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November 25, 1917 - Image 5

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1917-11-25

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

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8RTS

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LiNES

TO FIGHT Fl

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Calkin
Corn

ues

OLD AND INJURED SOLDIERS
CONSTRUCT ROADS FOR,
TOMMIES

RE. HORSEMEN RECEIVE LAND AND
PRI VILEGES FROERULER
FOR BRAVE EERS

Football
Hot Chocolate and!

$4.50

Behind British lines in France, Nov.
24 (Associated Press)-The "Labor
Companies" form 'the greater part of
that "Army Behind the Lines," which
is now so essential a part of army or-
ganization. The first British Expedi-
tionary Force was almost exclusively
combatant, but today it is said that
one and a half men are required to
maintain one man in the trenched and
the army of- labor has grown until it
is stronger numerically than the fight-
ing army itself.,

Coo

MAIN STREET

MOR

ea

SERVING

PUBLIC

A labor company is a unit consist-
ing of 500 men, commanded by a cap-
tain and his staff. In April, 1917, one
year after the first formally desig-
nated labor companies were author-
ized, there had been formed in Eng-
land 34 labor battalions and 119 labor
companies for service abroad and sev-
en battalions and 113 companies for
home service.
Misfits Compose Labor Companies
Under the new conditions of war-
fare, every labor requirement of civil
life may be said to be paralleled in
the organization of the army. The
personnel of the labor companies is
extremely various and interesting. I
consists in essence of those classes oil
men who are not fit for the front line,
such as volunteers who are over-age
or soldiers who have served and in-
curred physical disability.
They build and repair roads, dig
trenches, erect and man light railways
and handle heavy stores and trans-
ports.

(Editor's Note:-This is the third of
a series of articles by Mr. Michael Parg-
ment on Russia. In the article published
in yesterday's Daily it was erroneous-
ly stated that the writer spent most of
his life in Russia. Although Mr. Parg-
ment has spent a great part of his life
in Russia. he is himself a Frenchman
and has spent most of his life in
Paris.)
Years before Russia was yet organ-
ized as a state, the Cossacks lived be-
tween Russia and Poland, the Turkish
empire and the Tartars, launching at-
tacks against all of them. The Cos-
sacks are a Slavic race, with a great
percentage of Tartar blood. They were
a fierce, wild people, passing most of
their life in the saddle and in constant
warfare. Thus, they acquired by in-
heritance the best of fighting abil-
ities.
Cossacks were Self-Governing
The Cossacks were self-governing
until 1773, occasionally entering into
free agreements with the Russian gov-
erniment. But gradually the Russian
government became too strong for
them 'and these agreements were
transformed into charts of subjection.
In 1773, after having joined the
Pougatchov revolt against Catherine
II, they were deprived of part of their
liberties. They have never been
slaves, however, like the Russian

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--

Drugs, Soda, Kodak
For 30 Years the Best

FL

All wool

VARSITY

Suits

Tailored tC
Individual

Is Paramount

CANDY IS A FO
and everybody likes candies,
if they are fresh and pure
That is the only kind we ho
THE

FOR
EVERYTHING
ELECTRICAL
No Job too Small or too Large
WASHTENAW
ELECTRIC SHOP
"The Shop of Quality"
if It's not right we- Imaike it right
-- P1ONE 27" -:

Fountain of Y
The Place of Quality
HOT DRINKS FOR COLD V

O A. Washington
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STOP AT
338 IMAYNARDI
For Lunc es and Sodas
For your Appointment
Committee Photograph
try iN A IN
713 East University Ave
Try our Chop Suey
Chinese and Anherican Dishes

1\ \

WAI ANG .00
Joe Gil, iup.

1314 S. state St.

Phone 1244-MI

n why we
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equipped
.ploy care-
treat your

B
$

adio Military a Fountain Pen
ristWatches E:uv Waterman
4.25 to $21 and ConKil
U..of M. Jewelry
Schlanderer & Seyfried

s
R

Men Prepare Light Railways
The light railways behind the
trenches are under the constant care
of the labor companies. When an allied
advance is carried out and the Ger-
mans driven back over a substantial
depth of front, one of the first tasks
of the labor companies is to continue
the lines , over the lacerated strip of
No Man's land and the crater field
which was the enemy position, and
connect it up with what is left of the
German light railway in the captured
area. In the same way, shell-wrecked
and mine-destroyed roads near the
front lines have to be repaired and
made possible for traffic. New or im-
provised switch roads have to be built
to avoid dangerous and heavily shelled
points, and each step of an advance
is succeeded by an energetic period
of construction in which labor com-
panies take a leading part.
Work Under Artillery Fire
Often their work is carried out un-
der persistent artillery fire, for the
enemy specializes in bombarding the
"back areas" in an effort to impede
the work of renewing communica-
tions, knowing the spots most likely
to be full of troops and workers. The
fighting troops have only to pass
through these rear area bombard-
ments, but the labor companies have
to carry on their work amid shelling,
and their casualties are often numer-
ous. Behind the British lines are to
be found Zulu and Kaffir units- from
South Africa, Tonkinese and Anna-
mese from French Indo-China, cool-
ies from all parts of China, and na-
tives of varied type from India.
TRAFFIC CONGESTION TO BE
SOLVED BY TRUCK CARRIERS
Congestion of traffic because of ship-
ping war supplies may be solved by
the pathfinding automobile which left
a middle western city yesterday to
map out a course for trains of motor
trucks to the Atlantic seaboard.
The national defense council of the
quartermaster-general of the army, the
shipping board, and the transporta-
tion systems of the country are unit-
ed in working out this problem.
The trains as planned will consist o,°
34 trucks, 27 of which will be cargo
carriers, two gasoline tankers, one
baggage truck, one field kitchen, a re-
pair truck, officers' car and two motor-
cycles. Such plans will necessitate
the use of 10,000. trucks for internal
transportation purposes.
Port boards will also help to solve
the problem of conjestion.
Officers' Uniforms and accessories
r. H. Wild & Co., State Street.-Adv.

peasants.
Having become Russian subjects,
their military spirit, naturally strong,
was carefully fostered by the Russian
autocrats who made of them the most
unshakable pillars of their rule.
1usiness of Cossack to Fight
The only business of a Cossack in
lire is fighting. Their military train-
ing begins at the age of 18, and in
some cases 17. Field service begins
at 20, 12 years being spent in active
service and eight years in reserve. Be-
sides, all Cossacks able to serve, be-
long to the reserve forces without
limit of age. They were used by Rus-
sia in all her wars, but were espec-
ially used to keep the Rusian peo-
ple in slavery. There are among them
fully civilized persons excerising lib-
eral professions, but these are a small
minority and are exempt from mili-

7-

Es Dance r
entertained
ng dancing
m of the
-s furnished
>rchestra of

Coal is scarce and hard to get these
may be cooler than you like, so that stu
comfortable.
The ELECTRIC HEATER is just
the chill off; no fumes nor ashes, just connec
and the heat is there.

Then too, the cost is not so
is really quite cheap to operate.

Prof. Wenley Addresses Classical Club
Prof. R. M. Wenley will address
_neiibers of the Classical club at aI
meeting to be held at 8 o'clock Tues-
day evening in room A Memorial hall.
Professor Wenley has chosen as his
thj eae, "Classics and the War." All
members are invited to be present and
bring a friend.
Private dancing lessons, G. N. Mat-
thews instructor, telephone 215-M. -
Adv.
Use the Daily classified columns.

tary service.
' Cossacks Get Land for Fighting
In return for their services the Cos-
sacks were given by the czars almost
as much land as-they wanted, also en-
joying other privileges. Numbering
about two and one-half millions, they
possess 146,000,000 acres of the best
of Russian land with great under-
ground riches. A small part of the
land is cultivated by themselves,
the rest being rented by them to the
Russian peasants. Most of the work
'is done by the women, and in war
time almost exclusively by them. Th%
Cossacks are not subject to any na-
tional taxes, paying only taxes im-
posed upon them by their local com-
munities.
Cossacks Are Courageous
The Cossacks are the most courage-
ous and desperate fighters imaginable.
They furnish the best light cavalry of
the Russian army. The Cossack con-
siders his honor as a soldier above
everything else, and blind obediencer
to authority is a sacred duty to him.
He always rushes into battle with the
fierce joy of combat. /He carries a
rifle, a revolver, a sword, and a lance.
He possesses his own horse, belonging
to a race of rare qualities. He parts
with his horse more unwillingly than
he does with his wife. One of his
proverbs is: "A Cossack without a
horse is an orphan."
The Cossacks wear distinctive uni-
forms of dark green. They have long'
hair covering a part of their neck
and the right part of their forehead,1
the cap being slightly removed to the
left part of the nape of the neck. This1
way of wearing the cap is considered
as a mark of smartness in Russia.
Timofelev Conquers Siberia
In 1581 Yermack Timofeiev, a Cos-
sock of the Don, conquered all of west-
ern Siberia with 1,500 of his follow-j
ers and presented it to the czar. This
was the beginning of the acquisition
of this immense territory which is

Main and William Sts.

larger than the United States by one-
third, containing valueless riches in
coal, wood, gold, and other natural re-
sources.
A realistic feature of the life of the
Cossacks can be found in Gogol's
"Taras Bulba."
ARMS TO DOWN AUTOCRACY;
NOT ECONOMIC MEASURES

III

!I'l

1
6

THE

"1

DETROIT EDISO

.
1111

Victory is Problem of the Fighter,
Rather Than the Trader, Says
Crowder

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11

the

.Mrs.
Sink.

Lowe Copy
at
Stuents'
Supply St re

N(

IWA NTE D
WANTED- Nice suite of rooms for
lady and son near campus and pre-
ferably in place where there are no
other roomers.- Box X, Daily.
LOST
LOST-Key ring holding three keys
and fountain pen on Nov. 22, proba-
bly on State street. Please return
to 333 E. Williams St. Telephone
917M.

Washington, Nov. 24.-That the war
against Germany must be won by
force of arms and not by economic
measures, is the belief of Provost-
marshal General Enoch M. Crowder.
He does not underestimate the valpe
of agriculture and manufacturies, but
takes issue with those who say that
the United States will win because
they are superior in the economic
field.
"A vast production in our farms and
factories is necessary, in order to sup-
ply our men on the front; but that
is no reason why this country should
fail to make itself effective in the field
of military operation. The war will be
wonin France, and doubtlessly by the
side which is able to place behind its
army the prevailing ounce of provis-
ion. But the blow that will shatter
German autocracy will be the blow
of man's strong right arm and not the
insidious stroke of a shrewd trader.
"The United States will have its
share in the victory, but it would not
do for it to play only the role of

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old black bill
t $40.00. in Che

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