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September 27, 1995 - Image 7

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1995-09-27

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$ T4t [ V1/OR1.p

Bosnians
work to
establish 0v
new govt
Los Angeles Times
UNITED NATIONS - Leaders of
Bosnia's warring factions agreed yes-
terday to establish the legal trappings of
aunifiedgovernment, butthetopAmeri-
can mediator conceded that the plan is
still "too vague" to bring the bloody
ethnic war to an end.
After a day of cliff-hanging negotia-
tions that constantly threatened to break
down, the factional leaders decided to
create a collective presidency, a federal
parliament and a constitutional court
for all of Bosnia-Herzegovina, even
though they had agreed previously to
cede control of almost half of the terri-
tory to the rebel Serbs.
U.S. peaceenvoy Richard Holbrooke
said the plan fills in some of the gaps
left in the earlier agreement, reached
last month in Geneva, but he freely
admitted that many points were inten-
tionally left ambiguous.
"It isn't strong enough yet,"
Holbrooke said.
In Washington, President Clinton
hailed the result as a step toward ending
a conflict that has bedeviled his presi-
dency.
"Today's agreement moves us closer
to the ultimate goal of a genuine peace,
and it makes clear that Bosnia will
remain a single internationally recog-
nized state," the President said.
Holbrooke expressed hope that the
agreement will clear the way for the
start of a formal Bosnia peace confer-
ence. But he admitted that the warring
factions rejected the mediators' call for
a cease-fire.
A senior U.S. official said later that
an end to the hostilities was desirable
but was not a precondition for opening
a peace conference. He noted that both
the Korean War and the Vietnam War
dragged on for years after the start of
peace talks.
"We don't like 'fight and talk,' but
that's what they are going to do," the
official said.
Holbrooke and European Union me-
diator Carl Bildt plan a series of sepa-
rate meetings with the factional leaders
today. Holbrooke and his U.S. peace
team will return to the Balkans tomor-
row to continue the talks.
yesterday's agreement by the for-
eign ministers of the Muslim-led but

The Michigan Daily - Wednesday, September 27, 1995-7
J Palestinians:No
agreement yet on
redevelopment

JERICHO, West Bank (AP) - The
Israel-PLO agreement supposed to be
signed tomorrow in Washington still
has significant holes, with time running
out to fill them, a senior Palestinian
negotiator said yesterday.
The PLO is waiting to hear from
Israel on a timetable for starting the
withdrawal of Israeli troops from Pal-
estinian cities in the West Bank, said
Saeb Erekat, minister of local affairs in
Yasser Arafat's Cabinet.
"At this moment we have not yet
finalized dates for the redeployment,
and that's a major
hanging issue in
the whole agree- .
ment," Erekat said At tli;
at his office in
Jericho. we hove
will be able to fin- ifa z
The accord on
expanding Pales-
tinian self-rule in
the West Bank h d
was initialed Sun-
day in Taba,
Egypt. It calls for
a step-by-step PLO minister
pullout of Israeli
troops from Pal-
estinian towns and villages. The dis-

r

AP PHOTO

A Bosnian Serb soldier reloads his gun in Bosnia yesterday afternoon.

"Every effort is being exercised now."
Erekat said the Palestinians had re-
jected one proposed Israeli timetable as
too long, and the Israelis were supposed
to come back with a new proposal.
Last-minute talks were expected to
be held last night after the end of the
Jewish New Year holiday, and perhaps
even in Washington before the signing
ceremony tomorrow.
Palestinian sources saidyesterday that
elections were not likely to be held
before March, the deadline for Israeli
troops to redeploy in Hebron.
Palestinians
will elect an-8.
-~member Palestin.
moment ian Council to ad-
s yet minister the au-
OF y~tonomous areas.
Erekat said Is-
lamic militants
would not be
barred from run.
;aM alM' ningforofflce.He
added that candi-s
i dates or parties
that "commit or
advocate racism"
- Saeb Erekat wouldbedisquali.
of local affairs f as
____________ It was not im-
mediately clear
how those criteria would be applied.
Candidates or parties that "pursue
the implementation of their aims by
unlawful or non-democratic means"
would also be disqualified, according
to the elections agreement.
The militant group Hamas, which
has claimed responsibility for a series
of deadly suicide bombings in its cam-
paign against the Israel-PLO peace pro-
cess, has taken steps in recent weeks to
set up a political party.
Voters will choose representatives
from 16 districts in the West Bank and
Gaza Strip. The European Union will
coordinate teams of observers.
Israel radio said the EU would con-
tribute $20 million to pay for the ob-
server teams.
Erekat said two other issues left un-
resolved in the new Israel-PLO agree-
ment were the list of Palestinian prison.
ers scheduled to be released tomorrow,
and Arafat's demand that Israeli troops
pull back further from the West Bank
town of Jericho.

secular Bosnian government, Croatia
and the rump Yugoslavia - which is
representing the Bosnian Serbs - cre-
ates a loose federal government strik-
ingly like the one that Yugoslav leader
Josip Broz Tito left in place at the time
of his death.
Although the old Yugoslav federal
government was widely considered to be
weak andunwieldy, aseniorU.S. official
said the parties to the Bosnian conflict
were comfortable with that structure.
The new, overarching government
of Bosnia will be led by a collective
presidency, similar to that of the post-
Tito regime, in which the present
Bosnian government and its Croat al-
lies will hold two-thirds of the seats
and the rebel Serbs will hold one-
third. However, the negotiators were
unable to decide whether the presi-
dency would consist of three, six,
nine or some other multiple of three
members.
They also agreed to establish a par-
liament with the same two-thirds/one-
third split between the Muslim-Croat
federation and the Serbs.

U.S. sen troops to Bosnia
for peacekeeping; ,Cliiton slays'
From Daily Wire Services nore details about what a deployment
WASHINGTON - Despite the would include.
clamor in Congress against President White House press secretary Mike_
Clinton's plan to use U.S. troops to McCurry publicly rejected the law-
enforce a peace accord in Bosnia, makers' objeetions, arguing that the
congressional strategists said yester- administration had been in almost
day that lawmakers are unlikely to try "constant"Nontact with Congress.
to stop him. The issue has been heatingup over
Clinton reiterated his determina, the last several days as lawmakemw
tion yesterday, telling reporters that froml 6oth parties have scrambled to
no matter how some lawmakers may put theirskepticism'about U.S. mili-
feel, the United States "is the leader tary intervention in Bosnia. on th
of NATO, no peace agreement could publh'erecord .
be fairly implemented without the Butcongressioriaf strategists said
involvement of NATO and we cannot that; despite threats from some law
walk away from our responsibility to makers neither house is likelytfpass
try to end this terrible conflict...."' a resolution ,that either prevents
Clintoh's remarks brushed aside pro- Clinton froinsendingU.S. soldiers to
tests by key lawmakers that the admin- help NATO forces or restricts the
istrationhasnbtbeen"consulting"'Capi total number of U.S. ground troops,
tol Hill on the issue and demanding that can be deployed.

I

puted city of Hebron would be last, with
soldiers remaining in some parts of the
city to protect Jewish settlers living
there.
Hebron has been the site of almost
daily clashes in recent months.
Yesterday, Palestinian youths in
Hebron pelted Israeli soldiers with
bottles and stones. n Nablus, where
three Palestinians have been killed in
the past week, about 70 supporters of
the peace agreement marched through
the middle of town, firing weapons in
the air.
Under the accord, Palestinian elec-
tions are to be held 22 days after rede-
ployment is completed.
Erekat said yesterday that there was
no agreement yet with Israel on when
redeployment would begin or what
would constitute completion.
Erekat said it was essential to agree
on a starting date for a troop pullback
before the agreement is signed.
"It's really very serious," he said.

Dominant Italian politician goes on trial for Mafia connections

The Washington Post
PALERMO, Italy - Italy's great
trial of crime and politics opened yes-
terday when Giulio Andreotti, the
country's dominant politician for 40
years, began his
defense against
charges of belong-
ing to the Sicilian
Mafia.
A whole era of
Italian politics is in
the dock with
Andreotti. Many
Italians regard him
as a kind of magi-
cian who had a Andreotti
hand in just about
every significant political event from
the 1950s through the 1980s. By this
view, if Andreotti belonged to the Ma-
fia, then Italy did, too.
Andreotti, 76 and hunched over, en-
tered a fortress-like courtroom looking

small in the company of the burly
carabinieri who escorted him. Every-
thing else about the trial is large scale.
The accusations, in a 60,000-page docu-
ment, cover two decades of his career.
They include allegations that he or-
dered at least one murder, shielded the
Mafia from prosecutions and met with
the most violent of its chieftains.
More than 500 witnesses will testify,
among them 24 Mafia turncoats. One
says that Andreotti proffered the tradi-
tional Mafia kiss of loyalty to Salvatore
"Toto" Riina, the "boss of bosses" who
is now in prison.
The case will take between two and
three years to present, prosecutors say.
Andreotti, who served as prime minis-
ter seven times and also held the posts
of foreign and defense minister, faces a
possible 20-year prison term if con-
victed.
In a published interview, Andreotti,
showing his trademark low-key, ironic

style, said he would like not to extend
the "courtesy" of surviving the pro-
ceedings.
At the end of yesterday morning's
session, someone asked him how he felt
about being on trial, and he answered,
"There is nothing pleasurable about it."
Prosecutors have tirelessly played
down the significance of the Andreotti
case. "It's just a criminal proceeding
against someone who happens to be a
politician," said Gian Carlo Caselli, the
chief prosecutor in Palermo.
Few others look at it so cavalierly.
"If the accused is convicted, it will be
a very grave blow to the image ... of a
leadership class, of a political system,
of an entire country that for half a cen-
tury had elevated and kept at the heights
of power a mafioso," columnist
Giovanni Sabbatucci wrote in Rome's
daily Messaggero.
The case is a milestone in a massive,
three-year anti-corruption campaign that

brought down Andreotti's Christian
Democratic Party as well as its sometime
partners inpower, the Socialists. Italy has
yet to recover from the quake. Since
1992, only one elected prime minister has
been able to take power.
Television magnate Silvio Berlusconi,
and he lasted only seven months before
his coalition broke apart. The rest of the

time has been filled by nonpartisan care-
taker cabinets that have run the country
while politicians debate electoral reform
and duck new scandals.
Andreotti helped shepherd the coun-
try from an agricultural backwater rav-
aged by war into one of the world's
leading industrial democracies.
Political peace was kept through end-

less compromises and dealing among
myriad political parties, including
Europe's largest Communist party.
Patronage and ever-expanding gov-
ernment spending greased the creaky
wheels of government as the systemt
produced featherbedding, graft and fa-
vored treatment for business.

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