BELFAST, Northern Ireland (AP)
-As President Clinton will see today,
a year's experimental peace in Belfast
has not brought its walls tumbling
Eighteen perversely named "peace
lines" of brick, steel and barbed wire
separate Protestants and Catholics,
monuments to a quarter-century's
bloodshed. Many locals want to keep
Clinton may see several ofthem dur-
ing visits to a factory near the Spring-
field-Springmartin peace line and a
small business center in Protestant east
Belfast near another wall protecting the
vulnerable Catholic enclave, the Short
"There's still a psychological fear
within people and it applies in all areas
where there have been a lot of murders
or attempted murders - people living
on the edge ofthe troubles," said Brenda
Murphy, a short-story writer who lives
on theCatholic side of a wall.
Work began on Belfast's biggest and
most solid wall yet on the same day that
the Iish Republican Army announced
a ceaso-fire 15 months ago.
A million bricks later the 30-foot-
high;$ 1.2 million structure runs along
a ridgeline of west Belfast, keeping
.neighbors in Protestant Springmartin
andCatholicSpringfield Park separated
byl00 yards and a 10 minute drive. It's
not far enough. b
"We're still getting attacks - stones
threw over, bottles threw over, metal
bars,; metal bolts," said Rosaleen
Donnelly, a Springfield Park resident.
The Michigan Daily - Thursday, November 30, 1995 - 7A
toward deal on
From Daily Wire Services
led Congress appears to be moving to-
ward giving President Clinton the vote
he wants on his plan to deploy U.S.
troops to Bosnia-Herzegovina - but
not on the terms he is likely to prefer,
congressional strategists said yester-
Although no decisions have been
made, House and Senate lawmakers
have begun discussing proposed reso-
lutions that would enable Clinton to
claim congressional "support," but only
after he has certified that he has met
certain demands, such as developing an
While the Senate proposal would pro-
vide Clinton with a "statement of sup-
port" if he meets those demands, any
House measure may well be phrased
negatively -that is, to deny Clinton the
funds to pay for the Bosnia operation if
lawmakers' conditions are not met.
Congressional strategists stressed that
the planning so far has been only pre-
liminary, and that House and Senate
leaders could change their minds by the
middle of next week, when the resolu-
tions are expected to come to the floor.
The House, particularly, is in flux.
Strategists said it could take several
more days for Speaker Newt Gingrich
(R-Ga.) to put together a compromise
that would take account of the varied
views that House Republicans hold on,
Senior administration officials said
yesterday that the White House is plan-
ning to send draft language to Capitol
Hill early next week in hopes that Demo-
crats will introduce legislation that
closely follows the president's wishes.
Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole
(R-Kan.) held a closed-door session on
the issue yesterday to discuss strategy,
but did not disclose details of what may
have been decided.
Clinton does not need Congress' ap-
proval to send U.S. troops to Bosnia. As
commander-in-chief of the armed
forces, he is empowered by the Consti-
tution to deploy military troops virtu-
ally as he chooses.
However, in a bow to congressional
has promised to seek a "statement of
support" from Congress before most of
the U.S. contingent is deployed, likely
sometime in mid- or late-December.
House and Senate committees are
scheduled to hold hearings onthe Bosnia
issue today and Friday, and will ques-
tion Secretary of State Warren Christo-
pher and Defense Secretary William J.
Perry on the deployment.
Clinton has pledged to send 20,000
U.S. ground troops to Bosnia to take
part in a NATO-led peacekeeping op-
eration that will include some 60,000
soldiers from the United States, Europe
and some Third World countries. The
United States also will provide intelli-
gence and logistics support.
Lawmakers have been criticizing the
administration's plan on grounds that it
lacks a clear mission statement for the
operation, is unnecessarily risky and
does not provide a credible exit strategy
- that is, a set of conditions that would
determine when U.S. troops would
President Clinton speaks in Washington before his trip to Northern Ireland.
She had campaigned to get the wall
built to protect her family from Protes-
tant "loyalist" gunmen, who called a
cease-fire in October 1994.
"And they still shout abuse over, you
know. If they hear the kids playing
football down there, they'll cellotape
bangers (firecrackers) together and
throw them over, scare the life out of
people. It's gonna blow some child's
The walls running through Belfast's
most downtrodden districts draw com-
parisons with yesterday's Berlin and
tomorrow's Sarajevo, and provide a
marker for how difficult reconciliation
In Londonderry, the other city on
Clinton's schedule today, tensions are
lower partly because the River Foyle
broadly bisects the town into secure
Protestant and Catholic areas.
"Obviously there is much less vio-
lence overall since the cease-fires.
But there is probably a higher level of
low-level, disorganized violence
along the peace lines than before,"
said Mari Fitzduff, director of the
government's Community Relations
Fitzduff noted that more than a third
of Northern Ireland citizens lived in
religiously mixed areas in 1969, the
year violence erupted. More than
120,000 people were forced from their
homes within the first five years of "the
The IRA quickly drove police and
soldiers out of Catholic areas, while
Protestant assassins forced Catholics
from their lands.
Today only 7 percent of Northern
Ireland's 1.6 million people live in a
religiously mixed area.
On the Protestant side of the
Springmartin-Springfield wall, Protes-
tants think the barrier should be low-
ered or torn down.
"The wall is a bigger source oftrouble
than there ever was before. We have
stoning, petrol bombing on a daily ba-
sis. The walls have just been a red flag
to kids of both sides," said community
worker May Blood.
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Continued from Page 1A
Clinton will visit Northern Ireland today, the first Ameri-
can president to do so, to underscore how life there has
changed for the better since the cease-fire and to call on the
people of Northern Ireland to continue seeking a political
In a day of speeches, ceremonial lunches and official
meetings, Clinton adhered to the theme - meant for Ameri-
cans as much as the British - that the effort to bring peace
to Bosnia, like the Northern Ireland initiative, is difficult and
delicate but worth the risk.
With 20,000 American troops poised to participate in the
60,000-strong peace implementation force in Bosnia some-
time after mid-December, the president laid out what he sees
as the necessity for such a U.S. commitment in both his news
conference and a speech to a joint session of Parliament.
The well-received speech, in which he stressed the strength
of U.S.-British ties through two world wars and all manner
of political upheaval, included a plea for unity now. "We
have fought our wars," Clinton said. "Now let us wage our
This "hopeful moment" in Bosnia, Clinton said, "cannot
be lost without grave consequences to the future." The
United States and Britain, he said, "must make the difference
between peace and war in Bosnia." '
Britain, like other European allies, has been critical of the
U.S. role in Bosnia, first arguing that the Europeans should
devise a solution for the civil war in the former Yugoslavia
and then complaining of a failure of U.S. leadership and its
refusal to commit ground troops to end the conflict.
With the initialing of the peace accord in Dayton, Ohio,
two weeks ago, however, the United States and Britain are
now in tandem. Britain, which has had troops in the U.N.
peacekeeping operation in Bosnia since its outset, will have
13,000 in the new peace implementation force.
Major reiterated Clinton's themes, warning that a "real
and lasting peace" in Bosnia "is still a fragile prospect, and
we need to make sure that it doesn't in some fashion just slip
away from us. ... I very much welcome the president's
intention to contribute a large force to that cause."
Questions arise on
Bosnia exit strategy
From Daily Wire Services
WASHINGTON- Although the Clinton adminis-
tration has set a one-year deadline for withdrawing
U.S. peacekeeping troops from Bosnia, it has yet to
provide a definitive answer to the question of what
will happen if the war flares up again as soon as the
Americans begin to leave.
In an interview yesterday, Secretary of State War
ren Christopher said that he did not "anticipate" any
extension in the deadline, which was established by
President Clinton during a televised address to the
nation on Monday. Christopher came close to saying
that U.S. troops would leave Bosnia at the end of 1996
regardless of whether they succeed in enforcing a
peace agreement between the governing Muslim-Croat
federation and separatist Bosnian Serbs.
"Our mission is to give the parties who signed this
agreement ... the opportunity to achieve and carry out
the peace," Christopher said. "We do not intend to
provide a guarantee that there will never be another
shot fired in anger in Bosnia."
The issue of what happens afterthe U.S. withdrawal
from Bosnia in approximately a year's time is becom-
ing a hot topic on Capitol Hill as Congress debates
whether to support the Clinton plan to send 20,000
U.S. peacekeepers to Bosnia next month. Many Re-
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tration lacks a coherent "exit strategy" from Bosnia,
and faces the prospect either of being drawn into a
Vietnam-type quagmire or risking the collapse of the
peace effort following a NATO pullout.
"An exit date is not the same as an exit strategy,"
said Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) an influential mem-
ber of the Senate Armed Services Committee.
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