I t17V tIiM l .YA ~I'M )A I L 1
Spaatz s Line of Attack
GRACING THE PAGES of a current LIBE
magazine is an article by General Carl
Spaatz, U.S. Air Force (Ret.) with the
thought provoking title, "If We Should Have
to Fight Again." But Gen. Spaatz seems to
ignore the "if" and the article has an in-
genuous air of school-boyish enthusiasm
for a good, clean fight in which the preco-
cious child looks forward to using his fists
without any thought of the consequences.
Naturally, in Spaatz's opinion, the only
nation in the world we can look forward to
battling is Russia. His article is complete
with a map of Russia and ingenious plans
for conquering that country. He believes
that the only facet of our strength which
the Russians cannot match is our airpower
and, "of course, the atomic bomb remains
an American monopoly."
We could not take issue with the Gen-
eral's line of military attack. What should
strike terror into every American's heart
is the premise on which he bases the
intricate details of tomorrow's war. Gen.
'Spaatz divides his future war into three
clever phases. In Phase I, the United
States would be the sole possessor of the
atomic bomb and the master of our own
outlying air space.
According to the General, if war should
start during Phase I, it would be te hresult
of Russian miscalculation. He says: "It
might well be started by the failure of the
Soviet leaders to foresee that a particular
move on their part might push us into a
countermove to protect interests vital to the
U.S. Once begun it would be in the obvious
interest of the Russians to seek to make it
a limited war."
In Spaatz's Phase II, the "potential en-
emy" would possess a weapon that would
bring the myriad machines of our society
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are writ ten by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: LIDA DAILES
to a stop. In other words,, the Russians
would have an atomic bomb too.
The third phase of Spaatz's theoretical
analysis, the present rate of invention would
introduce supersonic airplanes, guided mis-
siles of great range and other such mon-
sters within 25 years. Gen. Spaatz thinks
they might usher in an acutely "disagree-
able" period for mankind. But he adds, "I
believe that under the leadership of decent
and able men it can be an era of boundless
enterprise and accomplishment."
The conclusion which Gen. Spaatz in-
evitably reaches, is that we the United
States would not be at an advantage if
we entered 'Phases II and III. We would
be much better off if we fought the Rus-
sians while we still have our monopoly
on the atomic bomb. Which would mean
that our best advantage lies in having
Russia push us too far within the next five ,
If the LIFE reader innocently reads this
stuff and says that after all, Gen. Spaatz
can't be really advocating war, let him read
the very last paragraph: "In the interval of
grace that remains to us in Phase 'I we.
would be well advised to ponder the Amer-
ican position in the phase beyond. An irony
without precedent in history pervades the
situation. We who profited so much by the
airplane and atomic bomb now stand to
lose by it. An era impends during which an
enemy, preparing in secret, may wound this
nation terribly with a single blow. That is
the emerging hazard of Phase IT--a period
destined to test our institutions to the'break-
ing point unless statesmen have meanwhile
found the long-sought political equivalent
In the mind of the professional soldier,
war with Russia is inevitable-and the
sooner the better it will be for us. We wonder
how much the military will influence future
developments in foreign policy with its cold
logic on the danger of entering into Phases
II and III. For if we accept the logic, we
must reject mankind and our atomic bombs
will save a country without a soul.
T HE STATEMIENT that Democratic pros-
pects are dimmer now than at any time
since the late twenties is a truism. The
quick blow that was dealt by Henry Wallace
early in the year, the growing storm over
the Dixie vote, the lusty note of confidence
that was sounded in Philadelphia a scant
three weeks ago and, most recently, the,
flat negative reply that put a decisive end
to the Morningside Heights courtship have
all contributed to the air of despair that
beclouds Philadelphia today.
Still, there is this to be said about the
Democratic Convention: it has within itself=
the possibility of establishing the party in
a newer and brighter light. The mere fact
that this convention follows the GOP con-
vention gives it certain advantages.
One of these advantages is the opportun-
ity to draft a platform that willuhave none
of the smug "middle road" features so ob-
vious in the platform approved last month
The central issue of the Democratic plat-
form right now is President Truman's civil
rights program. Outright endorsement of a
plank which specifically promises support
for anti-lynch, anti-poll tax and fair em-
ployment legislation would endow the Dem-
ocratic platform with a quality of assertion
that was noticeably absent from the text
of the Republican declaration of principles.
It is true of course that the GOP plat-
form contained, as it has ever since the
Civil War, a statement upholding the rights
of the individual "without regard to race,
creed or color." But it is not apparent that
the traditionally conservative party has
been overactive in promoting legislation in
The most obvious objection to embodying
a specific plank along these lines within
the framewotk of the Democratic declara-
ation is that it would lose Southern votes.
This is open to question, particularly in view
of the recent statement by Aubrey Williams.
Williams, former National Youth Adminis-
trator and a resident of Alabama, has told
Democratic leaders that the Southern vote
will remain intact even if the President's
anti-discrimination proposals are written
into the platform.
It would appear then that the drafting
committee has nothing to lose by adopting
these proposals. On the other hand, it has
several things to, gain.
There is, for instance, the heavy liberal
vote that has divorced itself from the Dem-
ocratic line in order to support Wallace's
more liberal program. A large segment of
this vote would readily return to the Demo-
cratic ranks if it could be assured of an
active civil rights program.
There is also the Negro vote of the north,
conventionally Republican, but perhaps un-
easy over certain Republican principles.
This is especially significant since, as has
frequently been pointed out, Negroes hold
the balance of voting power in certain of
the northern states.
And there is the labor vote. The CIO, for
example, stressed its concern in this con-
nection when it went on record as being
strongly in favor of a platform pledge to
legislate against lynching, poll taxes, unfair
employment practices and segregation in
the armed forces.
But must important for the Democratic
party itself is the opportunity that it now
holds to step forth as an active force for
the protection of civil rights and a firm sup-
porter of liberal philosophy. Therein lies the
most promising outcome of the goings-on
in Philadelphia today.
6 -Kenneth Lowe
Irons in the Fire
TWO CONFLICTING doctrinaire groups
are today engaged in hacking apart the
middle ground which is the best hope of
American democracy. On the one hand
stands the "government of law, not of men"
school of thought. These are the modern
Canutes, trying to stem the ebb and flood
of profound social forces with a flimsy wall
of paper legislation. These are the men to
whom democracy means only majority rule,
and majority rule means ony the right of
the group in power to oppress the minority
and further engross its patrimony.
On the other hand are the equally dan-
gerous men of "direct action." These in-
clude the species of person that rejoices
when John L. Lewis evades the Taft-Hart-
ley Act by an exemption clause in the
miners' contract. The only honest and sure
way to repeal the law is to repeal it. Let
Labor concentrate on the task of getting
its partisans to the polls and electing a
Congress which will amend or eliminate the
law. Circumventions of the democratic pro-
cess not only betray a lack of confidence
in the justice of one's cause, but encourage
parliamentary excesses by the legislativ
branch. Neither Andrew Volstead nor the
IW.W. held the key of American destiny.
Blessed are the ballotcasters and, the media-
tion boards, blessed are the scratchers in
AS ELECTION TIME draws near, we can
look forward to a frenzied outcropping
of public opinion polls. Yet it is obvious
that a mere listing of percentages is not
enough. A survey should indicate promi-
nently the sampling techniques used. Let all
beware the fate of the Literary Digest poll
of 1936. Coupled with each pre-election sur-
vey should go a statement of the size vote
it presupposes. For the Republican party
cannot fail to win an election in which only
forty million votes are cast.
The solid core of "rainy day" voters, most-
ly property owners and professional peo-
ple, is the backbone of Republican strength.
A vote well above fifty millions brings out
many marginal voters, those too unsure or
too careless of their place in the community
to go regularly to the polls. This marginal
vote is decisively Democratic, and the out-
come in November depends more upon the
turnout of this group than upon any slight
shifts in the sentiments of regular voters
THE CYNICAL DISREGARD of the pub-
lic welfare shown by John L. Lewis is
surpassed only by the profit-hungry cyni-
cism of the mine owners. Does the public
know that each time the miners have won
a pay increase, not only have the companies
failed to absorb any of the increase them-
selves, but have passed on to the coal con-
sumers a price increase generally about
double that required by the miners' wage
TWENTY YEARS AGO TODAY
The Democratic National Committee had
its first meeting in New York with Gov.
Alfred E. Smith of New York, Democratic
presidential nominee and Sen. Joseph Rob-
inson of Arkansas, Smith's running mate.
Among the speakers announced for the
fall Oratorical Association Lecture Course
are Gen. Jan Christian Smuts, Stephen Lea-
coc, Richard Haliburton, Graham McNamee
and Madame Sun-Yat-Sen.
FIFTEEN YEARS AGO TODAY
The Michigan Repertory Players present-
ed a dramatized version of "Uncle Tom's
Cabin," as the fourth play of the summer
season. The play was divided into 17 scenes.
A local tavern advertised pork chop suey
and rice at 12 cents a serving, corned beef
and cabbage for 14 cents a plate, and all
soups, vegetables, salads, potatoes, bever-
ages and desserts at a nickel a portion.
TEN YEARS AGO TODAY
Two University women scientists from the
botany department became the first women
to navigate successfully the Columbia River
in the Grand Canyon.
Howard Hughes headed his $85,000 silver
monoplane from Paris towards Moscow on
the second leg of his world flight. The plane,
a Lockheed 14, was partly designed by
Clarence L. Johnson, a University graduate.
FIVE YEARS AGO TODAY
Allied forces invading Sicily landed along
100 miles of the southeastern coast of the
island and began advancing inland, Gen.
Eisenhower's headquarters triumphantly an-
nounces. Thus the battle of Africa ended
and the battle of Europe began.
The Bomber Scholarship Acquaintance
Bureau opened to help servicemen and civ-
ilians on campus meet Michigan coeds.
A fee of 25 cents was charged for regis-
tration, the money to go into the Bomber
Scholarship Fund, which was created to
provide scholarships for students returning
to school after the war. Applicants were re-
quired to register "vital statistics" and coke
dates were arranged. The men were ex-
pected to take it from there.
ONE YEAR AGO TODAY
Police issued a "lock your doors" warning
to students as robberies in West Quadrangle
and the Sigma Alpha Epsilon house push-
ed the total "take" in recent weeks above
WE MAY WEAR SILLY HATS BUT...
New York Herald-Tribune...
'Uerdin Comes First'
THOUGH NO GUNS have spoken, the Western Allies are conducting
what is virtually a military defense of their sectors in Berlin.
The supply situation in the former German capital is so critical, both
for the inhabitants and for the position of the West-in Berlin, in
Germany and in Europe--that grave risks are being run to maintain
transportation through the skies. Despite the heartening exhibition
of skill and energy that has made a success of the air lift to Berlin,
the reality of these risks has been demonstrated by the destruction
of a plane, with the loss of three lives. This can hardly be dismissed
as a normal operational hazard, when the number of flights, the
resolution that pressed them through bad weather, and the rapid
turnaround imposed by the needs of a large city are taken into
account. It is, rather, part of the price of Berlin, a price demanded
by the Russian effort to oust the West.
The knowledge of this price, which may not yet be paid in full,
will be in the minds of Americans as they read Mr. Marshall's note to
the Soviet Union. It would be well for the Russians if they, too, were
aware of American emotions and American determinations as the
Politburo reads that the United States "will not be induced by threats,
pressures or other actions" to abandon its clear rights in Berlin, and
hopes "that the Soviet government entertains no doubts whatsoever
on this point." The American statement was intemperate, but it
offered not the slightest suggestion that this country could be blud-
geoned or tricked out of Berlin. By pursuing a course which has cost
American lives, the Russians have intensified the dangers, for them-
selves and for the world, with which their recent policy has been
The only way out of the perilous impasse, down which the Rus-
sians have steadily been moving, is a retreat. Their first move, the
only move which the Western Powers will consider a genuine con-
tribution toward relaxing the tension, is the full restoration of "the
lines of communication and the movement of persons and goods"
between the Western zones of Germany and the corresponding sectors
in Berlin. In the system of linked rights whereby the victorious powers
now stand in Germany, the right to those communications belongs
at least as indisputably to the Western nations as does the right to
govern Saxony and Thuringia, so largely won by the Americans, be-
longs to the Russians. It is a right which cannot be waived by the
West, or successfully challenged by Russia, without jeopardizing the
whole structure of Allied occupation, and Soviet acknowledgment
of it is an absolute prerequisite for the renewal of any collaboration
among the Big Four,
Once that right has been reassured, Mr. Marshall has offered
to take up, in four-power discussions, any disputes arising out of the
administration of Berlin, including, no doubt, the currency ques-
tion. Beyond that it might again be possible to consider a four-
power agreement on a broader scale and for a longer term-a German
settlement or an over-all European sttlement. But Berlin-the
"intolerable" blockade of Berlin-comes first.
* * * *
St. Louis Post-Dispatch...
'Why Not Break the Blockade?'
THE UNITED STATES has two courses in carrying out its commit-
ment to occupy, under four-power agrement, its sector in Berlin,
now under Russian blockade.
The first course is the one this country is now pursuing. This is
to attempt to overcome the Red Blockade by flying in food, fuel, ma-
terials and other supplies. This requirs hundreds of planes every
24 hours, day in and day out.
The second course is to serve notice on the Russians that at
a specified time the United States is going to resume transportation
on railroads and highways as provided by four-power agreement.
This announcement would be followed by rsolute resumption of trans-
portation at the time specified.
Sooner or later the stopgap course now being followed mus of
necessity give way to the second. If this change is coming even-
tually, then it will gain us more in respect among the Russians as
well as the Germans to make it now.
Writing from Berlin, the Post-Dispatch correspondent, Richard
L. Stokes, discloses that American, British and French planes together
are transporting only about half the minimum food tonnage. Were
it not for a two months' stockpile, the flying program, brave
and inspiriting though it is, would already have been defeated.
Thus, air transportation is not keeping up with requirements
even at a time when flying conditions have been on the whole very
good. Many days of the year planes are unable to leave airports in
Western Germany. Many other days, planes could safely land in
If this blockade runs much longer, it will cause further ravages
of Berlin's people by disease. For as Mr. Stokes showed, the death
rate has been almost doubled. Vitality of the population is at its
lowest since V-E Day. In 1945, there were 1,053 new cases of tuber-
culosis a month. This year there are 2,387 new cases a month-more
than twice as many. Other diseases arde spreading by leaps and
Just three years ago, American occupation forces went into Berlin
to take up their duties. Because the international city was deep in
the Russian zone, the United States, Britain and France all were
granted rail, highway and air rights over Russian-occupied territory.
In short, there is just as much authority for us to run trains and
4,. l-""- l l .5 '4" V 'af f nr nn7 f l r Q11 lipQ n fnr 11 t
(Continued from Page 3)
Linguistic Institute Luncheon
Conference. Lecture by Prof. Jo-
seph K. Yamagiwa, department of
Oriental languages, "Post-War
Reforms in Written Japanese."
Wed., July 14, Union Building.
Luncheon 12:10, Anderson Room;
Lecture, 1:00, Rm. 308.
Dr. Rensis A. Likert director of
the Survey Research Center, will
discuss "The Study of Human Re-
lations in Business and Govern-
ment by Sample Interview Sur-;
veys" at 8 p.m. Thursday, July 15,
in the East Lecture Room, Mez-
zanine Floor, Rackham Building.;
All persons interested are cordial-
Prof. Edgar Willis of the De-
partment of Speech, San Jose
State College, San Jose, Calif., will
speak Wed., July 14, 3 p.m. in the
Rackham Amphitheatre on the
subject "Using Radio to Teach,"
History Final Examination
Make-Up: Saturday, July 17, 9
o'clock, Room B, Haven Hall. Stu-
dents must come with written per-
mission of instructor,
Faculty Recital, Mon., July 12,
auspices of the School of Music,
Chamber music: Gilbert Ross, vio-
lin; Emil R~aab, violin; Bernard
Milofsky, viola; Oliver Edel, cello;
Joseph Brinkman, piano. 8 p.m.,
Rackham Lecture Hall.
The Graduate School Record
Concert will be given this week
on Tues., rather than Thurs.; 7:45
p.m., East Lounge, Rackham. Pro-
Mozart: Quartet in E Flat Ma-
jor, No. 11, K. 171. Loewenguth
Quartet. Boclwrinxi - ranaix:
Scuola di Ballo. London Philhar-
monic, Antal Dorati conductor.
Schubert: Quintet in A, Op. 114
("Trout") Artur Schnabel, piano,
Claude Hobday, double bass, Pro
Arte Quartet. Vivaldi: Concerto
Grosso in D Minor, Op. 3, No. 11
( "L'Estro Armonico" ). Boston
Symphony, Koussevitsky, conduc-
All graduate students invited;
The Graduate Outing Club will
meet for summer sports and
swimming at 2:30 p.m., Sun., July
11, northwest entrance of Rack-
ham Bldg. Sign up at Rackham
check desk before noon Saturday.
All graduate students welcome.
Michigan Christian Fellowship
will have its weekly meeting today
at 4:30' p.m. in the basement of
Lane Hall. Rev. Henry O. Yoder
of the Lutheran Student Associa-
tion will be the speaker. This will
be followed by a coffee hour.
Westminster Guild will meet at
5 p.m. in the Lewis parlor. Dr.
Lemon will speak on "Christian-
ity in Relation to Other Living
Religions." Refreshments will fol-
Unitarian Student Group will
meet at 6:30. Charles Sloane will
talk on the "Situation in Germany
During the War." Refreshments
will be served.
Lutheran Student Association
will meet at 5:30 p.m. in the Zion
Lutheran Parish Hall. Supper will
be at 6. Nils Eric Enkuist, grad-
uate student from Finland will
speak on "The Position of Finland
University Lutheran Chapel serv-
ices will begin at 5:30 p.m. Gam-
ma Delta will have a supper meet-
Roger Williams Guild will meet
at 6 p.m. Following the supper
meeting, there will be a talk on
Hinduismeby Dr. Keith Prabhu of
Faculty Wives business meeting.
Mon., July 12, 8 p.m.
Wives of Student Veterans.
Tues., July 13, 8 p.m. Movies and
bridge. Everyone welcome.
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
(Epsilon Chapter) will meet Mon-
day July 12 at 7:30 at the Michi-
gan Union. All members on cam-
pus are urged to be present-or
contact Roderick Warren, 311
Fletcher Hall, Tel. 3-1511.
The Conversation Groups of La
Sociedad Hispanica will meet at 4
p.m., Tues. 'in the Casa Espanola,
1027 E. University; Wed., League
Cafeteria, and Thurs., Interna-
tional Center. Native speakers are
cordially invited as well as stu-
dents who wish to practice speak-
La Sociedad Hispanica will pre-
sent its third in a series of sum-
mer programs on Wed., at 8 p.m.
in the West Conference Room of
TO THE EDITOR
The Daily accords its readers t
privilege of submitting letters .J
publication in this column. Subject
to space limitations, the general;pl-
icy is to publish in the order in whc
they are received all letters bearing
the writers signature and address.
Letters exceeding 300 words, repet1r
tious letters and letters of a defama-
tory character or such letters which
for any other reason are not in god
taste will not be published. The
editors reserve the privilege of co-
To the Editor:
I witnessed the following dem-
onstration here in Los Angeles an
A pro-Eisenhower crowd of 69O
saw 40 of California's delegates to
.the Democratic convention leave
for Philadelphia. Ike had sad
"no" the day before, but everyone
seemed to enjoy himself anyway.
At first the crowd just mill&I
around, displaying Eisenhowe
buttons, placards, and silly paper
hats. The people in it were from
the Americans for Democratic Ae-
tion, Young Democrats and labor
unions. The placards said every-
thing from "ADA Wants Eiseii-
hower" and "Eisenhower and Pep-
per (James Roosevelt on some)"
to "We Still Want Esenhowet"
and "Open Convention, Says
As the crowd grew, however, i
began to'snake dance in and ou
of the station and around the
formation booth. All the wh
the group chanted, "We want Ik
The fireworks really began wh
James Roosevelt, California Dem
ocratic party chairman and FDR's
oldest son, arrived. There was
lusty cheering for him; he was
one of the leaders of the pro-Ei-
The small army marched behind
Roosevelt through the statlonrs
long concourses to the train it-
self. Having inspected the train,
some of the crowd left, but many
gathered at the rear of the train
where Roosevelt told them he
thought Ike would still respofld
to a genuine draft.
Towards the end of the demo-
stration a pro-Douglas group.
made up largely of Students for
Democratic t Action, made its&f
prominent. It vied with the larger
Eisenhower force by trying to out-
bellow them and trying to get its
placards into as many of the press
photos as possible.!
Next James Roosevelt added
that his group was not particular-
ly against one man, but rather
they were strongly pro-Eisenhow-
er. While he spoke, many people
tore their signs of f their pacards
and stuck them on the train,
Just before the train left, #
"Truman and Prosperity" sign ap-
peared in the train.
At eleven sharp the special rol-
ed for Philadelphia several en-
thusiastic boys were hanging on
the crawling train to stick a fe
more signs to it.
-John P. Davies
Winston Churchill really touch
ed off the latest war scare by
comparing the issues involving the
future of Berlin with those tht.
were faced in Munich when Brit-
ain and France backed down
rather than stand up to Hitler.
The British got the war jitters
this time, while U.S. got themi
badly when Czechoslovakia was
gobbled up by Communists.
-U.S. News and World Report A
THE NEW CURRENCY that hs
gone into circulation in west-
ern Germany is expected to be a
stable medium of exchange. Froh
now on, American cigarettes will
be used principally for smoking,,
-The New Yorker.
The Time Is Now
OUT OF THE FURY of renewed fighting
between the Arabs and the Jews in Pal-
estine comes the greatest hope for a success-
ful United Nations that has yet been seen.
Since its formation, in the closing years of
World War II, the UN had stumbled along
from one abstract issue to another but
today, the UN is faced with a real war crisis.
The peace that the UN was to insure is
gone NWar rages in Palestine but the Uni-
ted Nations can end the conflict and estab-
lish itself as permanent force for peace and
not a mere doddering cousin of the League.
U.S. Deputy Delegate to the UN, Philip C.
Jessup, suggested the answer: Send an army
in to 'enforce" the truce between the Arabs
To maintain the truce the UN should
send in a police force of its own, made
up of American, British, and Russian
soldiers with volunteers from other na-
tions. Under a UN military leader like
Count Bernadotte, who has shown himself
to be honest and impartial, such a group
numbering no more than a few thousand,
could quickly quell all fighting until a
reasonable solution to the Palestine prob-
lem could be arrived at.
But the doubters will think of Russia.
Will she enter such a plan, they will ask, as
a means of getting insidious Red propa-
ganda into the Holy Land? The answer
need not be "yes" if the world, is willing to
allow the UN to establish itself as a mili-
tary entity with complete control over
troops and arms supplied by member na-
tions. Then neither American nor Russian
influences would enter Palestine and there
would also be no partition plan which cut
Germany so mercilessly in half.
If we want peace in Palestine today and
peace permanently under the UN, we have
to go out and get it. And the time is now!
-Craig H. Wilson
THE NEW YORK CITY Board of Educa-
tion is trying to make a record for itself
in the hotly competitive field of bigotry and
A few days ago, it barred the Nation from
the city's public-school libraries because of a
series of articles in that paper on the politi-
cal and social activities of the Catholic
Etited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Editorial Staf f
Lida Dalles.........Managing Editor
Kenneth Lowe.......Associate Editor
Joseph R. Walsh, Jr .Sports Edto
Robert James.......Business Manager
Harry Berg .......Advertising Manager
Ernest Mayerfeld .Circulation Manager
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusive~y
entitled to the use for re-publication
of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwis crdited in this ne'nsn~ier