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February 22, 1959 - Image 2

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0%gfidiigaln 4atly
MAGAZINE
Vol. V, No. 5 Sunday, February 22, 1959
Contents
Apartheid--Racial Powder Keg
By Charles Kozoil Page Two
Land of Tradition, Land of Change
By Barbara Ward -,-,Page Three
Education in Africa
By Lane Vanderslice Page Five
Africa's Plea: Independence, Equality
By Ahmed Belkhodja Page Six
New Look at Colonialism
By Gilbert Bursley Page Seven
New Public Health Problem for Africa
By Henry van der Schalie __ -Page Nine
An American in Tunisia
By Nanny Murrell Page Ten
MAGAZINE EDITOR-David Tarr
PHOTOS: Page Five: Nigerian Information Service; Page Nine: Henry
van der Schalie; Page Ten: Nanny Murrell; Other photos: Belgian
Congo Information Agency.

Racial Powder Keg Ready To Explode:
APARTHIZID
ByCHARLES KOZOL.

A TALL, distinguished-looking
gentleman, whose affable ap-
pearance disguises his determined
motives, sits on an African powder
keg which may explode at any mo-
ment.
Hendrik F. Verwoerd, Prime
Minister of the Union of South
Africa, holds the lighted match
which could ignite the African
continent into a struggle of whites
against blacks. His desire and
ability to maintain the policy of
"apartheid" or legal segregation
constitutes a very real threat to
peace and stability in that area.
Combined with the new force of,
African Nationalism, which angri-
ly views three million white
"Europeans" (the Afrikaners of
Dutch descent and the South Af-
ricans of British descent) as hold-
ing some 11 million "non-
European natives (Bantu tribes-
men) in check, apartheid could
be the incentive to topple white
supremacy.
Besides these groups there are
about one-and-a-third million
"Coloreds" (or Mulattos) and
440,000 Asians (Indians and "Cape
Malay."),
T HE POLICY of apartheid, a
formalized legal doctrine of
the state, decrees the separation
of "European" and "non-Euro-
pean" elements of the population
and calls for theoretically inde-
pendent development of both
groups.
Economically, politically and
socially as well as legally, the
Verwoerd government is pledged
to continue this policy. The new
leader, whoassumed control in
September, has further broadened
his aim with an additional concept
Charles Koroll is a member
of the Michigan Daily edi-
torial staff.

' of "basskap" or absolu
macy.
How far this new rac
be able to push his po
still prevent violence frc
ready nervous natives
remains the most impor
tion for Verwoerd to a
recent years the inter-r
tion has been heighten
fervent desire of backwa
of Africa to leap acros
tions of development to
NEGROES throughout
today are aiming for
independence in nearly
pect of their often limi
Attempting to loosen t
of white control, the"
second-class citizen" 1
lenged all the econom
and political barriers
sumed to be mainstays
South Africa presents
tile example of whites
fear to preserve themse
country where they are
bered three to one, theI
and to a lesser extent,,
Africans feel they mu:
the Bntu or be crushe
BUT HOW long will t
gationists be able t
the natives and maint
stature in the world? P
of the new nationalism
that within ten years
change will have occurr
white-black relationshi
radical members of this
that in less time than
"Black man will make b
Still other members
group call the absence of
lent outburst by the Ban
ing short of anmiracle."
Verwoerd and his
however, disregard the
violence as they continue
to push the native entir
the economic and soci
of the country. The ulti

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te supre- is to completely isolate the Ban-
tu on their limted reserves.
cialist will
)licies and FIRST ostensible evidence of
om the al- this attempt to regress the na-
in Africa tive came last May when the gov-
tant ques- ernment of the late Prime Minis-
nswer. In ter Johannes G. Strijdom moved
acial fric- selected tribal chiefs into posi-
ed by the tions of authority within their
rd peoples own group.
ss genera- The idea is to allow the "pup-
'o fast. pet" headman a limited amount of
power and move his followers into
the world more consolidated tribal group-
increased ings.
every as- On their reservations, the Bantu
ted life, are forced into non-profitable,
the fetters non-sustaining agriculture and
'uniformly grazing while the whites control
has chal- the very profitable gold industry.
ic, social Crowded into this ring of auto-
long as- nomous tribal states ranging
of society, along the country's southern and
one vola- eastern border, the Bantu could
acting in be rapidly forced into submission
lves. In a -or, perhaps, easily incited to
outnum- revolt.
Afrikaners
the South WITH THIS plan, the original
st control purpose of the apartheid poli-
d by him. cy will be violated.
"Separate but parallel develop-
the segre- ment" was always alleged but in
o control recent years the lines of segrega-
ain some tion have blotted out any sem-
roponents blance of native development.
maintain Verwoerd made this clear re-
a major cently when he said "there is no
ed in the place for the native in European
p. More society above the level of certain
cult aver forms of labor . . . the idea is
that the total territorial segregation."
his move." Carrying this one step further,
of this the new leader vowed to conduct
f anly vio-foreign affairs according to "dif-
r noth- ferences of race and way of life."
followers, SIZABLE gains made in estab-
imminent lishing cooperation with Negro
attempts dominated Ghana or Nigeria could
ely out of be erased with such a policy. If
al system the Bantu is pushed too far back,
mate goal all of Black Africa could be mo-
tivated to unite against the Union
of South Africa.
This may become apparent in
the United Nations when the
Union returns to active member-
ship in the world organization.
(' Three years ago, the United Na-
-tions poked its investigative nose
too far into South African domes-
tic affairs and Strijdom withdrew
his country. Their tenure this trip
could be even shorter if African
Nationalists begin to echo their
resentment when segregation is
mentioned.
- ANOTHERaspect of the prob-
le sthe effect of certain of
the Union's policies, in particular,
the South African Group Areas
law which limits various race
groups in urban areas to their
own specific locale.
Moslem Mosques and Hindu
Temples are now required to have
permits if they are in a white dis-
trict.
Moslems have already refused
to do this. Hindu groups have
been silent but reactions could oc-
cur if this law is pressed.
A rising tide of humanitarian-
ism also shows signs of jamming
the apartheid machinery as more
and more individuals disgusted
with the status quo and even re-
gressive attitudes of some of the
supporters of the policy.
ONE COMMENTATOR, Roger V.
Rickefs, noted that "only the
reluctance of the whites to pro-
mote literacy and advance educa-
tion in the Bantu tribes has hin-
dered native civilization."
While many of these moderate
individuals recognize that "fear
has been the motivation for dis-
crimination," they also are be-
ginning to realize that change is
l imperative. Colonialism has been
Shop on the decline for over 25 years.
With that thought goes the
101 suggestion that subjugation of the
native is no longer a recognized
(Concluded on Page 8)

THE MICHIGAN DAILY MAGAZINE

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1111 So. University
Just around the corner from
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