Historic Red Cross Anniversary .. .Dunant Story
Magen David Adorn Status .. World Jewish
fl • •
Congress' Efforts for Red Cross Aid to Civilians
Women shall be especially protected against any
Constantinople and other cities of the Turkish Em-
(Continued from Page 1)
attack on their honor, in particular against rape,
pire, the society will construct at Jaffa a port and
past century to have joined in advocating Palestine's
a good road, a railway from this city to Jerusalem.
no physical or moral coercion shall be exer-
The territory through which the railway runs should
His Plea for the Jews
protected persons, in particular to obtain
Dunant appealed to the Alliance Israelite Uni-
information from them or from third parties and that
versalle in France to settle Jews in Palestine. His
the High Contracting Parties specifically agree that
create colonies and make them prosperous, with the
appeal fell on deaf ears. He pleaded for his cause
each of them is prohibited from taking any measure of
with the Anglo-Jewish Association, with Berlin
such a character as to cause the physical suffering or
Jews, he wrote letters to the London Jewish Chron-
extermination of protected persons in their hands.
from Morocco, Poland, Moldavia, Wassachis, the
icle, but it was not as easy to succeed with a Jewish
This prohibition applies not only to murder,
East, Africa, etc.
Project, as it was for his Red Cross ideal to triumph.
punishments, mutilation and medical or
He organized the International Palestine Society
scientific experiments not necessitated by the medical
by means of a sincere international understanding,
and the Syrian Palestine Colonization Society, but
treatment of a protected person, but also to any other
the cooperation of those interested in Turkey, and
his writings and his appeals were only destined to
measures of brutality whether applied by civilian or
become great historic documents in the story of
tine, will infallibly be in a less distant future than
later efforts for the upbuilding of Palestine as the
"Pillage is prohibited.
might be imagined.
Jewish National Home, and the name of Jean Henri
"The taking of hostages is prohibited?"
"The reconstruction of Holy Places at Jerusalem,
Dunant is accorded a golden page in Zionist annals.
It is clear that the latter references are to prac-
which might be carried out internationally, and in a
When Dunant was found in 1897 in the Swiss
tices like those of the brutal and inhuman medical
village of Heiden (where he also died on Oct. 31,
experiments that were part of the Nazi program.
which are being incessantly renewed between the
1910), where he was living in poverty in a "Home
But the Geneva 1949 Convention nevertheless con-
Great Powers on account of the Holy Places; the
of Rest" for old men, his name was again accorded
tains the provision: "It ensues that: The presence of
transformation of ancient Jerusalem into a new city
the well earned admiration and respect of the world.
a protected person may not be-used to render certain
which shall rival in importance the finest cities in
In 1901, when the A. B. Nobel Peace Prize was first
points or areas immune from military operations."
awarded, it was granted to the founder of the
The 1949 Geneva Convention was not viewed as
in time will become centers when Western civiliza-
totally satisfactory, but was nevertheless welcomed,
At this time, when the 100th anniversary of the
as it still is, as having made progress in the direc-
Red Cross is being celebrated throughout the world
tion of protecting civilians, especially in the em-
"Under the nominal suzerainty of the Sultan
and when Palestine assumes a place of priority
among humanitarian movements, it is only proper
applying the measures of control mentioned
that world Jewry remember Dunant for his pioneer-
present Convention, the Detaining Power
ing efforts in behalf of Jewish National redemption.
treat as enemy aliens exclusively on the
"Open Letter" on Palestine
for the financial support which will be given to him,
basis of their nationality de jure of an enemy State,
Dunant's "Open Letter" advocating Palestine's
might perhaps, grant to the Holy Land a special
refugees who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection
rehabilitation, follows in full:
of any government."
"The disquieting circumstances in which Europe
the Porte, would offer real security to the popula-
Whatever protection is being offered to stateless
finds itself should not let us forget that the Eastern
tions that might be employed there. Thanks to this
persons, who are to be protected against internment,
question, which has already troubled the govern-
combination, which would procure for her valuable
also is viewed as a progressive step.
ments and peoples, may speedily re-appear and
resources, Turkey would not be obliged to contract new
complicate a position grave enough in itself. In-
loans in order to pay the interest on previous ones.
The Red Magen David Problem
stinctively every one feels that the day when this
"The rising colonies might diplomatically be neu-
question will call'for a definite solution, all Europe
On the occasion of the Red Cross Centennial, one
tralized, like Switzerland, and by a treaty which
will perhaps be in inextricable difficulties.
major problem arises: since Red Crescent, Red Lion
"Diplomatic difficulties can only end in barren
and Sun Societies are recognized by and affiliated
at Geneva in favor of the ambulance, sanitary bodies,
expedients, but the present, which is averse to a
with the Red Cross, why isn't the Israel Magen
David (Red Shield of David), the Israeli equivalent
system of forcible conquest by fire and sword has
so difficult to neutralize Palestine by an agreement
a much more powerful weapon at its disposal—that
of the Red Cross, a part of the international move-
among the powers, since there exists a remarkable
of pacific conquest by civiliiation.
precedent, which is the neutralization of the Lower
The explanation was given recently by Red Cross
"What is therefore to be done in order to pre-
vent grave complications, and regenerate the East
officials who said that the last time an application
by rousing its vital forces and infusing into it the
for recognition was received was in t952, and that
of the Lower Danube has created its flat and a small
it has not been renewed since then.
spirit of Western Civilization?
fleet, it possesses a numerous staff and revenues;
"One of the most powerful means would be the
Paul Ruegger, the president of the International
formation of a large society, having an eminently
Committee of the Red Cross, wrote to the Magen
David on June 25, 1952, pointing out that while all
international character, and which would have there-
"In order to prepare the organization of an In-
by the merit of reconciling the particular interests
Red Cross provisions were to be adhered to by the
of the several European Powers with those of civili-
Israel movement, one condition was rejected. The
requirement that a petitioning society must "Use
zation. This society would open for the west a new
these great and interesting questions. It is indis-
and abundant source of wealth: it would become
the name and emblem of the Red Cross (Red Cres-
pensable for this purpose to form a committee com-
cent or Red Lion and Sun) in conformity with the
for the East an efficient means of moral regenera-
Geneva Convention," could not be accepted by Israel
tion; and lastly would be for all nations cooperating
in the matter a great honor and a great profit.
because it would require the use of the cross as
"The following is the manner in which such an
the rest of the elements of such a committee are
association may be presented to the European public:
"We certainly are aware of the reasons you
"Objects of the Eastern International Society:
"to promote the development of agriculture, in-
have for considering it impossible to adopt the
Red Cross emblem under present conditions. But
dustry, commerce, and public works in the East, and
cannot hurt the susceptibilities of any nation. Influ-
we sincerely hope that it will not always be so.
especially in Palestine. To obtain from the Turkish
For its part, the international Committee, in accord-
government privileges and monopolies, whether in
favorably disposed to the scheme."
ance with the founders of the Red Cross and the
Constantinople or the rest of the Empire: notably
A Prophecy for Palestine
decisions of the International Conferences, feels
the concession and the gradual abandonment of the
A letter to the London Jewish Chronicle dated
that the work and emblem of the Red Cross have
soil of Palestine. To distribute for pecuniary con-
no definite character of a national or religious na-
sideration such portions of the land, the concession
ture at all. Quite to the contrary, this movement
whereof might have been acquired or received by
the company, and to colonize the more fertile valleys
is not only in the service of all, but must rally the
of the Red Cross, and is in essence a prophecy that
entire world around it. National and religious neu-
of the Holy Land.
Palestine will once again become "The center of
"The Turkish empire contains virtues of all
trality is one of the fundamental principles of the
all exchange between the Old continents."
kinds, which, if they' were utilized by a powerful
institution of the Red Cross
The Red Cross was founded to aid the wounded
regret not being able to comply with your request.
company, would yield considerable results; but the
in wars. Its activities have been extended to assist
We are the first to deplore the fact that your Society
Porte neither possesses the resources nor the neces-
civilians, to aid peoples during natural disasters,
cannot, as conditions now stand, become a member
sary forces in order to create and lead to a favor-
to provide relief during various disasters, including
able issue the works of public utility, which the
of the International Red Cross. It naturally goes
floods and tornadoes. Home service divisions of Red
without saying that the fact that it is impossible
internal development of the Ottomon Empire so
Cross chapters everywhere will have enlisted thou-
for us to recognize your Society does not in any
urgently' demands; left to her own resources she
way affect the relations of a practical nature that
can neither augment her revenues nor form new
we enjoy with it. We shall always be happy to see
ones, she is unable to give energetic support to
either agriculture or industry, which are the only
this relation increase."
in urging extension of aids to civilians. The experi-
means of increasing public wealth and prosperity.
`This Piece of Cloth Silenced 1,000 Guns'
ences provided by the horrible catastrophe caused
"It is therefore for the West, which possesses
The latter reference was to the replacement of
the capital and where the creative forces are super-
blood plasma, to exchange of technical material, to
ask for extension of international protection to in-
abundant, to turn to and account the real advan-
the search for missing persons. "In many instances,"
tages presented by Turkey, and to take in hand a
a Red Cross statement indicated, only this year, "we
work capable of yielding excellent results. Skill-
have arranged for replacement of blood to enable
ference held in Stockholm, in August 1948, and to
fully conducted operations in this new country bring
Israeli children who are undergoing major surgery
in a very high interest; but new combinations could
in the United States, to receive the necessary blood."
sulted in another step forward taken by the Red
be devised, which should enjoy both the approval
The latest such instance was for 12-year-old Aanot
of the European powers, and the support of the
Yaalon who was brought for treatment from Ein
Sultan's Porte. Therefore, in order not to weaken
Hamifratz in Israel to Rochester, Minn. in 1963. In
Persons in Time of War.
its forces, the Society must utilize certain special
1960 three Israeli children were brought to Boston
circumstances in which Turkey is now placed, and
for operations, with the aid of the Red Cross.
Palestine offers itself at first sight to the mind as
A statement made by the Hon. Edwin Samuel,
protection of women and children, prohibition of
the earliest field of activity.
adviser to the Magen David Adorn (MDA), reads:
"Palestine as known, only wants human labor
"MDA maintains contact with other national 'Red
in order to produce abundantly, it is one Of the
Cross' societies, with the league of Red Cross Soci-
Persons protected by the Convention are those
most remarkable and fruitful countries on the globe;
eties and with the International Red Cross of Gen-
products of all lattitudes are to be met with there,
eva." Dr. Vera Weizmann, widow of Dr. Chaim
and emigrants from Europe find there the climate
Weizmann, is the present president of MDA.
of their country. Commerce and private industry
One of the explanatory mottos of the Red Cross,
cuping Power of which they are not nationals.
completing a work of agriculture, will draw hither
to its emblem, is that "this piece of cloth
"Protected persons are
in numbers merchants, colonists and capitalists. This
silenced 1,000 guns." That was the aim of Jean Henri
resurrection of the East, uniting with the new rise
Dunant. That remains one of the great boons of an
their family rights, their religious convictions and
of religious sentiment, will be aided by the coopera-
emerging cause of mercy that owes its existence to
tion of Israelites, whose valuable qualities and re-
a great 'humanitarian visionary who also advocated
markable aptitudes cannot but prove very advan-
justice for the Jewish people through a recreated
tageous to Palestine.
thereof and against insults and public curiosity. .
"Having established commercial undertakings iii