Sixty-Six Years of Editorial Freedom
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See page 4
VOL. LXVII, No. 21S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, JULY 24, 1957
To Remain Allies
By RENE GNAM
F The Philippine Islands will remain pro-American.
When presidertial elections are held in November, a pro-Ameri-
can candidate will be elected.
Robert Aura Smith, editorial writer for The New York Times,
voiced these opinions at yesterday's "Asian Cultures and the Modern
Sees Garcia Re-elected
Speaking on "The Political Crisis in the Philippines," Smith pre-
dicted that President Carlos Garcia will be re-elected.
Smith said the Nationalista Party, which holds its nominating
convention this week, will endorse Garcia's candidacy despite mount-
ing efforts to install dark horse candidate Sen. Gil Puyat. The Times
writer predicted that Jose Laurel, Jr., speaker of the Philippine House
School Problems Need Publicity
LONDON, (F) - British jets
stood ready on the Persian Gulf
today with orders to start blasting
rebel strongholds in Oman at day-
Thousands of leaflets were
showered over rebel-held areas in
the desert yesterday warning
tribesmen to call off their revolt
against the British-allied Sultan
of Muscat and Oman.
Officials in London did not spe-
cify when an ultimatum against
the rebels expires.
Rebels Warned . ,
But in Bahrein, on the border
of troubled Oman, British auth-
orities said the rebels were warned
to withdraw last nigit from Niz-
wa, the ancient Omani capital
they seized last week.
Press dispatches from Oman
said pilots of the jets there were
ordered to blast rebel strongholds
"wide open" with cannon and
rockets in a show of force at dawn.
Villagers were warned in leaf-
lets to stay clear of the target area
for 28 hours.
Sir Bernard Burrows, British
resident at Bahrein, told newsmen
RAF fighters from Aden, British
crown colony in southern Arabia,
were assigned to stage an "armed
demonstration" if the ultimatum
Both the ultimatum and a sec-
ond leaflet calling on the inhabi-
tants to rally to Britain's friend,
40-year-old Sultain Said bin Tau-
mur, were dropped within a radius
of 50 miles around Nizwa. Nizwa
is the center of the rebellion
launched four days ago by follow-
ers of Imam Ghaleb Ben Ali, reli-
gious ruler of Oman who was
driven into exile in Saudi Arabia
two years ago.
Some 1,500 rebels have seized
control of 5,000 square miles of
the Sultan's 82,000 square-mile
kingdom of hot sand and moun-
Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd
told the House of Commons the
dropping of leaflets was the only
action taken so far by the Royal
Air Force apart from "action
against certain forts in the area
held by dissident tribesmen."
He did not describe the type of
" of Representatives, would be se-
lected as vice-presidential candi-
Recto Will Run
Smith, formerly Manila corres-'
pondent for the Times, said Sen.
Claro M. Recto will run as an in-
The forthcoming Garcia victory,
he said, would not be by as wide
a margin as that of the late Ra-
Smith, who recently returned
from a trip to the Philippines, in-
dicated this is due to increasing
popular support for the likely lib-
eral party candidate, Sen. Jose
Both Are Pro-American
Both Garcia and Yulo; Smith
said, are pro-American, but he
indicated that Garcia is the more
strict adherent of Magsaysay's
policies, among them the fight
"The death of Magsaysay," he
said, "was a tragic blow to the
cause of free men."
Smith said "Garcia pledged
himself to continue the Magsaysay
He mentioned American influ-
ence in Southeast Asian Treaty
Organization and said the Philip-
pine bases problem "will be
settled as soon as we forget the
idea of United States bases in the
Philippines," and think of them as
"Philippine bases for the protec-
tion of SEATO."
SEATO, Smith said, is extreme-
ly effective and deserves'continued
and added support.
Praising Magsaysay and Garcia,
the Times editorial .writer said
Garcia's action in banning the
Communist Party in the Philip-
pines was in keeping with Magsay-
When the elections are over,
Smith said, we can, be thankful
that a pro-American will be in
He also had praise for Yulo, say-
ing "Yulo is a very able man whose
interests are in accord with ours."
During the question and answer
period, Smith said he felt Carlos
Romulos, in a year, would be am-
bassador to the United States.
W. K. Pursley
Dr. William Knox Pursley, 32, a,
former teaching fellow in physics'
at the University, died Saturday of
wounds received in an attack by
two youthsin Atlanta, Ga.
Pursley, who had become a pro-
fessor at Georgia Tech, was a
teaching fellow at the University
from 1952 through 1955. He earned
his Ph.D. here in 1956.
He was found beaten and dazed
on a sidewalk a few blocks from
his apartment about 24 hours be-
fore he died.
By ERNEST ZAPLITNY
"There was never a time in the
history of our nation that a greater
need for education confronts than
today," warned Lynn Bartlett,
newly elected state superintendent
of schools, at a Phi Delta Kappa
dinner here last night.
"Most significantly we are faced
with a great shortage of man-
power," he said.
"Ou'r fund of knowledge has in-
creased so greatly that we need
to know more about the workings
of our society."
He cited the experience of the
University's atomic-research Phoe-
Circuit court Overrules
NEW ORLEANS (P) - The United States Fifth Circuit Court of
Appeals, reversing a decision by an 87-year-old United States District
Judge, yesterday ordered Dallas to desegregate its schools.
But the court did not set a time limit.
Attorneys reptesenting 28 Negro, children had asked that the
schools be integrated "with all deliberate speed," and the court so
In a decision written by Judge Richard T. Rives, the circuit court
said that "at least to that much they are certainly entitled."
United States District Judge William H. Atwell of Dallas had dis-
missed the Negroes' suit "in order that the school board may have
ample time, as it appears to be do-
ing, to work out this problem."
C itedBut Judge Rives, noting the
good faith of the board, said:.
"Faith by itself, however, without
works, is not enough."
F o The Dallas School Board, while
admitting integration must come
1 arolli ~ei t to Dallas, said it needed more time
to work out its plan.
The Negroes, however, said the
The University has the largest plea for time was a delay rather
enrollment of foreign students of than a start.
any one campus in the country, In arguing the case before the
Prof. James M. Davis, director of court of appeals, an attorney for
the International Center, said yes- the board said ". , . it is to be
the r ahoped that the aftermath which
Prof. Davis commented on ohe occurred in Mansfield will not be
Institute of International Educa- similar in Dallas." Judge Rives
tion Census. (The complete story said his court not that state-
of the census, with a background ment "with appreciation."
map, appears on page 10 of today's Mobs of white persons surround-
Daily.) ed the school in Mansfield, Tex.,
Prof. Davis pointed out that last fall and prevented Negroes
although IE places the University from attending.
of California first in foreign en-
rollment, and Columbia University I
nix Project regarding the shortage
of technicians. For every physicist,
Bartlett reported, the project re-
quires 10 to 13 technicians.
He reported that some 10,000
teachers are employed in Michigan
under special certificate.
"We would not think of en-
trusting our children to teachers
not fully qualified," he said, "but
we need the 10,000."
"As educators, we must create
a feeling by the public on the value
and worth of our teachers. We can-
not compete with business and the
"Teachers must be paid com-
mensurate with their value to
society," he added.
Bartlett deplored in particular
educators' apathy in publicizing
school problems. He suggested that
officials and teachers have not
given due attention to deficiencies.
"If we had, we would be doing
something about it," he said.
To make the public aware of
school problems he urged educa-
tors to use every means and media
from Parent Teacher Association
meetings to television. He enjoined
teachers to write to their legislators
as "an active part in government."
"Many people are willing and
anxious to pay for schools but they
must have the facts ... we as edu-
cators are not selling our schools,"
He said that in face of college
enrollment being doubled by 1970,
Eastern Michigan College and
Michigan State University have
limited (enrollment because of
Higher institutions were forced
to raise tuition and subsistence
fees, he said, "pricing out of the
market most of our fine young
people . . our greatest natural
resource are not being used to the
extent they should be."
He cited the recent Ulrich study
of Russia's educational system as
cause for concern. He reported that
the Russians give "top priority to
education" Students are paid to
go to college and receive aid as
long as their training is profitable
to society," he said.
He termed appropriations for
higher education by the last legis-
In no case were requests by
higher institutions met. Particu-
larly disappointing, he said, was
failure to provide funds for new
building at colleges and universi-
"There is no shortage of teach-
ers in Russia."
"Unless we expand now, we'll be
sadly wanting in the next
years," he warned.
.. cites education needs
WASHINGTON (P-The Army
yesterday cut its draft calls and
asked Congress to let it set higher
mental standards for those who
The first action came in an an-
nounced quota of 8,000 draftees
for September - 3,000 less than
the previously announced quotas
for July and August and the low-
est level in more than a year.
Later the Army asked Congress
to amend the Universal Military
Training and Service Act. This
law now compels the Army to ac-
cept a portion' of draft-eligible
'youths even though they show up
in tests as unlikely to become use-
Secretary of the Army William
Brucker, in asking Congress to
knock out this proviso, said the
Army has gone to "great expense"
in unsuccessful efforts to' educate
soldiers even when they have been
shown to be-"totally inept and un-
The present draft law permits
the various services to reject out-
right only the bottom 10 per cent
of selective service candidates in
the lowest of four categories.
The Army proposal would repeal
this provision and would give the
President authority to let the serv-
ices be much more selective in ac-
The cut in the manpower levy
for next September - 8,000 men,
compared with 11,000 in the Aug-
ust call - is in line with the 100,-
000-man reduction of the armed
forces announced by the Pentagon
a week ago.
The Army's portion of the cut is
Not since April 1956 has a Se-
lective Service quota been so low.
All-White Jury Ignores 'Southern
Way of Life' Argued in Trial
KNOXVILLE, Tenn. (M - An all-white jury in a surprise
verdict yesterdaf convicted segregation leader John Kasper
and six codefendants in the Clinton criminal contempt trial,
They face up to six months in jail and fines up to $1,000
The jury, which had been exhorted by defense lawyers
to preserve the traditional "Southern way of life," deliberated
2 hours and 20 minutes before bringing in its verdict convict-
ing seven of the 11 defendants of all three counts in th'e 12-
day-old trial in United States District Court here.
Four Others Acquitted
The other four were acquitted.
Defense lawyers, who had confidently predicted a mass
acquittal, appeared dazed as jury foreman Powell May, Knox-
second, the totals reflect the sev-
eral campuses of each school.
In terms of total numbers of
students, Prof. Davis reports that
1,780 individuals were availed
International Center services in
the 1956-57 school year.
A total of 82 political entities
were represented in last fall's en-
rollment, he reported. The largest
regional group, numbering 465,
came from Far East-Southeast
British Commonwealth students
totalled 257, with 201 from Can-
ada. Latin America contributed
185. The Near East was fourth
with 182. Europe with 169 was
See UNIVERSITY, page 10
Political tieups have forced the
cancellation of the lecture to have
been presented by Pakistani Am-
bassador Mohammad Ali this aft-
The seventh in a series of
"Glimpses of Asia" featuring the
Pakistan student club has also
The final program of the series
will be presented by the Korean
club next Tuesday evening.
Ali is touring the United States
with the Pakistani prime minister.
CHARLOTTE, N. C. VP)-Three
North Carolina cities last night
voted to accept Negro pupils in
previously all-white public schools.
It marked the first move toward
voluntary desegregation in the
public schools in any southeastern
Meeting in separate sessions,
school boards here and at Win-
ston-Salem and Greensboro voted
to reassign 12 Negro children from
the all-Negro schools they attend-
ed last year to previously all-white
schools nearer their homes.
A break-through of the racial
barriers in North Carolina's larg-
er cities had been expected by
many since the United States Su-
preme Court's antisegregation rul-
ings in 1954 and 1955.
ville, intoned the word "Guil-
ty" after each of the seven
Chief Defense Counsel Robert L.
Dobbs of Memphis, his face
flushed and angry-red, refused to
concede that the verdict consti-
tuted a heavy blow to prosegrega-
tion forces, who are fighting
against the mixing of whites and
Negroes in Dixie schools.
Previously, defense spokesmen
had characterized the trial as a
"history-making" event and de-
clared that its outcome would ex-
ert a strong influence on the fu-
ture course of court-ordered inte-
gration in the South.
"This lawsuit isn't over yet,"
Dobbs said firmly. "We have filed
a motion for a new trial. If that
is denied, we will appeal to a high-
United States District Attorney
John C. Crawford Jr., the lanky,
booming-voiced prosecutor who
conducted the government's case,
took the victory for his side with-
out apparent elation.
"My staff and I endeavored to
try this case like any government
case. The jury has spoken by its
verdict. I have .,no other com-
ment," he told newsmen.
The judge told defense lawyers
he would give them 20 days to file
their motion for a new trial if it
is within his discretion to extend
the time for filing appeals.
He said he had been advised by
the court clerk that five days is
Specifically, Kasper and the
others were charged with criminal
contempt of court. The govern-
ment accused them of knowingly
violating a court order forbidding
interference with orderly integra-
tion of Clinton High.
Knoxville is the hub of heavily
Republican east Tennessee, which
in many ways resembles the in-
dustrial North more than the Deep
Originally, 18 Clinton residents
and Kasper were charged with
conspiring to violate United States
District Judge Robert L. Taylor's
injunction barring interference
with the court-ordered racial in-
tegration of Clinton High. (Clin-
ton is 20 miles northwest of Knox-
Taylor had issued the injunction
to enforce his own order to the
Clinto school to integrate in com-
pliance with the United States
Supreme Court decision against
public school segregration. The in-
junction forbade any hindrance
"by word or deed" with the inte-
Previously, the school had been
restricted to whites under a state
law dating back to 1871 forbidding
whites and Negroes to attend the
However, the state law was su-
perseded by the Supreme Court's
historic ruling on May 17, 1954,
that segregationsviolates the
United States Constitution.
WASHINGTON () - Senate
supporters of the civil rights bill
were defeated yesterday in two
attempts to save - by compromise
amendments - most of the en-
forcement powers in Section 3 of
They appeared to be fighting a
losing battle against a bipartisan
move to strip the bill of all its
enforcement powers except those
protecting voting rights.
A vote on this question comes
An amendment by Sen. John
Bricker (R-Ohio), which would
have placed enforcement powers
in the hands of the President in-
stead of the attorney general, was
rejected 61 to 29.
The Senate then proceeded to
crush with an 81 to 81 vote a sec-
ond compromise proposal by Sen.
J. S. Cooper (R-Ky).
Sen. Cooper's amendment would
have permitted the attorney gen-
eral to intervene in civil rights
cases only after an individual'
complained that a conspiracy e-
isted to deny him rights in defi-
ance of a court order.
As Section 3 now stands, the at-
torney general can start injunc-
tion suits to prevent violations of
a wide variety of civil rights.
It has been fought bitterly by
Dixie Democrats, wh call it a
weapon to force racial integration
of the schools in the South.
The seven senators who sup-
ported Cooper on his amendment
included Sen. Everett Dirksen
(Ill.), Sen. T. B. Morton (Ky.),
and Sen. Alexander Wiley (Wis.),
all Republicans, and Sen. Estes
Kefauver (Tenn.), Democrat.
Twenty-two Republicans and.
seven Northern Democrats voted
on the other side. The 22 Repub-
licans included Sen. William
Knowland of California, leader of
the coalition supporting the civil
As the Senate prepared to vote
on a series of amendments, Sen.
Knowland said it is "quite likely"
that Section 3 "will not be re-
WASHINGTON () -Four vice
presidents and the secretary-trea-
surer of the Bakers Union de-
manded yesterday t h a t union
President James G. Cross resign.
In a telegram to Cross, the group
said that what it termed his "eva-
'GLIMPSES OF ASIA':
Three Countries Influence Ph 1ippine Culture
By FRED KATZ
Antonio Diokmo, president of the Philippine Michigan Club, said
last night that the Filipino has been described as an "Oriental with
an Occidental mind."
This productive mixture was greatly apparent to the overflowing
audience present at the sixth program of the "Glimpses of Asia" series
in Rackham Assembly Hall.
Malays, Spaniards. and Americans have all asserted their respec-
tive cultures into the Filipino's way of life.
From Malayo-Polynesio derivation comes the basis of the national
language of the Pacific islands, which is called Tagolog. Although this
is the only tongue recognized by the government, there are anywhere
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