The Michigan Daily - Tuesday, September 26, 1995 --7
The Washington Post
NEW YORK-The waring Bosnian
factions moved closer yesterday to an
agreement on an outline constitution
for a future Bosnian state, including a
joint parliament and government, after
the Muslim-led government agreed to
drop its threat to boycott an American-
sponsored peace conference.
After a meeting here with the foreign
ministers of Bosnia, Croatia and
Serbian-dominated Yugoslavia, Secre-
tary of State Warren Christopher said
he was hopeful today's conference
would result in an "important step for-
ward" toward a general peace settle-
ment. However, Mohammed Sacirbey,
foreign minister of Bosnia's Muslim-
led government, warned that "we do
not have a deal yet," and insisted on
more concessions from separatist
U.S. officials said they expected to
continue the negotiations through the
night and much of today before they
can be confident of clinching an agree-
ment on the constitutional principles
that will shape a future Bosnian state.
Sacirbey said the major outstanding
issue concerns the nature of elections to
a future Bosnian parliament, with the
government favoring direct elections and
the Serbs holding out for a more indirect
form of representation.
A senior U.S. official said the out-
come of the overnight negotiations re-
mained uncertain, with both sides dig-
ging in on "semantic points that are
very hard for anybody outside the re-
gion to understand." He blamed some
of the problems on divisions within the
Bosnian government, including the ri-
valry between Bosnian President Alija
Izetbegovic, who favors the creation of
a Muslim-dominated Bosnian mini-
state, and Bosnian Prime Minister Haris
Silajdzic, an advocate of a multiethnic
"It's going down to the wire," said
the official, after a day of talks that
included transatlantic telephone calls
between U.S. officials and Izetbegovic,
Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic
and numerous others.
The meetingbetween Christopherand
the three foreign ministers was convened
at short notice after the Bosnian govern-
met expresseda objcn t several
points in a two-page document drafted
by American mediators. The Bosnians
want the document to stress the unitary
nature of a future Bosnian state, while
the Serb rebels favor a much looser
constitutional framework that would
permit them to go their separate way.
The proposed document builds on a
statement endorsed by foreign minis-
ters from the former Yugoslavia on
Sept. Sin Geneva, which provided for a
single Bosnian state while dividing the
territory between the Serbs and their
Croat and Muslim enemies.
In order to overcome the Bosnian
government's concerns, Christopher
called Izetbegovic to assurehim ofU.S.
support for a single Bosnian state. Over
the weekend, Izetbegovic had threat-
ened to pull out of today's talks on the
grounds that the constitutional docu-
ment could pave the way for the even-
tual secession of the Serb-controlled
entity, which is known as "Republika
Srpska" or Serb Republic.
After the telephone call, Silaidzic told
reporters in Sarajevo that the document
confirmed that Bosnia-Herzegovina
would have "a constitution, aparliament
and a government." Several other con-
stitutional aspects remain unclear, in-
cluding control over Bosnian diplomatic
missions abroad and the nature of the
In New York, Sacirbey said two to
three points in the document remained
unsettled, including the provision for
elections to a new assembly. He ac-
cused Bosnian Serb leaders, several of
whom are wanted for war crimes, of
wanting to stage "sham elections" in
order to "legitimize" their control over
~l F C\ V !6
'The Washington Post
CRVENA .ZEML JA, Bosnia-"
Herzegovina - In a patch of thiCk
forest off a bumpy dirt rad in the
hills of northwestern Bosnia lies a ,
-network of caves. Decades ago,
thieves usedthewarren as ahideont
and a drop bonlicot. Now Bosnian
officials eleve 'the' caves store
something ree snister - the
S bbeof Muslim ren murdered by
Although "red earth" is the name
miles northwest of Kijuc, in reality
the soil is black. And here, digging
in the rich earth that fills the caves
IBosnsoldersave ugup benes
over the past few days.
Officials of the Mushlim-led'
sites unearthed in this small chunk
of wilderess are part of at k
ofat least three mass graves around
the town of tKljuc recently cap-
al1,U.N spokesman Chris Gnness
said yesterday, 40 such sites are
alleged to be mass graves in the
rom Serb paton since the of
fensive began 10 days ago,
If confirmed, the alleged .mass
graves would constitute thefi
such sites verified in Bosnia. They
would add weight to allegations that
Bosnian Serb forces committed
widespread atrocities against
Bo nian Muslin and Cras sp
cially at the~~ b eginn ofBsi
war in the late spring of 1992.
This summer, the Clinton admin-
istration released photos taken from
13-2 spy planes of what appeared to
be freshly dug mass graves near the
recently overrun Muslim town of
Sterenica in eastern Bosnia. That
area, however, remains under Serb
control and no outsiders have"
rBosnia Serb do not dispute the
~fact that they placed hundreds, if
'not thousands.ofiMuslim and Croat
men in grim internment camps in
this region at the beginning of the
war, but they denounce as "Muslim
propaganda" allegations that they
executed these and other men.
The discovery of the purported
graves has occurred against a hack-;
drop of new peace negotiations in
the Balkans, which were resumed.'
earlier this month under pressure
by the United States. The confirma-
tionofsuch a discovery would ben-
efit the joint position of the Mus-
lims and the Croats in any negotia-
tions by allowing them unequivo-
cal possession of the moral high
ground in the talks;.
the Bosnian Serb entity.
U.S. officials notedthatthenegotiating
position of the Bosnian government had
hardened significantly over the past three
weeks following a military offensive that
brought majorterritorial gains atthe Serbs'
expense. By contrast, Milosevic, whose
dream of a "Greater Serbia" led to the
ethnic upheavals in the Balkans, has ap-
peared to be relatively flexible.
Although today's meeting is expected
to concentrate on constitutional issues,
U.S. officials said they also hope for
movement toward a general cease-fire
as well as progress on eastern Slavonia,
a Croatian region that has been under
Serb control for almost four years. That
would pave the way for a general peace
settlement between Croatia and the
Los Angeles Times
WASHINGTON - President Clinton yesterday ordered
the U.S. Energy Department to continue operations at all three
of the nation's major nuclear weapons labs, rejecting recom
mendations to phase out nuclear bomb research at Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory near San Francisco.
The decision was an outgrowth of Clinton's announce-
ment last month to support a comprehensive ban on all future
nuclear testing, which prompted bomb experts to recon-
mend against any major reduction in weapons research,
Energy Department officials said.
The announcement will save more than 3,000 researc
jobs in the Bay Area community of Livermore, as well as
appease senior Pentagon officials who have argued vehe._
mently to preserve Livermore's role in nuclear weapons.
Clinton's decision was kept under close wraps until yester'.
day, leaving even Livermore officials in the dark about what1;
was coming. Livermore executive officer Ron Cochran sa ; :
the lab had worked hard for 18 months to demonstrate iti
expertise was still needed.
"We are very, very pleased," Cochran said.
In the aftermath of the Cold War, the nation's nuclear'
laboratory complex was expected to be sharply curtailed.
Clinton's decision means that the system put in place after
World War II will be largely kept intact.
Clinton said preserving Livermore is essential to ensuring
the reliability and safety of the nation's nuclear weapons
stockpile, the size of which is classified but widely estimated
at roughly 6,000 bombs.
Weapons experts have warned that a permanent end to
underground nuclear testing would create serious doubts-
about the reliability of bombs as they age. Maintaining a higl.
level of confidence in the bombs will require a massive
research program, with competing teams conducting peep
review of each other's work, they said.
Asa result, the Energy Department is planning to spend $40
billion over the next decade on the effort, building several
high-energy experimental machines and establishing new.
production lines at the labs to make spare parts for bombs.
"This is the price we pay to forswear nuclear testing," said '.
Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary.
The announcement ends speculation about Livermore'
future that arose earlier this year after a high level commii
sion, chaired by former Motorola Chairman Robert Galvin,
recommended phasing out the lab's role in direct nuclea'
weapons research over a five-year period.
The plan would have transferred many of Livermore§"
responsibilities to Los Alamos National Laboratory, the.
facility in New Mexico that has been Livermore's arch rival>
in weapons technology since the early 1950s.
O'Leary initially said she planned to "embrace and adopt"-
a majority of Galvin's recommendations, but yesterday she';
said the need for Livermore became clear as the Energy
Department and the Pentagon began to examine the conse-
quences of a permanent ban on future weapons testing.
Sandia National Laboratory, which designs the electroni&
arming mechanisms and other parts for bombs, was not.
directly affected by the Galvin recommendations.
Livermore has 8,014 employees, of whom about 3,020 work'
on defense and nuclear weapons programs, lab officials said.
About $250 million is spent annually on weapons research
at the lab. O'Leary said phasing out the lab's weapons work
and transferring the functions to Los Alamos would have
saved only $50 million a year.
Throwing stones in the West Bank
An Israeli man, wearing a pistol on his belt, throws stones at a group of Palestinians In downtown
Hebron, West Bank, yesterday. Clashes erupted In Hebron after Israel agreed to expand Palestinian
self-rule In the West Bank. More on negotiations, Page 2.
l Dept u'
atty foods in school
The Minnesota Daily amount of fat inta
ST. PAUL, Minnesota - Most stu- Having a sand
dents remember when eating school very fattening, bu
lunchesmeant wolfing down corn dogs, on what is put on
tater tots and heavily buttered rolls. "A tablespoono
For many, this seemingly innocent or nine grams of1
childhood diet affects dining choices you add a tablesp
geS cuttings 1c
wich may not appear
ut it can be depending
ifmayo has about eight
fat," Snyder said. "If
oon of butter, you've
made in college.
A recent U.S. Department of Agri-
culture study suggests this childhood
diet isn't so innocent after all. The
study found the average American
school lunch provides 38 percent of its
energy from fat and 15 percent of its
energy from saturated fat. New USDA
regulations for 1996 say school lunches
should provide 8 percent less energy
from fat and 5 percent less from satu-
Kids who consume large amounts of
saturated fat may pay for it later with
their health. Saturated fat can lead to
clogged arteries and heart problems.
Pat Snyder, University of Minne-
sota nutritionist, has worked with food-
service personnel in many Minnesota
school districts to develop a process to
cut fat in food without sacrificing its
popularity. But the process is not just
for kids' lunches.
"There's a very simple way to re-
duce the fat in ground beef by more
than 50 percent that anyone can do at
home," Snyder said. "And best of all,
you won't notice the difference, and
you'll still get the taste."
The process consists of first brown-
ing the meat and putting it in a strainer
and stirring it. Then the cook puts the
meat in another pan, pours hot water
over it and stirs again.
But Snyder also has advice about fat
for those who like to eat out or don't
have time to prepare food.
"There isn't such a thing as a bad
food," Snyder said. "Certainly there
are foods that have a high fat content,
but it's the amount of food consumed
(that matters). Also it's what we put on
food that can greatly increase the
also put on another 14 grams of fat."
Snyder says the simple way to avoid
this fat would be to have no-fat mayo
and maybe a tomato instead.
Although recommendations vary de-
pending on individuals, fat should make
up 30 percent or less of a person's total
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