Margaret Kovarsky established a
new Israeli record in the 200-meter
wait to put Hoggan's work on the
market for the delectation of his breaststroke with a 3:04.0 clock-
ing, while Gershon Shefa, swim-
ming in a 25-meter pool, lowered
Dr. Herbert Grabert, the pub- the men's mark to 2:38.4. A 200-
lisher, is a vigorous Germany meter butterfly record of 2:23.7
apologist in his own right, hav- was posted by Yitzhak Lurie, while
ing been convicted once for a
book he wrote on "A People Esther Tsvering set a junior na-
Without Leadership." He trans- tional 200-meter breaststroke rec-
lated two of Hoggan's books into ord with a 3:08.5 time.
German and put them on the
A GOOD MAN TO KNOW !
market. A fifth edition of the
current work (under the title
"The Imposed War" in German)
is scheduled for early publica-
"It would not be amiss to look
for the backers of this new histori-
cal myth among those circles who
intend to encourage new 'studies'
by Hoggan through substantial
monetary contributions," Janssen
One German historian calls the
book "not a scientific work; it is
a political pamphlet." But Dr. Gra-
bert insists his protege, formerly
on the staff of the University of
California at Berkeley, has writ-
ten a "monumental work."
"Monumental?" comments Jans-
1 block South of 7
sen. "Indeed, it does run to 900
U N 3-9300
U.S. Historian Absolves Hitler of Blame for World War H
Charlatan or hero? American
historian Dr. David L. Hoggan has
been called both. The former term
is employed by several experts in
contemporary German history, the
latter by neo-Nazis who have
found in Hoggan an excellent
apologist for Hitler.
In a book being published in the
United States under the title
"When Peaceful Revision Failed:
The Origins of the Second World
War," Hoggan challenges the wide-
spread assumption that Hitler
bears sole responsibility for World
War II. He suggests, rather, that
Hitler was innocent and that the
guilt falls on Britain's Foreign
Secretary Halifax and Poland's
Foreign Minister Beck.
The effects of Hoggan's recent
appearance in Germany are de-
scribed by Karl Heinz Janssen in
Hamburg's "Die Zeit" and trans-
lated into English for Atlas Maga-
zine by Abe Farbstein.
The former Harvard scholar,
on a lecture tour, received two
awards and much criticism. The
awards were the $2,500 Leopold
von Ranke Prize, from the "So-
ciety for the Promotion of
Scientific Historical Research,"
a group of nationalists with an
illustrious leadership of former
Nazi bigshots, and the $1,250
Ulrich von Hutten Prize from
the "Heidelberg Society for
Free Journalism," which holds
credentials similar to the "Re-
Hoggan was invited to speak
before the Rhein-Ruhr Club of
Dusseldorf, an association, inno-
cently enough, "for the study of
political, economic and cultural
Although the club often has in-
vited controversial speakers and
although it intended to balance
the evening's fare with rebuttal
from a noted Bonn historian, press
and public criticism of its choice
was too much. The club canceled
"What had seemingly started
out as an objective and unpreju-
diced discussion of 'American
Historians and the Question of
War Guilt in the 20th Century'
unexpectedly became a political
issue," writes Janssen.
The government regarded the
planned lecture a "public nuis-
ance but left the decision up to
the club. Rumors of possible
demonstrations spread through
Dusseldorf. The police were
prepared, if necessary, to pro-
tect the club. The members be-
gan to wonder what people
abroad would say if Hoggan
needed police protection when
he spoke. The executive com-
mittee voted again; a slender
majority opposed Hoggan. The
lecture was canceled 'so as to
forestall the circulation of false
impressions and to avoid damag-
ing Germany's reputation?"
Now the danger was that Hog-
gan would become a martyr. "The
radical right could only benefit
from the storm around Hoggan.
Now they could assert with some
justification that a public discus-
sion on war guilt in the Second
World War was being throttled.
They made the award of the prizes
to the 'apostle of truth' from
America seem like a national ob-
Hoggan's love for Germany was
nurtured when he was with the
American occupation forces in
Bavaria. He married a German
girl. But his liking for the coun-
try evolved into a love for the
Germany that was. "He was not
even immune to anti-Semitic influ-
ences," Janssen writes.
He goes on: "One can only
speculate on the source of the
sudden illumination which con-
vinced him that it was not Hitler
but the English, Americans, Rus-
sians, Jews and capitalists who
caused the war. But the fact re-
mains that at the beginning of the
1960s he fell into the hands of a
neo-Nazi publisher who couldn't
Development of Modern Synagogues
Shows Traces of Babylonian Origin
became the enter of the autono-
mous Jewish community.
The medieval Jewish community
was a democratic institution. There
was only one standard of prestige:
knowledge. By the 18th Century
Jewish communal life took on
more of the coloration of the en-
vironment, and wealth became all-
important for communal prestige.
The American synagogue was
generally a carbon copy of its
European parent—until the Ger-
man-Jewish immigration flood of
the middle 19th Century. Then
a number of changes began.
First, the synagogue gradually
gave up almost all its traditional
functions except the conduct of
worship services and the educa-
tion of young children. By 1900,
the synagogue ceased to be the
center of the Jewish community,
and secular agencies took over all
aspects of social welfare, health
and community relations.
Second, American Jewry became
an organized anarchy, and the
synagogue had to concern itself
with only its members.
Third, the function of the rabbi
changed fundamentally: he was
now required to be a combination
of teacher and pastor, adminis-
trator and radio-TV artist, am-
bassador and psychologist, scholar
and business executive, officiant,
orator and fund-raiser.
Fourth, the growth of Reform
and Conservative Judaism had
major effects upon the nature of
the synagogue structure.
Since 1900, it has become in-
creasingly apparent that the
which extended into all commu-
American synagogue must reflect
several basic premises of Ameri-
Early in the evolution of the can life, and increasingly it has
synagogue as a religious institu- done so.
tion, it took on a three-faceted
character it still has: a house Australian Student Editor
of prayer, of study and of assemb-
ly. It later took on an additional Dropped for Nazi Articles
area of concern which it still has
SYDNEY (JTA) — The student
in most communities: administra- representative council of Sydney
tion of the cemetery.
University suspended Michael Mc-
With the end of Jewish national Dermott, editor of the student
life in Palestine, the synagogue journal, "Honi Soit," as an out-
growth of a controversy over pub-
lication of articles prepared by the
Australian Nazi Party.
BY HENRY LEONARD
The student council had pro-
tested publication of the articles
According to Rabbi Eugene
Lipman in the book "Successful
Synagogue Administration" by Irv-
ing I. Katz, the synagogue as a
place of worship developed either
during the Babylonian exile (596-
538 BCE) or just before the exile.
Two different types of synagogues
developed, setting a pattern fol-
lowed even in the 20th Century
The Jews from a particular
village would congregate in one
neighborhood in Babylon. They
socialized, helped one another—
and met to pray. Centuries later,
East European Jews fleeing
pogroms set up identical syna-
gogues on the Lower East Side of
New York, made up entirely of
refugees from Pinsk or Bialystok.
From Babylon to New York, the
Landsmannschaft synagogue gave
the inner warmth of praying
among people of similar back-
Similarly, the tanners tended
to set up shop on the same street,
potters on another, butchers on a
third. They had a community of
interest which transcended busi-
ness hours, and so "guild" syna-
gogues developed. In New York
today there is a Garment Center
Synagogue and an Actor's Syna-
gogue. Economic identification
also added meaning to prayer.
By the end of the Fifth Cen-
tury BCE, the synagogue was a
complex institution with a fairly
definite format. From the Ele-
phantin papyri we learn of a
while material against the Aus-
tralian Nazis was not published.
The student newspaper also car-
ried an editorial charging that
Jewish groups were trying to
prevent publication of informa-
tion about Nazi policies in the
From Melbourne, it was reported
that boys in school uniforms of the
Swinburne Technical College there
were seen parading in a suburb
waring swastika armbands.
Two leaflets based on material
prepared by the Swedish anti-
Semite, Einar Aarburg, were
placed in mailboxes in Elwood, a
suburb heavily populated by Jews.
A Jewish businessman reported
he had received a threatening anti-
Semitic letter telling him to get
out of Australia.
"So I'll come clown a few cents on my salami,
Sarah, and then watch 'em run for cover!"
George Davidson, the Lafayette
College basketball coach now work-
ing in Israel, has written a book
which has been translated into
Hebrew and has been made avail-
able to Israel coaches and players.
THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS
Friday, July 31, 1964
UL BE CH
High Holiday Prayer Book
By Dr, Philip Birnbaum
In Two Volumes
This two volume set of the Mahzor Ha-Shalem is concise and
accurate. The Hebrew prayers and piyutim are superbly trans-
lated and annotated. Like the two-volume Sephardic edition of
Mahzor Ha-Shalem, our Ashkenazic edition, now made available
in two volumes, contains a wide variety of responsive readings
in English. The Mahzor was in need of interpretation, expert
translation and dignified presentation. The need has now been
filled. Even a cursory examination will reveal that the task has
been brought to a successful fruition.
Mahzor Ha-Shalem — 2 Vol. $5.00
Mahzor Ha-Shalem —1 Vol. 2.75
Mahzor Ha-Shalem Sephard —
2 Vol. only
AT ALL BOOK STORES
Hebrew Publishing Co.
79 Delancey St., New York, N. Y.
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