THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SATURDAY, JULY 8, 1954
PAGE FOU1~ THE MTCHTGA1~ DAILY SATURDAY, JULY S, 1~54
West European Communists Pose Varying Threat
By TOM WHITNEY
Associated Press Foreign Staff Writer
French Communist support of
Premier Pierre Mendes-France
marks the first time a non-Com-
munist government has drawn
anything but brickbats from the
The new premier didn't want
Communist support. He tried to
disavow it but he got it anyway.
It gave him ani immense majority.
The occasion was the National As-
sembly vote confirming his leader-
ship on a platform of peace in
Indochina and revision of the Eu-
ropean Defense Community agree-
This event underlined the fact
that in France the Communist
strength in Parliament and Com-
munist electoral strength in the
country, does still exist and under
certain circumstances could be-
come an extremely important po-
litical factor. And this is true .not
only in France.
It is true that the Communists
have lost heavily in voting
strength, party membership and
trade union support in most of
Western Europe during the last
Membership of Three Million
But they still retain in non-
Communist European countries an
estimated total party membership
of almost three million. In na-
tional elections in these ,nations
Communist candidates poll about
13 million votes.
These are some of the conclu-
sions arrived at by the subcom-
mittee on Security Affairs of the
U.S. Senate Foreign Relations
Committee in a survey of the world
Communist movement outside the
In a preface to this study, Sen.
Alexander Wiley (R-Wis) points
out there are serious fallacies in
judging Communist party strength
at the polls.
Wiley makes the point that the
Communists themselves often pre-c
fer to keep their membership downi
to a small tight "elite" organiza-
tion, and that acting as a highlyE
disciplined group inside or out- s
side a parliament they often "suc-
ceed in a wrecking operation" even
where they are not large in num-
Part Protest Vote
Wiley also stresses that in bothI
France and Italy some of the vote r
which the Communists get at the3
polls is not really Communist butl
in part a traditional protest votec
against the government-any gov-
ernment-in power. Thus, it ap-
pears that the large Communist
vote in these nations reflects at
smal1er genuine Communist
strength than one would think at
Despite the dangers of drawing
too broad conclusions from the
figures on the Communist move-
ment; the statistics on recent elec-
tions in Western European coun-
tries do reveal a great deal.
Altogether, including Iceland,
Finland and Turkey, there are 19
non-Communist countries in Eur-
ope. In terms of the strength of
the Communist movement in eachc
they divide into four distinct cate- t
Inethree European countries-
Spain, Portugal and Turkey -
communism is subjected to severe
repression under the law and the
7 : :!M ' ::
IRELAND BR ITA IN
PORTUGAL ":.".. . :. '.
- --- --- --- - -- - - ----
S .~lC' SEATE FOREtA DIG E1TI/NS ' sGi'M~ijr7Tgp ON sECU'r' .4 FPAIS'
LANSING (iA-Abandoning t h e"
traditional "hands off" policy dur-
ing primary election campaigns,'
Gov. Williams Friday told the "of-
ficial Democratic family" it could
openly oppose George S. Fitzgerald'
of Detroit as a candidate for the
Democratic nomination as lieuten-
The governor's entourage of of-1
fice-holders was told it could line
up behind Philip J. Hart, former7
legal aide to Williams, who also1
seeks the nomination.
Williams, in a formal statement,
said that he had always discour-
aged members of his administra-1
tion from participating in primary;
But, the 1954 lieutenant governor,
race is "something out of the or-;
dinary," he said.
The governor's statement did not
mention Fitzgerald by name.
"One of the candidates for the
Democratic nomination for lieuten-,
ant governor is a man with a past
record of Republican sympathies.,
He was nevertheless accepted into
the Democratic party in good faith
and given many honors.
"Yet he walked out on the Demo-
cratic ticket in 1950. Although he
occupied high party office at the
time, he used that office to damage
the Democratic ticket and to aid
the Republican ticket. His state-
ments and actions furnished the
Republicans with their entire cam-
"Since that time, he has shown
no signs of having changed his
views. But now,with prospects
bright for a Democratic victory
at the polls, he seeks the nomina-
tion to the state's second highest
"To pretend neutrality in such
circumstances is repugnant to my
own conscience. I just didn't want
any Democrats in my official fam-
ily to think they had to pretend
The governor apparently referred
to Fitzgerald's repudiation of Wil-
liams' leadership and his bolt from
the party when Fitzgerald was
Democratic National Committee-
man and hostile statements he
made which were picked up by
Republican campaign orators.
In a statement replying to the
governor, Fitzgerald said.:
"You can have unity in the
Democratic party without uniform-
ity of opinion, just as you have
a common belief in God without
uniformity of worship. I am in-
terested in a complete Democratic
victory this year. I do not want
to say anything to interfere with
"No one can dictate to the
Democratic voters. This is Ameri-
ca, not Russia, thank God.
"No one individual is bigger than
the Democratic party. It is childish
to try to hand pick candidates
and then pout because you cannot
get your own way."
To Be Issue
The Survey Research Center at
the University is daily proving the
value of searching out the "why"
and "how" in human behavior.
Its samples, which have been
conducted on a national scale, have
netted much information pertain-
ing to economic behavior, effects
of environment upon attitudes,
motivational relationships to or-
ganizational effectiveness and in-
vestigations of the relation of at-
titudes to political events.
Such information gathered over
the Center's six year life span has
proved useful to advertisers, the
Federal Reserve System, housing
administrators, Government bu-
reaus such as the Treasury De-
partment and the public health
One major economic contribution
of the Center is a series of annual
studies known as the Surveys of
Consumer Finances. This survey,
conducted for the Board of Gover-
nors of the Federal Reserve Sys-
tem, has been reported since 1946
in the Federal Reserve Bulletin.
This published material includes
annual statistics about income dis-
tribution, income changes, major
assets and debts, and spending
habits of American families.
Other studies of a more practical
importance have dealt with sur-
veys of consumer finances with
emphasis on automobile demand
and life insurance among families
in the U.S.
Besides economics, American at-
titudes and behaviors in public af-
fairs is a research area of keen
interest to the Center.
Social implications of the deve-
velopment of atomic energy with
Survey Research Center
Looks at 'How' of Behavior
specific attention to the impact on
the individual citizen is another
area tackled. This study was made
possible through a grant from the
University's P h o e n i x Memorial
Another contribution of the Cent-
er dealt with voting. Prior to the
1948 Presidential election the Cent-
er carried out a small scale na-
tional study to determine certain
aspects of the voting. Following
the 1952 presidential election, the
Center again tackled a project-
study of the popular vote.
Other energies of the Center
were devoted to audiences reached
by mass communication media.
This came under the broad cate-
gory of processes through which
the public in influenced by inform-
The Center conducted the first
for the American Cancer Society.
It dealt with popular concepts of
cancer and attitudes toward the
disease which helped evaluate the
effectiveness of campaigns by the
A second study concerned public
concepts and values about mental
The Center uses four criteria to
determine the selection of pro-
jects. It must be in the public
interest and the project must offer
some hope of scientific rewards.
Further, project goals promote
the common good rather than to
give a competitive advantage of
one organization over another. And
the Center must be permitted ade-
quate freedom in performing the
survey and publication of the re-
DETROIT M)-The Army sus-
pended a civilian accounting clerk
at the Detroit Arsenal Friday. It
accused him of having been a
Communist and having attended
a Communist front school.
The clerk is Carroll J. McIntyre,
of Detroit. His wife, Ethel, was
suspended as a clerk at the Detroit
Ordnance District because of the
accusations against him.
McIntyre denied he ever had
been a Communist and said he
was cleared of similar accusations
two years ago. He said he would
appeal the suspension.
The Army claimed he was a
dues-paying Communist Party
member while attending a Marx-
ist institute at the Jefferson
School of Social Science in New
York from October, 1947, to June,
1948. He also was accused of be-
ing an associate of Amos William
Coles, a Communist Party offi.
McIntyre said the same accusa-
tions were made against him by a
Civil Service Commission Loyalty
board in 1951, shortly after he
went to work at the arsenal. A,
review board cleared him, he said,
and ruled: "There is no reason-
able doubt of your loyalty to the
United States." He said the review
board's decision came in 1952.
McIntyre said he also was clear-
ed by the State Department in 19-
50 to work as a clerk at the fifth
assembly of the United Nations.
The early bird does catch the
worm, because worms withdraw
below the surface of the ground
COMM1UNIST S7FPNG:Tl-I IZPARTY OUTLAWED s,00Ra
In WJestern EapIope LY NINF At. ~sT'
tonnnunistsHa've 2,,620, 000ParLZ LIJA-'33,000 RE0$
Aembers, Conrol Jf7ilin Votes , EkfN~
in 1.9 Na~ions of.F2~'ee Europe : F PTENT THIREAT' AP Newsfeatures.
only Communist movements exist-
ing are illegal and apparently
weak. There is no Communist vote
and estimates of party member-
ship are only guesses.
In three other countries, Ire-
land, the United Kingdom and
W e s t Germany, communism
though legal is insignificant. In
Ireland the total number of Com-
munists is estimated at about 150.
In the United Kingdom at the
last elections the Communists
could get out a vote of only about
22,000 which is less than the esti-
mated party membership. In West-
ern Germany the Communists at
the elections last year received
only two percent of the total vote
and no seats in Parliament.
Nine European countries -=- all
small, most with highly developed
democratic systems of government
- have weak Communist move-
ments capable of pulling from four
to six per cent of the total vote
at elections with correspondingly
small representation in parlia-
These countries and estimates
of their Communist party streng-
ths are: Sweden, 30,000; Denmark,
16,00; Norway, 7,500; Belgium, 30,-
000; the Netherlands, 33,000; Lux-
embourg, 500; Switzerland, 8,000;
Greece, though falling general-
ly into this category, is a special
case. The Communist party, itself,
is prohibited but it has a front
organization which polls about 11
per cent of the vote. Communist
members are estimated at 20,000.
This leaves only four non-Coin-
munist European nations in which
the Communist movement occu-
ies the position of a strong min-
In Finland the so-called Demo-
cratic Union, a Communist-front
organization, polls about 21 per
cent of the vote and hasa sizeable
bloc in Parliament. Though the
Democratic Union has not been
represented in any recent Finish
government it does, through its
Soviet protector across the border,
have considerable influence in Fin-
In little Iceland, strange to say,
the Communist movement has a
firm base and gets about 16 per-
ent of the vote. This is a fairly
constant figure and observers con-
sider Communist influence in Ice-I
landic affairs even greater than
the vote would indicate.
The real centers of West Euro-
pean communism, however, are
France and Italy. In France, the
Communists pull over one-fifth
of the vote in every national elec-
tion. French Communist party
membership is estimated at around
450,000. This is lower than form-
erly partly because the party has
been purging dubious elements. It
is well-organized and dangerous.
The party has 100 seats in Parlia-
ment (16 per cent) and is working
overtime against continuation of,
the war in Indochina and against
In Italy the situation is even
more serious. Italian Communists
are as strong as their Red Frenchl
brothers but they also have a pow-
erful ally-the Left Socialist par-
ty headed by Pietro Nenni. In the
July 1953 election, this bloc polled
nearly 91/2 million votes and won
37 per cent of the seats in Par-
liament. The Communists have aF
throttle hold on Italian labor un-
The Bolsheviks in Russia had
only a party membership of 80,000
when they pulled off the revolu-1
tion there. The Communist party,
of Italy today has an estimatedI
Thus while the lessened influ-
ence of communism in most coun-
tries of Western Europe is an im-
portant fact, nevertheless the
strong position of the movement
in two largeanations there leaves
the area as a whole under threat.1
On Linguistics Set
"Some Problems in the Metho-
dology of Area Linguistics" will be
the subject of Prof. Hans Kurath,3
of the English Department, in a
lecture at 7:30 p.m. on Tuesday
in the Rackham Amphitheater.
Another lecture on linguistics
will be given by Prof. Lawrence B.
Kiddle, of the Spanish Depart-
ment, on "The Phonology of Eng-
lish Loan Words in Spanish" at 1
p.m. Wednesday. The talk will fol-
low a 12:10 p.m. luncheon in the]
Prof. Harold Orton, of Leeds
University in England, will pro-
vide the third linguistics lecture
this week when he speaks on "The
New Survey of English Dialects,"j
at 7:30 p.m. on Thursday in Rack-
ham Amphitheater. .
(Continued from Page 1)
"Also we do not have trial by
jury but only trial by judge," he
continued. "We did not have trial
by jury during the mandatory per-
iod and have found no need for
it since then."
Rapid progress has been the
keynote of the six years since Is-
rael has acquired statehood. Ap-
proximately the size of New Jer-
sey, the country houses 1,630,000
people of whom 180,000 are non-
Jews. A melting pot of many na-
tionalities and cultures and of the
ancient and modern, Israel has
produced many interesting experi-
ments in living.
"In the 'Kibbutzim' or collective
settlements which are located in
the rural districts, each person
does an equal share of the work
and receives enough for his needs,"
he explained. All the people are
working for the good of the settle-
ment as a whole.
Each settlement, whether it is
industrial or agricultural, is a
unit in itself with its own muse-
ums which portray the history and
geography of the area, musical
groups and schools. "This form of
living has aroused the interest and
admiration of the many people
who have visited them," Judge
To make certain that his chil-
dren will be completely bi-lingual,
Judge Baker speaks only English
with them, while his wife, a fifth
generation Israeli, speaks to them
only in Hebrew, which is the lan-
guage that Judge Baker (who
speaks four other languages) anid
his wife converse in.
"Today, Israel is becoming more
self-sufficient," Judge Baker states
proudly. "Our exports are increas-
ing while imports are decreasing.
Every profession, now, can be com-
pletely studied in Israel."
10:00 A.M.-Student class, discussing "God in
11:00 A.M.-The Morning Worship Service. Ser-
mon: "Proof of God's Love" following com-
3:00-9:00 P.M.-Guild Picnic.
Phone reservations to NO 8-7332.
FRIENDS (QUAKER) MEETING
11:00 A.M.-Sundays. Visitors welcome.
THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY in Ann Arbor
presents Series of Introductory Talks on Theo-
sophy every Wednesday at 8:00 p.m.
Place: 736 S. State St., Telephone NO 2-6295
Public is cordially invited.
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
AND STUDENT CENTER
1432 Washtenaw Ave.
Henry Kuizenga, Minister
Charles Mitchell, Assistant Minister
Donna B. Lokker, Program Assistant
William S. Baker, Minister to Students
9:15 and 11:00 A.M.-Sermon: "How Calm Can
You Get?"-Dr. Kuizenga preaching.
2:00 P.M.-Summer Session Fellowship outing,
meet at the church.
English Teachers ,
To Confer Here
Teaching the short story will be
the topic of the third in a series of
six meetings in the Conference
Series for English Teachers being
held at the University and is sched-
uled for 5 p.m. Tuesday in Aud. C,
Speakers for the session will be
Olga Perschbacher, Union High
School, Grand Rapids; Clara Laid-
law, Michigan State College; and
Palmer C. Holt, Benton Harbor
High School. Prof. Donald B.
Pearce, of the English Depart-
ment, will act as chairman.
They will deal with such topics
as what selections the high. school
anthologies ought to provide; mak-
ing the assignment, discussion
techniques, level of difficulty in
vocabulary and ideas, controver-
sial story themes, and pupils' res-
ponsibilities in reading and in
Shakespeare's tragedy, "Ham-
let," which will be the first sum-
mer production of the University
Speech Department, will open
Wednesday at 8 p.m. in the Lydia
Mendelssohn Theater, and will run
through July 10.
B. Iden Payne, the Shakespear-
ean authority, who is guest direc-
tor this summer, will direct the
Tickets or the play are priced
at $1.75. $1.40 and $1rand cannbe
LANSING (R)-Michigan voters
probably will be called on to de-
cide on legalizing charity bingo in
next November's election.
Backers of a move to amend
the state constitution to accomp-
lish this Friday filed 35,000 more
signatures than they needed to sign
place the proposal on the ballot.
The filing was made five hours
before the deadline.
Department of State officials
implied that the petitions probably
would be valid because of the sur-
plus signatures filed and the carer
with which the sponsors h a dj
the 326,106 signatures.
Robert M. Montgomery, state
elections director, said the peti-
tions would b3 thoroughly checked
and a ruling made on their validity
The petitions were filed by the
Michigan Association of Non-Profit
FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST,
1833 Washtenaw Ave.
9:30 A.M.-Sunday School
11:00 A.M.-Sunday Morning Service
5:00 P.M.-Sunday Evening Service
9:30 A.M.-Bible Class-Study of Galatians
10:30 A.M.-Worship Service-Sermon: "None
4:00 P.M.-Outdoor Meeting--Meet ot the
THE CHURCH OF CHRIST
530 West Stadium
(Formerly at Y.M.C.A.)
Sundays-10:15 A.M., 11:00 A.M., 7:30 P.M.
Wednesdays-7:30 P.M., Bible Study, G. Wheeler
Hear: "The Herald of Truth" WXYZ-ABC Net-
work Sundays-1:00-1:30 P.M.
(Sponsored by the Christian Reformed Churches
Washtenaw at Forest
Rev. Leonard Verduin, Director
Res. Ph. NO 5-4205. Office Ph. NO 8-7421
10:00 A.M.-Morning Service
7:00 P.M.-Evening Service
ST. ANDREWS CHURCH
AND THE EPISCOPAL
306 North Division St.
8:00 A.M.--Holy Communion
9:00 A.M.-Holy Communion and Student
Breakfast at Canterbury House
11:00 A.M.-Morning Prayer and Sermon
6:00 P.M.-Student Supper Club
7:00 P.M.-Mr. Harold Walsh, speaking on "Cry
of the Beloved Country" at Canterbury House,
8:00 P.M.-Evensong in St. Michaels Chapel,
followed by a coffee hour.
Friday, July 9-Cars will leave Canterbury House
for weekly swimming party and picnic at 4:00
and 5:00 P.M.
FIRST METHODIST CHURCH
and WESLEY FOUNDATION
120 South State Street
Merrill R. Abbey, Erland J. Wangdahl,
Eugene A. Ransom, Ministers
9:00 and 10:45 A.M.-Morning Worship Ser-
vice. Sermon: "More Than a Bill of Rights"
Dr. Abbey preaching.
9:30 A.M.-Informal discussion group-Pine
3:00 P.M.-Student group meet in the Wesley
Lounge for outing picnic, swimming, volley-
ball-all students welcome. Saline Forms.
Welcome to Wesley Foundation. Rooms open.
UNIVERSITY LUTHERAN CHAPEL
AND STUDENT CENTER
1511 Washtenaw Avenue
(The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod}
Alfred T. Scheips, Pastor
9:45 A.M.-Bible Study
10:45 A.M.-Service, with sermon by the pastor,
'Our Continuity in Christ"
6:00 P.M.-Gamma Delta, Lutheran Student
Club, Supper Program. Review of recently pub-
lished book, "The Religious Bodies of America"
Has Your A ddress
If it has, the Ann Arbor Bank would
appreciate it if all depositors would
notify the bank of this change.
THE AVN11!1 AIDIDAD D) X V
8:00 P.M.-Wednesday: Testimonial Service
A free reading room is maintained at 339 South
Main Street where the Bible and all authorized
Christian Science literature may be read, bor-
rowed or purchased.
The Reading Room is open daily except Sundays
and holidays from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Friday
evenings from 7 to 9 p.m. and Sunday after-
noons from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m.
BETHLEHEM EVANGELICAL AND
423 South Fourth Ave.
Walter S. Press, Pastor
10:45 A.M.-Worship Service; Sermon by Rev.
A. Wilson Cheek
ST. MARY'S STUDENT CHAPEL
William and Thompson Sts.
Masses Daily at 7:00 A.M., 8:00 A.M. - Sun-
day at 8:00 A.M., 10:00 A.M., 11:30 A.M.
Novena Devotions-Wednesday Evenings-7:30
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
William and State Sts.
Minister-Rev. Leonard A. Parr
10:45 A.M.-Sermon: "Religion and the 57 Var-
No student guild meeting.
Delicious Your Fav
STEAK, CHICKEN, BEER, W
W'&WILT~T'W1 11 9
I _ - - y .111