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June 26, 1964 - Image 10

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Detroit Jewish News, 1964-06-26

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

Profs. Zeitlin and Hoenig Again Challenge
Scrolls' Antiquity; 2 New Books on Subject

there is an affinity between the
Qumran texts and Karaitic teach-
ings. He points to the apocalyptic
teachings in Pesher Nahum as
being in line with the general kar-
aitic concept.
Dr. Hoenig contends that "the
scrolls are early karaitic, pole-
mical diatribes against the ex-
pounders of halakot, namely, the
Rabbanites and their teachings, as
based on the Mishnah and the
Talmud."
Dr. Hoenig's essay maintains:
"It is known that the Karaites
obtained their historical knowl-
edge of events of the second
temple from Josippon. Yehudah
Hadassis in his "Eshkol ha-
Kofer" makes many references
to Joseph ben Gorion (Josip-
pon). One is also aware of the
fact that this karaitic author had
many early sources which he
copied into his book, evidencing
again the early dating of Josip-
pon. Saddia Gaon, too, as shown
by H. Malter, utilized Josippon.
"With this background, the re-
lationship between the newly
discovered Pesher Nahum and
Josippon may now be ascer-
tained. In presenting the Alex-
ander Jannai narrrative, both
texts use cognate (though not
similar) expressions. That is,
the Pesher Nahum usage of
dorshe halakot is closest, of all
extant sources, to the Josippon
rendition, since no Qumran
scroll ever mentions Perushim
or Essenes. This shows, primar-
ily, that Pesher Nahum was in-
fluenced by the earlier Josippon
narrative, not vice versa. Were
the latter the case, Josippon
would have contained the
unique term dorshe halakot in
the same story. The usage of
the exceptional phrase in Pesher
Nahum is deliberate. It is in the
same spirit as in the other
Qumran texts, and is only fur-
ther evidence that a purposeful
sectarian change from the norm,
with contemptuous m e a n i n g,
was the intent of the Pesher.
In other words, the Perushim
and sages of Israel of the tan-
naitic text and of Josippon be-
came in the derisive sectarian
verbiage of Pesher Nahum, the
dorshe halakot ("expounders of
smooth things"). This Qumran
Nahum Commentary with its
singular terminology is therefore
to be recognized as a karaitic
composition.
This notion of the karaitic
charactistic of the Pesher Na-
hum may be substained from
still another vantage point. Its
tone of diatribe parallels a kar-
aitic tradition found in the pref-
ace to Eliyabu b. Moses Bash-
yachi's `Aderet Eliyahu,' namely,
`the separation of the Karaites
from the Rabbanites,' as based
on Judah Halevi's remarks in
his `Kuzari.' This tradition sets
the origin of Karaism in the
days of Simon ben Shetah, and
resulting from Alexander Jan-
nai's conflict with the talmudic
sages."
In a statement made recently
on the Nahum Commentary scroll,
Prof. Zeitlin maintained:
"The protagonists of the an-
tiquity of the Scrolls in their
zeal ignore the principles of
sound scholarship. A case in
point: The Scroll, Commentary
on Nahum, was heralded as a
document of great importance
for the history of the Second
Jewish Commonwealth, preced-
ing the time of Herod. The
protagonists were unaware of
the simple fact that the words
Asher BeTalmud in this scroll
demonstrate, without a shadow
THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS
of doubt, that it could not have
Friday, June 26, 1964
been written before the compil-
10

Although new books have ap-
peared giving credence to the
claims that the Dead Sea Scrolls
date back to the first century of
the Christian era or earlier, there
is a minority that continues to
challenge this conception.
Dr. Cecil Roth, in a Commentary
article, expressed his view that
"the literature of the Dead Sea
Scrolls is in fact the literature,
not of a pre-Christian mystery
sect, nor of medieval Karaites, nor
of contemplative Essenes, but ra-
ther of the extremist leaders in
the great revolt against Rome in
66-73 C.E."
Prof. Roth came to this posi-
tion on the basis of recent dis-
coveries made near the ruins of
Masada, the an-
cient Hebrew for-
tress, by the Is-
reali archeologist
Professor Yigdal
Yadin. One of
Yadi n's finds,
fragments of a
liturgical calen-
dar, links the
Dead Sea Scrolls
"beyond any
d o u b t" to the Prof. Hoenig
"agressive, bellicose Sicarii Zeal-
ots" who led the extremists in
the Jewish revolt against Rome.
Challenging this opinion, Dr.
Sidney B. Hoenig, professor of
Jewish history at Yeshiva Univer-
sity, stated that he had read "with
great astonishment" Prof. Roth's
view and added:
"Professor Yigael Yadin who
has been excavating the Masada
ruins and discovered the addi-
tional Scrolls there has not yet
published any photostats. How
then can a careful scholar make
assertations "beyond any doubt"
that these are "the work of anti-
Roman radicals and not paci-
fists," if he has not seen the
original evidence?
"Moreover, to couple the Si-
carii with the Zealots is a wrong
interpretation of Josephus. The
Sicarii were indeed extremists
(Daggermen), to be identified
with the group Josephus calls
"fourth philosophy" (added to
the three — Pharisees, Saddu-
cees and Essenes). They Believ-
ed in the principle of "no lord-
ship of man over man." They
are not mentioned as having
taken part in the war after the
assassination of their leader,
Menahem; they fled to Masada
at the outbreak in 66 CE and
continued to expound their phil-
osophy even later. The Zealots
arose with the establishment of
the provisional government and
aristrocratic Peace Party which
they opposed; they sought only
democratic rule. With the de-
struction of Jerusalem they dis-
appeared, for their goal had
been lost.
"In the entire issue of the
Scrolls, Qumran or Masada, —
whether they are Essenes, pre-
Christian, Sicarii or Karamaitic
— the matter is still unsettled.
The publication of the Masada
Scrolls is therefore of absolute
urgency before any scholar can
give his 'conclusions' to the
reading public."
Dr. Hoenig, like Prof. Solomon
Zeitlin, dates the scrolls to the
time of the Karaites — the sev-
enth or the eighth century of the
present era.
In an essay in the Journal of
Biblical Literature, entitled "Dor-
bhe Halakot — In the Pesher Na-
hum Scrolls," challenges he views
of Dr. J.M. Allegro and Prof. A.
Dupont-Somner and contends that

ation of the Mishna. This scroll
was written at a later period."
Meanwhile those who defend
their viewpoint regarding the early
dates — first century BCE to
second century CE—for the scrolls
— continue to assert that the
scrolls revolutionize knowledge re-
lating to the years preceding and
during the rise of Christianity. Dr.
Joh Marco Allegro, in "Search in
the Desert," published by Dou-
bleday, describes the Second Jew-
ish Revolt, deals with the exca-
vations in the Dead Sea area, and
presents a dramatic account of
archaeological findings. It is a
narrative that reads like fiction,
and it is based on recognition by
the author of the authenticity of
the Dead Sea Scrolls as originally
dated by him and other archaeolo-
gists.
Special attention to the Book
of Isaiah is given in "The Mean-
ing of the Qumran Scrolls for the
Bibl e" by Dr. William Hugh
Brownlee, one of the original In-
terpreters of the scrolls. In this
volume, published by Oxford Uni-
versity Press, Dr. Brownlee eval-
uates the Complete Isaiah Scrolls
and comments on their importance
for the Bible as a whole.
Great significance is ascribed
to the Qumran texts. He contends
that "only Solomon Zeitlin oppo-
ses antiquity of the Damascus
Covenant . . . and . . . also re-
jects the views of archeologists
and paleographers regarding the
date of the scrolls." But it is
evident from the views of Dr. Hoe-
nig just quoted that another
scholar agrees with Prof. Zeitlin.
Thus far, it seems, Profs. Zeitlin
and Hoenig are practically alone
in their challenge to those who
claim antiquity for the scrolls.

Day Schools Are Described at Hillel
Dinner as Filling 'Need for Intensity,'
Blending Jewish-American Traditions

Describing the Jewish day
schools as the "harmonious blend-
ing of two traditions," Dr. Max
Arzt, vice chancellor of the Jew-
ish Theological Seminary of
America, speaking at the annual
dinner of the Hillel Day School,
in the Adas Shalom social hall,
Wednesday night, strongly en-
dorsed the movement for the all-
day Jewish school that mingles
Hebraic with general Jewish
studies.
A capacity audience which was
described by Rabbi Jacob E. Segal,
honorary president of the Hillel
school, who presided, as the larg-
est ever to attend a dinner in that
hall, responded with contributions
ranging from $100 to $2,500 to
provide the necessary supplemen-
tary aid for the school.
Abe Kasle, who was the chair-
man of the advisory committee
that planned the dinner, pointed
out in his address to the gather-

47 Delegations Attend
Housing Parley in Israel

JERUSALEM — (JTA) — More
than 1,000 delegates from 47 coun-
tries are attending the 27th World
Congress for Housing and Planning
which opened here Monday.
Attending the conference also
are delegates from the Soviet Un-
ion, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bul-
garia and Romainia.
The United States has the larg-
est delegation, composed of 300
members, including Miss Goldie
Levinstein of Detroit.
The congress was opened by
Y o s e f Almogi, Israel's housing
minister, who greeted the assem-
bled representatives from the var-
ious countries, including 14 mini-
sters dealing with housing prob-
Mexican Delegation
lems in their respective land.
to Israel Is Largest Yet
The congress will discuss prob-
MEXICO CITY (JTA)—The larg- lems concerning the growing popu-
est Mexican government delega- lation, population dispersion and
tion ever to visit Israel is partici- town planning.
pating in the 27th World Congress
for Housing and Planning which New Proposal Reverses
opened in Jerusalem Tuesday.
The delegation, which is headed Einstein Gravity Theory
by Undersecretary of State Guiller-
A well-known British astronomer
mo Rosell of the Mexican Ministry has proposed a basic revision of
of National Properties, is com- Einstein's General Theory of Rela
posed of representatives from most tivity, it was reported in the New
of Mexico's official and private eco- York Times.
nomic planning agencies.
Dr. Fred Hoyle, a successful
Among the participants in the author of popular science books of
Mexican Mission which totals 27 science and of stage productions,
people, are representatives from devised the theory with a col-
the Mexican Ministry of Finance, league.
the National Oil Company PEMEX,
It accepts Einstein's 50-year-old
the Mexican University, the Tech- theory of equivalence of gravity
nological Institute, banks and pro- and acceleration, but it differs
fessional associations. Undersecre- from that of Einstein in some of
tary Rosell took to the Congress its results, such as the relationship
and to the people and government between gravity on earth and the
of Israel, a personal message from remaining material of the universe.
President Lopez Mateos.
Between sessions of the Congress,
Israel's Advertising Media
the Mexican delegates will tour
Israeli advertisers spent a total
the country, contact Israeli institu- of 36,000,000 pounds ($12,000,000)
tons, as well as pay a visit to two in 1963, more than half of this sum
groups of Mexicans now studying going for space in 24 daily news-
in Israel within the framework of papers. Other advertising media
Israel's technical assistance pro- include magazines and other publi-
gram.
cations, movies and outdoor ads.
The Israeli charge d'affaires stat-
ed that the visit of this delegation
signifies the beginning of closer
technical cooperation between Mex-
ico and Israel on all levels and
especially in the field of national
and regional planning, housing and
cooperative organizations.

ing that a small group of parents
pay $900 a year per child, the
actual cost per capita to the
school, besides their contributions
to the school, and the deficit must
be made up in community gifts.
He therefore called for generous
giving to the cause.
Tom Borman was honored
with a community service cita-
tion, and in his absence it was
accepted for him by his brother,
Al Borman. The presentation
was made by Rabbi Morris Adler
who joined in strongly acclaim-
ing the work of the Hillel school
and endorsing the day school
idea. A citation in memory of
Morris Schaver, who was one of
the founders of the school, was
presented by Rabbi Segal to
Mrs. Scheyer. Max Goldsmith,
Hillel Day School president,
presented a book of dedication
to Harry Cohen.
Mrs. Samuel B. Danto, president
of Friends of Hillel, a women's
group backing the school, an-
nounced that Trees of Life en-
graved certificates were to be
presented after the dinner to the
school's founding grandparents.
Rabbi Irving Schnipper partici-
pated in the program with the
concluding prayer. Rabbi Ben-
jamin Gorrelick introduced the
guest speaker.
A noteworthy feature of the
evening was the participation of
Hillel students and the school's
choir, in the opening prayer, the
Birkat Hamazon and a series of
songs.
Urging unstinted encourage-
ment to the day school program,
Dr. Arzt declared that "Judaism
is congenial to Americanism and
Americanism is congenial to
Judaism, and we can integrate
the two civilizations."
He declared that "the richness
and heritage of Jewish traditions
adds to the American grandeur."
Stating that there already are
many day schools, he predicted
that "there will be many more"
because "Judaism can not be su-
perficial and must have depth and
intensity." He placed emphasis on
the need for intensity, which, he
said, is provided in the day schools.

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