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October 30, 1995 - Image 7

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1995-10-30

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- -::. --..-

U.S. opens
peace talks
on Balkans
in Dayt4on
4s Angeles Tines
WASHINGTON - After years
f groping to reach the moral high
round in the bitter ethnic war in the
lalkans, the Clinton administration
unchesahigh-riskstrategythis week
hat stresses pragmatism over ideal-
sm when it brings Bosnia-
Jerzegovina's warring factions to
eace talks in Dayton, Ohio.
Underliningall the administration
hetoric is a simple objective - to
nd a formula acceptable to all sides
cr ending Europe's bloodiest war in
alf a century. And, officials con-
ede, that means trying to mediate
ietween the aggressors and the vic-
ns of the three-year war.
Washington's objective for the
slks, which start Wednesday at
Vright-Patterson Air Force Base, is
Sbroker a settlement that would give
e Bosnian Serbs effective control of
out half of the country. That mor-
4y ambiguous outcome appears to
vardtheSerbs,perpetratorsofsome
the most blatant atrocities since the
olocaust.Before the war began,eth-
c Serbs accounted for less than one-
' reof the Bosnian population.
But administration officials argue
hat such adivisionof the country is the
y practical way to end the fighting.
tese officials brushaside suggestions
patitwouldbebettertoshiparmsstothe
,[uslim-led Bosnian gbvernment and
tnd back while the government army
"ies to retake land that the Serbs have
teld since the war began.
"Nobody can win this militarily,"
ne official said. "We've got them
noving toward peace. Why would
ie turn that around? The war option
vouldn'tsolveanything. Therewould
:ome a time when we would have to
egotiate apeace agreement, anyway.
rhe danger is that it would erupt into
wider regional conflict."
David Calleo, director of European
tudies at Johns Hopkins University's
thoolforAdvancedIntemationalStud-
os, said concerns that a peace treaty
vouldrewardaggression were "under-
tandable but not very wise."
"Unless you are willing to go in
nd fight a major war to impose a
ettlement, you have to look for a
olutionthatis acceptableto allsides,"
_algosaid. "It isunfortunate but true
hat a large number of people in the
rmer Yugoslavia don't want to live

U.S. Ambassador to Croatia Peter Galbrall
U.N. mediator for the former Yugoslavia in
"Unless you are
willing to go in and
fight a major war
to impose a
settlement, you
have to look for a
solution that is
acceptable to all
sides."
- David Calleo
Director of European Studies,
John Hopkins University
together in a multicultural society.
You have to admit that the Serbs
occupy certainareas. There arealarge
number of Serbs in Bosnia, and there
alwayshave been. Idon'tseethatitis in
our interest to force the Serbsto live in
a state they don't want to live in."
At a Washingtonnews conference
yesterday, European Union negotia-
tor Carl Bildt took pains to offer nei-
ther overly optimistic nor pessimistic
assessments as he previewed the meet-

The Michigan Daily - Monday, October 30, 1995 - 7A
Native Americans seek joint
control over national parkS
Los Angeles Times agement offederal landsonce occupied "We're concerned about aesthetics,
From the Grand Canyon to Death by Native Americans. Tribes hope the about water which is scarce," said one
Valley, many ofthe nation's most popu- laws will lead to new economic oppor- Park Service official who asked not to
lar national parks were established on tunities and help revive dormant tradi- be named. "We're opposed to hunting
the traditional homelands of displaced tions and ceremonies, abandoned when (which the tribe wants to reintroduce).
Native Americans. native people were driven from ances- And we're just generally concerned
Now, the descendants of Death tral lands. about our ability to manage the park as
Valley's original inhabitants are mak- For federal agencies, the prospect of the public would want us to.
ing a serious bid for unprecedented co-management of public lands com- "Once it becomes reservation land,
joint sovereignty over about 3 million plicates an already difficulttsituation as the tribe can dopretty much whatever it
acres in and around the national park, they attempt to satisfy claims to public wants."
the largest in the lower 48 states. lands by environmentalists and indus- Around Death Valley, tensions may
Armed with a friendly act of Con- try. be greatest between the tribe and local
gress, the Timbisha Shoshone Tribe, In Death Valley, Park Service offi- officialswhocontend setting aside mil-
which includes fewer than 300 mem- cials haven't exactly embraced the no- lions of acres of nyo County land for a
bers and has no land of its own, is tion of a joint powers agreement with a reservation will eliminate an important
negotiating to create a reservation to tiny tribe, but they are moving slowly in revenue source.
give the Shoshone complete control of that direction. With less than 2 percent of its land in
about one-quarter of the park and After more than a half-century of private hands, Inyo County has a weak
shared management over a vast area of bad blood between the tribe and the tax base and counts onpayments known
adjacent federal land, mostly wilder- Park Service, the federal government asin-lieu-of-taxesfromthefederalgov-
Sness.hired a facilitator to get both sides emient for its vast holdings. Reserva-
If Congress approves the Shoshone talking when negotiations began ear- tion lands, however, are not subject to
proposal, the tribe would have the right lier this year. in-lieu levies.
to build homes for themselves as well Death Valley Superintendent Dick Local officials also fear the conse-
as hotel and restaurant facilities for Martin saidheis"cautiouslyoptimistic" quences of tribal opposition to min-
park visitors. Park officials are hoping the tribe will get most of what it wants. ing, grazing and other revenue-pro-
to scale back the tribe's plan. Still, there is apprehension that native ducing activities on federal land the
The plan stems from 1994 legislation sovereignty will lead to unsuitable de- Shoshone would co-manage outside
promoting resettlement and joint man- velopment within the park. the park.
AP PHOTO FS1 ht of ' l ea.u1te I ah
th (left) talks to Thorvald Stoitenberg, P WUIY
t Zagreb, Croatia, yesterday.
ings. "Most ofthemajorproblesarEnvironmentaliststimber workers draft proposal
still there to be settled," he said. V1Ji~IAL ILLu~l~I ~L~L
Despitethehardening ofpositions
that precedes such negotiations," we The Washington Post mizing social and economic disruption, But how will the introduced popula-
have a momentum." SELWAY-BITTERROOT WIL- but beyond the panel would have con- tion of grizzlies in the Selway-Bitter-
"We will stay as long as it takes. DERNESS, Idaho- Among the rivers siderable autonomy. root be managed? Could bears roam
Either wesucceedorwe don't.Idon't and valleys of Idaho's forests, timber Ifthe project succeeds, it could have beyond the wilderness areas into na-
Eiherthink etherewillbemanyenatI workers and environmentalists have, a profound impact on the resolution of tional forest lands key to the region's
btinthrew leanysaltemattve for once, joined forces in the hope of otherconflicts overendangeredspecies timber economy.
between those two," he said. saving the grizzly bear - and the frag- and on the federal government's ap- Would the introduced bears have the
The Clinton administration's ven- ile idea that there is room in the woods proach to managing imperiled wildlife. full protection ofthe Endangered Species
ture into "realpolitik" stands in sharp for both wildlife and foresters. An overly ambitious goal? Consider- Act, or would they come under special
contrast to Washington's earlier pos- In a unique joint venture that began ing it is the grizzly, perhaps not. Few rulesgoverningexperimentalpopulations
ture of sympathy for the Muslims and two yearsagoconservationists and lum- species ignite more intense emotions, with more management flexibility?
condemnation for the Serbs. "TheU.S. bermen are working to restore grizzlies or involve more complex land-use de- Such questions were raised during a
position from the very beginning - to Idaho's huge Selway-Bitterroot Wil- cisions, than grizzlies. 1993 meeting of the federal-state Inter-
as opposed to some our European demessandpart ofthe even larger Frank Once numbering 50,000 and ranging agency Grizzly Bear Committeein Den-
allies-was that there was, without a Church River of No Return Wilderness. from California to the Great Plains and ver by Dan Johnson, a staff member of
doubt, an aggressor and a victim," the Their proposal, which could be en- from Canada to Mexico, grizzly bears an Idaho timber industry labor-manage-
administration official said. dorsed later this year by the U.S. Fish have been listed as threatened in the ment group called Resource Organiza-
Nevertheless, President Clinton and Wildlife Service, would give local United States (except in Alaska) since tion on Timber Supply, or ROOTS.
has decided it is farmore importantto residents unprecedented authority to 1975. Between 800 and 1,000 grizzlies Johnson wasjoinedby Hank Fischer,
stop the fighting and prevent more manageanybearsthatmovebeyondthe remain in the lower 48 states. northern Rockies representative forthe
atrocities than it is to demonstrate wildemness recovery zone to adjacent Scientists think the Selway-Bitter- environmental group Defenders of
Amrctieshanuppotfisthe nstrt . national forest lands open to logging root could support as many as 200 to Wildlife. Fischer found an ally in Tom
American support for the vtcttms. and other commercial uses. 300 grizzlies. That could increase the France, the National Wildlife
Besides, officials say, the United A citizen panel would be instructed grizzly population inthelower48 states Federation's representative for the
States has a strategic interest in end- to ensure grizzly recovery while mini- by as much as 30 percent. northern Rockies.
ing the conflict, regardless of who
seems to come out on top.
But the pitfalls are everywhere. If
the talks break down - and the odds
are certainly better than 50-50 that
they will - Washington will get at
least part of the blame.
Quebecers did, too, because the deal
that English Canadians thoughttoo gen-
erous they thought too stingy.
Axworthy, now a Harvard lecturer
and Montreal foundation executive,
summed up the comparable exaspera-
tion with Quebecethat obtains in the rest

oCaaa"The Quebec nationalist
movement has been playing the black-
mail card for a generation. We're not W, 61.V
going to be blackmailed anymore." t yt
When newsC 44Y..
strikes call 7
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JUEBEC
Ontinued from Page I
uebec's long and humiliating history
fthe hands of the English-speakers.
The historic bitterness against the
tnglish settlers who followed the
'ench, eventually defeating them and
ut-populating them 3 to 1 in Canada,
ontinues to firetheindignationofmany
?sebecers.
The separatists "want to rewrite the
lains of Abraham," the Quebec City
attlefield where the French were de-
*ated in 1759 during the French and
rdianWar,said Tom Axworthy,achief
fstaff to former Prime Minister Pierre
lliott Trudeau. They can't get over the
cetthat,as Axworthy paraphrasesthem,
WewereonceequalinNorthAmerica.
e had half of it.''
The legend on every Quebec license
late is "I Remember." Just as the strife

in the Balkans is rooted in ancient
unforgotten scores, memory fuels the
solidarity in the 7 million Quebecers,
82 percent of them French-speakers.
Many, but maybe not most, French-
speaking Quebecers see themselves as
a fragile island in a vast English-speak-
ing continent.
Quebec's status has been at or near
the center of the Canadian political de-
bate since long before confederation in
1867.
Three times since 1980, in the ar-
dently separatist perspective, Quebec-
ers have been spurned by English
Canada: when Canada adopted a new
constitution over Quebec's objections
in 1982; when Canada rejected "dis-
tinct society" status for Quebec in the
1990 Meech Lake Accord; and when
Canada turned down still another con-
stitutional plan for Quebec in the
Charlottetown Accord of 1992 - as

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