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February 22, 1959 - Image 8

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Racial Powder Keg
(Continued from Page The government has further set
and popular political fad. The late its sights on keeping the white
Pope Pius XII mentioned this last minority employed at all costs
fall in a statement condemning while regulating the advance o
racial intolerance as a cause of the non-whites into the skilled
world tension, labor categories.
Calling this doctrine "unchris-MOST RECENT attempt of the
tlan" he pointedly referred to j UgjOnr
South Africa as one of the sore Union's segregation oriente
points in the world today. The parliament to tighten the sdar-
Pontiff's final criticism was lev- theid policy came in higher educa-
eled at rationale for apartheid - tioi. More separate colleges fo
"Negro inferiority" which he la- Africans, Indians and Colored stu-
beled unjustified. dents are planned. Two are already
under construction.
DESPITE the rapidly mounting The same bill will eliminate all
animosity of factions in the non-whites from Witwatersrand
rest of the world, the South Af- University in Johannesburg and
rican government maintains that a similar school in Capetown
segregation will increase, if any- Three colleges will be provided for
thing, in the next few years. This natives and one each for Indians
is one of the three possible courses and Colored students. A further
open to that country now: con- division will place natives of eth-
tinual suppression of the Bantu. nic origin in different educational
Realistically, a native revolt in categories.
the country is extremely unlikely. Thus Verwoerd, spurred on by
Laws which prevent the congre- his party's overwhelming majority
gation of natives and limit their in Parliament, has turned a deaf
education also hamper the devel- ear toward the rumbles of Afri-
opment of leaders. can Nationalism by increasing his
The plan to starve the Bantu in apartheid legislation, the question
tribal groups has gained a great is how long will the Blackmen
deal of momentum. Verwoerd watch South Africal peacefslly.
hopes that eventually the native
will feel that he is "a country boy A CONSOLIDATED front of the
who belongs on protective re- African nations would be in a
serves." position to harm Verwoerd's eco-
nomic stabilization. He and his
MANY slum areas in the cities supporters cannot exist alone-
are being used to congregate they need the economic help of
the two and one-half million na- nations both on the continent and
tives in South Africa's population in the rest of the world.
centers. The chief persuasion Further, the colonial powers of
method is to bar the Bantu from France and Great Britain have
the nation's economic heart - the watched their empires diminish
gold and coal industries, with amazing speed. Their pres-
New laws also aim at strength- tige now is tied up intimately with
ening the minister of labor's pow- an evolutionary development pro-
er to restrict areas of employment cess going on among the back-
to whites or non-whites. ward nations of the world.
Under his new prerogative the South Africa, a member of the
minister can oust any group he British commonwealth of nations.
wishes from either industry or is holding up this development.
commerce. Most likely, he will put Great Britain's delicate position
the finger on the Bantu. among the "backward nations" of
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the world could b
ed by the tight
cies of the Verw
DURING Verw
minister of n
spent more mone
minister had to+
back into reserve
But he also spe
money to raiseI
ing and educatio
the Bantu-not<
to make a dent ii
environment.
The rest of B
watched Verwoer.
in spite of the fa
Minister oftenq
in saying that ti
right to assume
methods of enfo
I from angelic.
Verwoerd has c
for tighter rest
aser to the charg
ers that he mig
bodie" (nigger lo
lined plans for a
ernment aid to t
r ALAN, the pri
T gained early
legality to deep-
of segregation.
His successor i
combined righteo

e seriously harm- lessness in launching the first re- throughout the world began to
segregation poli- settlement program, wonder. Moderates in this election
oerd government. Britain has also watched this took a severe beting and Strijdom
resettlement plan -- eyeing with interpreted his victory as a man-
oerd's tenure as fear the new stricter laws which date for further segregation.
iative affairs, he will ultimately push the Bantu in- Moderates might have become
y than any other to a different social, economic and the group to avert "the impending
drive the natives cultural life. The English foreign tragedy" or the danger of "future
s. office, however, notes that rebel- bloodshed." Now they have been
nt a great deal of lion by the Bantu could easily re- silenced for a period of five years.
the medical, liv- suit from the Afrikaners' desire to
nal standards of isolate the native elements. BUT THE pressure from the out-
enough, however, Two separate and distinct states side-the murmurs from the
n their unhealthy is a second possible solution to amorphous force of African Na-
the problem. Geographical apart- tionalism-threatens to force an
Ilack Africa has heid, Verwoerd hopes, will end the abrupt change of policy in the
'd. They note that ticklish race problem. But in that Verwoerd government.
ct that the Prime case, mutual group benefits will
quotes the Bible be lost. At the Natal Indian Congress in
he whites have a Creating artificial trade bar- 1956 observers witnessed the signs
leadership, his viers would serve only to injure of group defiance as the Africans
rcement are far both white and native groups. Dew chanted:
veloping an independent economy "We want freedom;
ontinued to press is a "nice" through but the cost Listen Malan;
rictions. In an- of such a venture is highly prohibi- We want freedom;
es from Afrikan- tive. Listen Verwoerd;
ht be a "kaffir- Open Malan, we are
ver) he has out- HOWEVER, South Africa does knocking;
cutback in gov- have one practical path open What has the black person
he Bantu. to it. done?
Integration is a feasible way out Let Africa return!"
ime minister who if carried on in a realistically slow The potential for violence is
notoriety added manner. It was believed many there. And the apartheid policy of
seated principles whites realized this fact. South Africa provides the likely in-
But Strijdom scored an impres- centive for an explosion which
n 1954, Strijdom sive election victory in the spring could destroy the Union of South
usness with ruth- of 1958 and optimistic observers Africa.

Colonialism in the Belgian Congo
(Continued from Preceding Page) be termed an officer rather than but does not convey the legal
Belgian businessmen are uncer- a clerical level. rights and obligations of the im-
tain of the future. Entrepreneurs Thus the system should permit matricule status.
are reluctant to risk capital un- the Congolese to begin working Those Congolese who "approach
less it can be recovered in a very their way up into positions of re- a European way of life" are
few years bsponsibility in the admiistration termed 6volues and may number
fe years. of the Belgian Congo. But to have anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000.
The political parties and labor experienced and educated. Congo- (hr sn rcs eiiino
rorganizations from Belgium are moienemd d b( l gr There s nouprecise definition of
orgniztioms rom Belium arelese leadership is obviously goig the term dvolud.)
entering the Congo and the rights to take much more time.
and wrongs of such a trend are Many of the most successful
debated. In short, one will still PARTICIPATION in political life Congolese, however, remain in re-
o b s e r v e much disagreement through voting had been de- tail trade or operate restaurants
amongst Belgians themselves, nied European and African alike and beer establishments. These at-
when they discuss these issues. until November, 1956. tempts to offer the Congolese so-
At that time I was able to ob- Eal and legal status on a par with
BUT RETURNING to the Con- serve the first voting by Africans the European have had indifferent
golese. one finds certain gen- in Ruanda Urundi, where local cess.
eral complaints. councils were elected. Questions are raised as to the
There had long been a protest There was universal male advantages and disadvantages for
that the Belgian "paternalistic" suffrage with a secret ballot. The the individual African concerned.
StDoes immsafrictdc 'tahus bria
system denied the African the only restriction on voting that hoe pa reatscipr
Imeans of having layers, doctors, would have appeared at al un- higher pay? Greater social pres-
md cngimesrs of hms s's usual was the requirement that tire? Any benefits of a material
.ndengieer of is onature? Does it create nes' clas.ses
The Belgians had felt that the voter be monogamous - a id ii hst m hm'eme b iw
reater political stability could be fess of us wouldb. rethc. t society? In any event it represents
chit ,r d f th maseswerewasa rprehensible restrictioma. in
iimed if the muasses sr ccthe fall of 1957 the first voting at a serious effort and experiment.
broua t forward a certain dis- miunicipal level was p'mmitted in
tance before an tellec t opodille. IHAT has been said here should
as created. Here experienceim make it clear that the Belgian
other colonial areas would tend to ,TEMPTS ussr bem made to authorities may quite justifiably
iustify this sir's'wpomit A mwork out s an equitable le1e.al mnt tme gratuitu s iee of
But now the Lovanium has es- and social position for the Congo- "three-week visitors" to Africauo
tablished courses which will make ese wherein he would have exact- how to admuinister a colony.
it possible for African doctors, ly the same standing as the EuRio- Unfortunately tiere are only
lawyers and technicians to trad- pean. This goal has been ap- too many of these "experts" and
smte in a few years. At Luluabourg proached with the establishment frequently their viewpoints are the
there is a cadt school preparing of an imunatricule class several official expression of newly in-
'uni Coigoles' for service as iars ago. dependent members of the UN.
oTici mmi.mu the I urce Publique. ' In essemce this means the regis-, Such opinionsmay often be voiced
B'lAian policy has long been to trationmof a Congolese on the for political reasons - as pope-
murn over to the African any job same basis as a European, after laxity-seeking clichs and slogans
which he showed himself qualified exhaustive investigation. There for consumption in other marts of
to handle nd to avoid having are perhaps one hundred fifty the world.
Europeans compete in any such heads of families who have ob- They tend however. to agitate
field. Soon the Lovanium's Afri- tained this status. Some eight African emotions and to cause bit-
ccan university graduates will be hundred others are holders of the ter resentment among Europeans
able to enter the government ad- Civic Merit Card which permits who have spent a lifetime studying
ministrative service at whatla my them to have certain privileges these problems. It may be possible,
-__ for example, to establish a time-
-.-.table tor independence in some
parts of the world but it is risky to
apply such a formula to Belgian
le IAfrica
Thne p } It will only genemate future
trustrations to tell the Congolese
(Concluded o Page )ii
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THE MICHIGAN DAILY MAGAZINE

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