slaughter and mistreatment shall
both the victors and the vanquished. cease . . and that those guilty of among the four victorious powers,
It is the power exerted by an ideo- these criminal acts shall be held made no distinction between the
logy. The power was manifested by accountable and punished. T h e Nazi and the rest of the nation.
those on the German side who ac- Allied foreign ministers, as well as The Americans were careful to
cepted the fixed ideas of their Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt, and draw a line between the general
society, in their Russian opposite indeed any attentive reader of the population and those on trial.
members who could coolly accuse press, had no doubt whatever as to Thomas J. Dodd, in his opening
the Germans of a crime they knew who the perpetrators of these crimes statement, said, 'As every German
the defendants had not committed were. The chief criminals were Cabinet minister or high official
(the Katyn m a's s acr e), in the leaders of the Nazi Party and State, knew, behind the laws and decrees
American and British who could the High Command of the Army of the Reichsgesetzblatt was not
swallow almost any legal nostrum and Navy, the diplomats, the indus- the agreement of the people or
their representatives but the terror
as long as it made them see a post- trialists, the bankers, the judges,
war society of their imagining. and the bureaucrats. At the war's of the concentration camps and the
Small things were rescued at Nu- end the Americans were holding for police state.'
remberg, such as the unspoken trial some aoo 'major' criminals.
"Mr. Justice Jackson declared in
principle that no one be convicted The Russian Judge I. T. Nikitchenko his opening speech, 'We have no
of the same crime the Allies con- thought the list in his country purpose to incriminate the whole
ceded their side had committed; might run to 500, but the chief German people. We know that the
that no one be hanged for the 'major' criminals were easy to iden- Nazi Party was not put into power
crime of having waged or plotted tify. . Soviet Foreign Minister Molo- by a majority of the German vote,'
to wage war. For the deeper an- tov wrote on Oct. 14, 1942, 'The but by an alliance of extreme Nazi,
sw ers we roust look to history and whole of mankind knows the names German reactionaries, and the most
and bloody crimes of the leaders aggressive of militarists.
it- meaning for ourselves."
Ne,ertheless the Germans, in the of the criminal Ilitlerite clique:
"In effect, despite the disclaimers,
main. emerge as so cruelly involved, Hitler Goering, Hess. Goebbels,
so guilty, that the stain is inerasable.
the indictments were inevitably
ithon makes the charge by pointing Ilimmler, Ribbentrop. Rosenberg.'
directed against the German people.
to the lark of decency. stating: "What Such members of the Roosevelt Ad-
bad distinguished the Nazi State from
ministration as Secretaries Stimson When one defense lawyer heard
other totalitarian systems was the effi.
ciencv of its inversion of every value.
and Stettinius and Attorney Gen- the testimony of the razing in 1943
Nut only was God to be killed, but with
of the Warsaw ghetto, where 65,000
his religion. the family, and old notions eral Biddle wrote a memorandum to
of Astir.'. Law was merely something
the President for the Yalta Con- Jews were killed in what was called
that reflected the intuition of the race.
a military action although the police
The extermination process was as ra-
tionalized as the production of war
'The names of the chief German and SS troops involved lost only
goods: it was self-Justifying, an end
leaders are well known and the sixteen men. he spoke of the in-
in itself. The victim was born into it;
delible besmirching of the German
once placed in an undesirable category. ' proof of their guilt will not offer
hr 1'0111(1 not escape. After. the prison-
name—a reaction expressed by a
Cf:, bad been reduced to the status
number of the -defendants during
"When Stalin appeared at Pots- the course of the trial. 'A thousand
lose their sense of identity with other
One dam with a list of those to be tried
human beings, death followed.
years shall pass,' said the former
oncentr.ition camp man called his
as major war criminals, no objec- Governor General of Poland, Hans
dog Mensch (human being) and would
turn hint lose on the prisoners, shout-
tions were made to any of the Frank, 'and this guilt of Germany
ing, •Ntrusch, go after the dogs!' This
was not the abberration of a single , names by the English or the Ameri-
will not be erased,' Robert Ley,
Ss man: it was an expression of a corn-
cans. On the Russian list were who hanged himself before the trial
plicate(' party line. The efficiency of
names equally well known among started, said much the same thing
the process of extermination — its
careful records, the turning of science
the Western Allies—Goering, Hess, in a farewell note. Others talked
and technology to pseudoresearch and
Ribbentrop. Keitel, Doenitz, Kalten- as though they had been awakened
inflicting of horrors — was unique. The
SS men involved in the killings kept . brunner, Frick, Streicher, Krupp,
from a fantastic dream in which
talking of their hard task and the
Schacht, Papen, Hans Frank—and they had somehow played a part.
incomprehension of many of their own
countrymen who did not like to have to
this lineup was promptly accepted Now they found themselves in a
lake part in them. The commandant of
prosaic non-Nazi world where mur-
the concentration camp at Auschwitz, at the August 1 meeting of the Big
It ;idol( Hess, who supervised the
Three at Potsdam. Looking at the ders of innocent people had to be
million and a ha lf
execution of a
list President Truman expressed a accounted for, and they stared at
prisoners, took to poetry to describe
hat he had experienced ... His blos- mild objection, remarking that the pictures of atrocities in disbelief
soming fruit trees were next to the while he liked none of the German
and horror. They confessed and
squirmed and alternately blamed
themselves and even more readily
the men and creeds they had
Architect to Plan Martyrs Memorial
only two weeks left
Limited number of enrollments
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SO. OF 9 MILE
TOTEM POLE DAY CAMP
Cordially invites you
and your friends to
Sunday, June 4
New York Parks Commissioner August Heckscher (left) and
Louis I. Kahn, prominent architect, meet for the first time, to discuss
plans for a memorial to the Six Million Jewish martyrs of the Nazi
holocaust. They are looking at a blueprint of the site, to be located
alongside the Promenade at Battery Park, near the Emma Lazarus
tablet and facing the Statue of Liberty. David Lloyd Kreeger, Wash-
ington attorney and art collector who is a vice-president of the
American Jewish Committee and chairman of the memorial art
committee, announced that Kahn has been appointed architect for
Surprises Refreshments Fun
Alternate Date in Case of Bad Weather
Sunday, June 11 — 1-5 p.m.
Located at 47300 W. 12 Mile Rd.
For Further Information
Directions: Grand River X-Way to Beck Road exit, OR 12 Mile
Road West to Beck Road, OR Lodge X - Way (696), merge with 1.96
to Beck Road exit.
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