100%

Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue

Share

Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

July 25, 1948 - Image 4

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1948-07-25

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

PAGE FOUEl

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Red Badge of Courage

W E JOURNALISTS are supposed to pride
ourselves on our objectivity and the
purity and inviolability of the rights of
newspapermen in the important job of get-
ting news to the people. But some of us can
dispense with the front page tradition when
we watch the stories coming over the AP
teletype machine on the Progressive Party
convention in Philadelphia.
We read, with a sickening feeling, the in-
jured-air report of the Wallace press con-
vention Friday night and how he had called,
the press representatives "stooges," allowed
them only one question apiece and in gen-
eral given them a rough time. We could al-
most see the trench-coated figure of the
Hitchcock movie furiously batting out his
immortal words, containing his fury with
remarkable restraint, and just "reporting"
in hard-bitten words how Wallace had mis-
treated the fourth estate.
Woven into this remarkable story, was
the pride and outraged dignity of the
American newspaperman.
Typical examples of this were, "Mary
Splargo of the Washington Post stood up.
Fighting for control of her voice, she said,
I am not a stooge for anybody, Mr. Wallace.
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: LIDA DAILES

I don't even agree with his (referring to
Westbrook Pegler, an objective reporter at
the conference) column. But you have been
talking here about objectivity in reporting
and you cited that point in your letter to
Josef Stalin. Therefore, I demand that you
answer this question.'
". . . Another columnist, Doris Fleeson,
managed to make herself heard through the
pandemonium. . . . The information would
not be brought out. To that degree, the
effort was a failure.
"But it is a failure that belongs with the
best traditions of a free, courageous and
dignified profession."
It could be that this reporter did not
write the Wallace story sent over the tele-
type the night before. The GOP and Dem-
ocratic conventions were to most reporters
a three-ring circus but those previous con-
ventions were in the finest American tra-
dition. The Wallace convention, to our
objective newsmen, was a convention of
the lunatic fringe. The story sent over the
wires had in its third paragraph the amaz-
ing fact that the press badges were red-
three weeks ago they were white and no
one attempted to link them with the Ku
Klux Klan.
We cannot be naive about the reporters
who work for Hearst, McCormick and
Scripps-Howard papers. And it is somewhat
of a stretch of our imagination to believe
that the reporters at the Progressive Party
convention were acting in the best tradition
of a "free, courageous and dignified profes-
sion." -Lida Dailes

MATTER OF FACT:
Wallace's Little Group

By JOSEPH AND STEWART ALSOP
PHILADELPHIA. The Wallace party con-
vention has not, of course, been a con-
vention at all. It has been, rather, a dreary
and sometimes nauseating spectacle, care-
fully and quite obviously stage-managed by
the American Communist party in the in-
terests of the foreign policy of the Soviet
Union.
It is difficult to believe that even Henry
Wallace, despte his enormous capacity for
self-delusion, has not some dim notion of
tais fact. Before the convention, Wallace
was clearly disturbed by the Communist
coloration of his "crusade," and even in-
dulged in a little very mild and very tenta-
tive "red-baiting." But Je consoled himself,
according to those who have followed his
wanderings, by the conviction that time
was on his side.
He firmly believed that as the interna-
tional crisis deepened, and particularly
after Harry Truman was nominated by
the Democrats, the non-Communist lib-
erals and labor leaders would suddenly
see the light. Then the men who were
once his friends and supporters would
rally to his side.
Nothing of the sort has, of course, happen-
ed. The C.I.O. and A.F. of L. have even re-
fused to dignify the Wallace party by testi-
fying before its platform committee. C.I.O.
president Philip Murray and the other non-
Communist C.I.O. leaders are prepa'ing
Comics Cleanup
THE "FUNNIES" haven't been' really
funny since the days of "Foxy Grandpa"
and "Little Nemo" ... which is going back
some.
To anyone even catching a glimpse of the
lurid colored comic-books that seductively
tempt the nation's kiddies from every news-
stand, it must be obvious that not only
aren't they funny, in some cases they are
obscene and immoral.
Until a few weeks ago, the only action
taken against the comic-book-menace was
the rather disorganized practice, indulged in
by some parents whenever they caught their
offspring, of snatching the filthy things from
Junior. This merely intensified Junior's ad-
diction.
Recently, however, the Association of
Comic Magazine Publishers adopted a
"comics code" pledging itself to "good
wholesome entertainment or education."
This may be slightly disappointing to the
infantile minded portion of our adult pop-
ulation, who surreptitiously read the com-
ic magazines when no one is looking. Af-
ter all, what are the funnies without a
little sex, and sadism, violence and vul-
garity?
It's too early to predict exactly what the
publishers will fill their pulpy pages with
now that indecent exposure, crime presented
in an attractive way, dumb cops, inhuman
tortures, crude langage and ridicule of re-
ligious and racial groups are banned. For
one thing, only 14 of the nation's 34 comics
publishers have agreed to the pledge. For
another, there's a three months supply of
the old style comic books on hand that pub-
lishers will have to sell before the new code
comes into effect.
Let's hope that the publishers don't go to
the other extreme and offer comic-con-
sumers nothing but the "Bugs Bunny-Casper
Milquetoast" variety. These are certainly
among the better comic strips, but the
young 'uns can also take some of the more
adventurous stuff ... in fact many psychol-
ogists believe that this sort of vicarious
thrill is very healthy for youngsters.
There are plenty of good adventure stories

quietly to support Truman, however unen-
thusiastically.
Wallace's only labor support derives from
such men as the Electrical Workers' Julius
Emspak, whose party indentfication has re-
portedly been "Comrade Juniper"; Harry
Bridges of the Longshoremen, whose politi-
cal leanings are well known, and such ac-
knowledged Communists as Ben Gold of
the Fur Workers and Donald Henderson of
the Tobacco Workers. Wallace has attract-
ed no labor support whatsoever except from
those unions where Stalinists have captured
power. And he must know it.
Wallace must know too that not a single
New Dealer or liberal of any stature from
among his old associates of the Roosevelt
days has come out in his support, with the
possible exception of R. G. Tugwell.
Tugwell is now reported to be suffering
from certain qualms. Like any liberal who
tries to work with Communists, he has been
forced into a ludicrous position. He has said
that he is personally in favor of the Marshall
Plan. But although he was the titular chair-
man of the platform committee, the plat-
form roundly condemns the plan as imperi-
alistic. Tugwell has unhappily announced
that this apparent contradiction is "unim-
portant."
The plain fact is that neither Tugwell
nor the decorative importations from
Hollywood and New York nor the fringe
groups of fuzzy-minded non-Commun-
ists who have joined Wallace, nor even
Wallace himself, really has anything to
do with the policy and strategy of the
Wallace movement. Wallace, and the
Wallace "crusade," are now entirely in the
hands of a small group of astute insiders.
Of these the most influential are C. B.
Baldwin, Lee Pressman and John Abt.
Baldwin, Wallace's "campaign manager,"
is not and doubtless never has been a mem-
ber of the Communist party, although he has
joined numerous party fronts, conspicu-
ously the party's legal instrument, the Civil
Rights Congress. But Baldwin has not been
known to step on any Communist toes. He is
a "united fronter"-one who believes in co-
operation with the Communists. Inevitably,
either unhappily as in Tugwell's case, or
contentedly as in Baldwin's, a united fron-
ter soon finds himself doing all the cooper-
ating.
Lee Pressman is in a different category. A
heavy-set man with a strong, sardonic face,
a powerful personality and an agile mind,
Pressman was until recently counsel for the
CI.O. Until Philip Murray fired him on the
Wallace issue, he was the chief friend at
court of C.I.O.'s minority Communist wing.
The real author of the Wallace platform,
Pressman is already probably the most pow-
erful single influence in the Wallace move-
ment. He has frequently been reported a
member of the Communist party and he has
not publicly denied it.
Abt, former counsel of the Amalga-
mated Clothing Workers, is a kind of cut-
rate Pressman, sharing his views, his af-
filiations and an office at Wallace head-
quarters. There are other insiders, like
Hannah Dorner, publicist for a number of
party-line causes, and Lew Frank, Wal-
lace's ghostwriter, who was chief whip for
the pro-Communist faction in the Ameri-
can Veterans Committee. But Baldwin,
Pressman and Abt are the chief manipu-
lators of the strings which cause Wallace
to do his ungainly dance.
One cannot help but wonder what is go-
ing on in the mind of Henry Wallace, for-
mer Vice-President of the United States, as
this macabre spectacle draws to a close. It
has not even been entertaining, simply be-
cause the well-oiled party machine allowed

Irons in the Fire
A GREAT MANY distinguished legislators
and officials have spent the greater part
of their public lives fighting the so-called
"curse of bigness," by which they mean the
strangling effect of the great industrial con-
centrations arising and growing in con-
temporary American society.
That these trusts, in such varied fields as
steel, movies and newspapers, are more and
more becoming a part of the national scene
is well-established fact. Ths despite some
valiant efforts by the Justice Department
and such men as Representative Patman
and Senator O'Mahoney. The monumental
report of the Senate TNEC, already partly
outdated, graphically underlined this con-
tinuing trend. Yet most citizens little realize
that the annual budgets of many large cor-
porations are larger than those of three-
fourths of the states.
Nineteenth century American govern-
ment sought to mesh the interests of small
farmers, small merchants, and craft work-
ers, scattered throughout the country.
The very disperse nature of the interests
involved aided the government in their re-
conciliation. Yet in the twentieth cen-
tury all the suasive powers of the national
administration may be focussed on a
single industry for weeks on end, without
meshing public need and private interest.
The give-and-take elasticity is gone from
the framework of government-industry
relations.
Honest men in government have, over the
past fifty yeais, tried to reverse the growth
of business combines by regulation, trust-
busting and judicial repression. They were
deeply convinced that chopping up indus-
try once more into the disunited fragments
of yesterday was the answer to the curse of
bigness. Yet despite all their efforts, it be-
comes daily more obvious that industrial
concentration is an irreversible tile in. our
economic life.
The present comeback of the small busi-
nessman is a temporary phenomenon which
can last only as long as the present unreal
era of high profit margins and excess mid-
dlemen. The little entrepreneur is essentially
inefficient, wasteful of labor and goods; his
speedy demise awaits only the return of
competitive markets.
Instead of wailing for the return of the
happy competition of other days (happy-
chiefly in reminiscene), would it not be
more sensible and realistic to apply Amer-
"big" business big only in the size of its
ican organizational talents to making
"big" business big only in the size of its
contribution to the public weal?
This by no means implies anything so
drastic as nationalization. It does mean that
by education or legislation the arbitrary
distinction between Consolidated Edison and
General Motors must be eliminated. The one
is justly recognized as a public utility, regu-
lated by federal and local statute because
its everyday operations are so intimately
bound up with the public welfare. Why not
the other?
Industry had better welcome regulation
by commission, lest they end up with dicta-
tion by commissars.
-David Saletan
-J
Current Movies
At the Michigan ...
THE BISHOP'S WIFE, with Cary Grant,
Loretta Young and David Niven.
"THE BISHOP'S WIFE" transports the
audience into Robert Nathan's shadow-
land, half way between reality and fantasy,
and creates a mood that is not dispelled

even when one leaves the theatre. A per-
vasive glow colors the entire picture and left
this reviewer, at least, with a very good
f eeling.
Hollywood has dealt kindly with Nathan's
gentle humor, and managed to bring the
warmth and humanity of his writing to the
screen intact.
Cary Grant turns up, surprisingly enough,
as a very convincing though halo-less angel.
but angelic as he is he finds it difficult to
resist the charms of the Bishop's Wife, ably
portrayed by Loretta Young. David Niven as
the harried-by-an-angel bishop, has a role
which is made for his shy charm.
A supporting cast, including veterans
Monty Wooley, James Gleason, Elsa Lan-
chester and Gladys Cooper adds excellent
touches in characteristic manner.
Although "The Bishop's Wife" is neither
a musical or an icetravaganza it contains
both a popular song hit, "Lost April," and a
bit of ice-skating that well might give Sonja
Henie a turn.
But these are incidentals to the plot. Not
exactly A Picture with A Message, "The
Bishop's Wife" contains enough of an un-
derlying theme to excuse its unlikely situa-
tions, if indeed an excuse is needed.
Personally, we wouldn't mind having an
angel like Cary around to straighten out our
troubles.
-Fredrica Winters.
AT CRIMEA on February 11, 1945, Presi-
dent Roosevelt, Prime Minister Church-
ill, and Premier Stalin agreed to inaugurate
"co-ordination, administration and control"
f' Cirrnn o n,, nnn y ho n1n-# -tf0,a , .-4not hut. the

Connolly ircus
\ F
'And now for the weather , .'. A'
4'i
P -Hugh Connolly, Daily Staff Cartoonist
"I'm tempted by this Devii's food cake." -
- -
11

Thomas Natural Shorthand will
be presented 'by Dr. Charles A.
Thomas. author of the system, in
Room 268. School of Business Ad-
ministration. Monday evening,
July 26. at 7 p.m. Anyone inter-
ested in shorthand systems is
cordially invited.

On Tuesday evening, July 27. at
8:10 in the Rackham Lecture Hall,
Mr. J. Burke Knapp, Director, Of-
fice of Financial and Development
Policy, Department of State, will
speak on the "European Economic
Recovery Program." The title of
his lecture will be Financing the
Supply of Europe.
A cademic Notices
Doctoral Examination for Ra-
fael Cordova-Marques, Bacteriol-
ogy; theis: "The Effect on Toxin
Production and Growth of Pass-c
ing Air and CO-2 Through Deepe
Broth Cultures of Corynebacte-
riumn Diphtheriae," Mon.. July 2,1
1564 East Medical Building, 1
p.m. Chairman, M H. Soule., t
Doctoral Examination for
Charles Floyd Shockey, Educa-
tion; thesis: "Selected Sanitary1
Personnel for Local Community
Service: An Analysis of Merit1
System Specifications of their
Preparation and a Study of Se-
lected Training Programs," Mon.,
July 26, East Council Room,
Rackham Building, 3 p.m. Chair-E
roan, Mabel E. Rugen
Concerts
Carillon Recital: The Sunday1
afternoon carillon program will1
consist entirely of works by GeorgeI
Frederick Handel. It will be played
at 2 :15 by Pr'ofessor Percival
Price, University Carillonneur.
Faculty Concert: The fifth pro-I
gram in the Monday evening se-
ries will be presented by Gilbert
(Continued on Page 4)
Ross brnd Emil Raab, violinists,
Bernard Milofsky, violist, Oliver
Edel, cellist, and John Kollen, pi-
anist, at 8:00 Monday evening,
July 26, in the Rackham Lecture
Hall. The program will include
Beethoven's Trio in E-flat major,
Op. 70, No. 2, Quartet in F major,
Op. 135 by the same composer,
and American Serenade by Leron
Robertson. Since it is being
broadcast the public is requested
to be seated before 8:00.
Band Concert: The University
>f Michigan Summer Session Band,
William D. Revelli, Conductor, will
be heard at 8 p.m. Tues., July 27,
in Hill Auditorium, in its annual
concert. Erik Leidzen, Guest Lec-
ture' in Theory in the School of
Music, will conduct the band in his
arrangement of Prokofieff's "Mu-
sic for A Summer. Day," as well
as two of his own compositions.
The concert will be open to the
general public without charge.
Events Today
Special Summer Session Choir
Concert: First Presbyterian
Church, 8 p.m., Sun., July 25, pre-
senting Gabriel Faure's Requiem.
Helen Hosmer, director, Eleanor
Peeke, soprano, Howard Street,
baritone, and Mary McCall Stub-
bins, organist. Open to the gen-
eral public.
Coming Events
Sociedad Hispanica. The Con-
versation Groups of the Sociedad
Hispanica will meet as usual at 4
p.m. at the "Casa Espanola" Tues.,
the League Cafeteria Wed., and
the International Center Thurs.
All those who wish to practice
speaking Spanish informally are
urged to attend.
Linguistic Institute Luncheon
Conference. Lecture on "Sounds
and -Prosodies" by Professor J. R.
Firth of the University of London,
Wed., July 28, Union Building.

Luncheon 12:10, Anderson Room;
Lecture 1:00, Room 308.
Pi Lambda Theta picnic will be
held at the Women's Athletic
Building on Tuesday, July 27, from
5:30 to 7:30 p.m.

TO THE EDITOR
The Daily accords Its readers the
privilege of submitting letters for
publication In this column. Subject
to space limitations, the general pol-
icy is to publish in the order In which
- they are received all letters bearing
the writer's signature and address.
Letters exceeding 300 words, repeti-
tious letters and letters of a deama-
tory characteror such letters which
for any other reason are not in good
taste will not be published. The
editors reserve the privilege of cop-
densing letters.
* * *
PedeStrirn Reply
To the Editor:
Re: Mr. Laschever's English bi-
cycle. Lucky thing for Mr. Lasch-
ever that the notches on his bike
include only "school teachers, dog
and miscellaneous girls of sorority
age." Of this category, it is in-
teresting to note that it wasonly
"man's best friend"" that had the
justifiable aggressiveness to de-
fend the common pedestrian's
privileges.
Should Mr. Laschever ever feel
giddy enough to single me out as
a target during his mad dash to
his 8 o'clock, he might well end up
making a 9 o'clock at Health Ser-
vice. To paraphrase Mr. Lasch-
ever himself-what is more beau-
tiful or soothing than the sound of
a bike rider's square head gliding
gracefully on a cement walk?
As for me, I likewise will not be
intimidated. Your "bike" may ride,
Mr. Laschever, but just check
those strewn limbs for size. They
may be your own.
-Arny Gittleman
Aid to Foreign Nations?,
OF COURSE WE BELIEVE in
the Marshall Plan. We believe
also in the plan to help the chil-
di'en of Europe, not only because
they need help now, but mostly
because they are the citizens of
the world of twenty years hence,
and if we don't help, where will
we be? Similarly, if we don't help
the European nations to get on
their feet, we will have a contin-
uation of European misery, and
ultimate war. We may have war
anyway.
But we object and object
strenuously to the joining of the
parade by those who have only
things to sell, or see an oppor-
tunity to cash in handsomely
on somebody's misery, and mak-
ing the Marshall Plan chiefly
that. Which it is unfortunately
likely to become!
We had much information in
and out of Congress, about several
billion dollars worth of tobacco
going to Europe, United States
tobacco, of course, though we were
helping Turkey with military
things. And Turkey, if memory
serves us right, also raises to-
bacco, though if Turkish tobacco
were sent to Western Europe, our
tobacco growers wouldn't make a
cent on it.
NOW WE discover through the
weekly In Fact, that on June
15 in Congress, Senator Styles
Bridges, in answer to a question
from Senator Langer, said that
$398,000 worth of Coca-cola syrup
was to be sent to Europe. "The
Coca-cola syrup," says the week-
ly, "joins the list of exports which
now include light wines, tobacco,
and $10,000,000.00 worth of hand-
picked newspapers and magazines,
all designed to help Europe get
back on its feet."
"Politics makes srange bed-
fellows," goes the saying. The stuff
that is sent to Europe in the name
of aiding the European nations,
is "strange" indeed. Have you
ever thought how close the E.R.P.
can come to politics? Power poli-
tics, that is!

"-Washtenaw Post-Tribune

Xetter4

I

I.-
.1

Publication in The Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all r
members of theUniversity. Notices
for the Bulletin should be sent in
typewritten form to the office of the
Assistant to the President, RoomI
1021 Angell Hall, by 3:00 p.m. on ,
the day preceding publication (11:00
a.m. Saturdays).
.* . .
Notices
SUNDAY, July 25, 1948
VOL. LVIII, No. 193
Notice of Regents' Meeting: The
nexa meeting of the Regents will
be on September 24, 1948, 2 p.m.
Communications for consideration1
at this meeting must be in the
President's hands not later than
September 16.
Herbert G. Watkinsj
Secretary
Bureau of Appointments & Occu-
pational Information, 201 Mason
Hall
The Ansco Cor:poration, Bing-
hamton, New York, will have a
representative at our office on
Mon., July 26th, to interview men
in chemistry, chemical engineer-
ing, or electrical engineering. Call,
extension 371 for apointments.
Women students in the summer
session who wish to remain for
the fall semester and have not yet
applied for housing should do so
at once at the Office of the Dean
of Women.
Survey Research Techniques:
Tues., July 27, classes 231 and 232
will meet jointly at 10 a.m. Room
76 of the New Business Adminis-
tration Building. Dr. Hauser and
Dr. Stouffer will be present to de-
scribe some of their research.
Seniors: College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts, Schools of
Education, Music, and Public
Health: Tentative lists of seniors
for August graduation have been
posted on the bulletin board in
Room 4 University Hall. If your
name does not appear, or if in-
cluded there, is not correctly
spelled, please notify the counter
clerk. I
English Teachers' Summer As-
sembly (final)--Wed., July 28, in
Assembly Rackham Building. Sub-
ject: "Principles in Teaching Lit-

Rackham Building. There will be
an informal panel discussion on
American Customs by three Span-
ish-American students, Roberto
Gordillo, Fabio Gomez, and Pedro
Sacio Arriz. The audience is invit-
ed to participate in the discussion.
Group singing will follow.
August, 1948, Graduates in
Mechanical, Industrial-Mechani-
cal, Aeronautical with Power Ma-
jor and Metallurgical Engineer-
ing: Mr. H. G. Bigler of GENER-
AL MOTORS CORPORATION,
Detroit, will interview students in
the above groups, Friday July 30,
in Room 218 West Engineering
Building. Students may sign the
interview schedule posted on the
Bulletin Board outside of Room
225 W. Engr. Bldg. Aplication
Blanks and a Faculty Rating
Blank are available.
Lectures
Survey Research Center lecture:
"Some Problems and Limita-
tions of Survey Research," Philip
M. Hauser, Director, Chicago
Community Inventory, University
of Chicago, 4 p.m., July 26, Rack-
ham Amphitheatre.
Linguistic Institute Forum Lee-,
ture. "What Can the Indo-Euro-
peanist Learn from an Etymolo-
gical Dictionary of Spanish?" by
Prof. John Corominas of the Dep't.
of Romance Languages, University
of Chicago, Tues., July 27, 7:30
p.m., Rackham mphitheatre.
Symposium on Theoretical and
Nuclear Physics
Lecture Program for the week
beginning July 26th. Room 150
Hutchins Hall.
Prof. Casimir continues his dis-
cussion of "Low Temperature
Physics" with lectures on Mon.,
Wed., and Fri., 10 a.m.
The concluding lectures on the
subject, "Recent Experiments in
High Energy Physics," will be
given by Professor McMillan
Tues., at 10 and 11 a.m., and
Thurs. at 11 a.m.
Professor Schwinger's presenta-
tion ofs"Recent Developments in
Quantum Electrodynamics" will be
continued on Monday, Wednesday
and Friday at 11 o'clock.

w

tC

Fifty-Eighth Year

,-

M
L
i
1
,
f

Cihurches
Michigan Christian Fellowship:
Rev. Leonard Verduin of the Stu-
dents Evangelical Chapel in Ann
Arbor will be the speaker at
the Michigan Christian Fellowship
meeting Sunday afternoon at 4:30
in the basement of Lane Hall.
Rev. Verduin is a very qualified
speaker, his topic will be "Strang-
ers and Pilgrims in the Earth."
* * *
Lutheran Student Association:
The Lutheran Student Association
will meet Sunday at 5:30 p.m. in
Zion Lutheran Parish Hall. Sup-
per will be served at 6:00 and a
program of Student Talent will
follow the supper hour.
C *a es
Congregational-Disciples Guild:
The Congregational-Disciples guild
will meet at the2Guild House, 438
Maynaird St., at 2:00 p.m., to go to
the University Fresh Air Camp on

Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Stafi
Lida Dailes ..........Managing Editor
Kenneth Lowe.......Associate Editor
Joseph R. Walsh, Jr...Sports Editor
Business Stafi
Robert James .......Business Manager
Harry Berg .......Advertising Manager
Ernest Mayerfeld . Circulation Manager
Telephone 23.24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively:
entitled to the use for re-publication
of all news dispatches credited to it or

3

i

",

Back to Top

© 2021 Regents of the University of Michigan