THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Review - - -_
Second Front's Proving Grounds
Jim Farley Makes Hay
Political drama was enacted in
New York last week. The scene was
the Democratic state convention to
determine who would run for gover-
nor of New York on the donkey's
back. The actors were Governor Leh-
man and genial, shrewd Jim Farley.
The audience was a host of uncon-
cerned newspaper reporters, photo-
graphers with .flashlight bulbs in
their pockets, delegates out for a
good, boisterous time.
In plain view of the newspapermen
and barely out of hearing, Farley said
no to Governor Lehman's request for
a compromise candidate. Two min-
utes later Senator Robert F. Wagner
stepped to the platform and loudly
nominated Senator James F. Mead
for governor of New York. His speech
would never have been given if Far-
ley had answered yes.
The play went on as the delegates
watched. It was tense, exciting pol-
itics handled by veterans who bluff-
ed, clowned, frowned, worried. Re-
porters told Farley that the Mead
camp was circulating the story that
Frank V. Kelly of Brooklyn had re-
leased his key delegation-which
would have spelled victory for Mead
-and the bald-headed fighter walk-
ed over to where Kelly was sitting.
"Is it so?" Farley asked. "No," Kelly
answered. The play went on.
Kelly and Farley mugged seriously,,
whispering into each other's ear.
Their decision was to have each of
the 1,016 delegates polled individu-
ally instead of having the county lea-
der announce the result for each
county. Farley didn't want it this
way, but he knew there were com-
promises in politics. The ordersfor
individual polling came from FDR.
The decision to let it go through was
The Mead forces were trying to
force a break in the Kings County
delegates. They thought the dele-
gates from the New Deal districts
in Brooklyn wouldn't dare stand up
and be counted against the President
of the United States. The pressure
was on in big doses. Farley pulled up
a chair and anchored it on the deck
of a freight elevator. And he took
the pressure without cracking.
The final act came up and it was
all up to Frank V. Kelly, Brooklyn
leader. If he could hold his Kings
County delegates, Farley would put
one over on his old boss. Kelly did.
Bennett was nominated by a vote
of 623 to 393 over Mead.
The victory was the greatest in
Farley's political career. He had
bucked the Chief-and had won.
The Treasury hauled out the old
"cheesecake" on the sly a few weeks
ago. Quiet, dignified Treasury offi-
cials looked at the war bond drive
and thought it was getting dull. The
public was beginning to find it irk-
some. It was too methodical, merely
emptied the wallet without any gla-
mour. So Treasury officials blushed
and called in Hollywood.
This "cheesecake" game was right
down Hollywood's alley. The publi-
city gag-men went to work. They
paraded soft-eyed bathing beauties
before middle-aged men. They haul-
ed out blonde dolls with graceful legs
to trap the youthful romantics. Hol-
lywood went out to get the public's
pocketbooks with vengeance.
Marlene Dietrich last week was
crowned "best bond-seller of all"
by enthusiastic Treasury officials.
She made three cross-country trips.
The result: she upped pulses and un-
zipped the purses of thousands. She
was terrific. If she couldn't get re-
sults by lifting her skirts, she rolled
her eyes. If her eyes got tired, she
gave kisses. Best kiss of the week
given by Miss Dietrich was to worker
Edward LaCuoco of Cleveland's Gen-
eral Electric plant. For La Dietrich's
lipstick, LaCuoco signed away ten
per cent of his pay "for the dura-
tion." The Empress of Cheesecake
stooped to bestow her kiss. Said La-
At French Lick Springs, Indiana,
Tom Taggart, owner of the famous
hotel which brings people running
for its Pluto Water, invited 1,000
rich Indianans to spend a free week-
end. Pluto Water was on the house.
The only catch was: at least $1,000
in war bonds for each guest. Total
sales in French Lick hit $2,250,000.
The Treasury hit the jack-pot.
Bahr To The Bar
Herbert Karl Friedrich Bahr put his
life in the hands of six men and six
women, all businessmen and house-
wives, last week. He is charged by the
FBI of coming to the United States
as a German spy. His defense is that
"he meant to trick the Germans."
Bahr claims he is an American ci-
tizen because his German-born fa-
ther was naturalized. He said he
ba~r r n + fhiqrninv hPamis hp
lights were still on and the glow they
made lighted up the skyline for miles
Local officials hooked thumbs in-
side vests and beamed about the dim-
out. "Pretty good," they said. But
military authorities scowled. They
were far from satisfied. They were
thinking of the dangers to shipping
which might result from the flagrant
refusal by night-life promoters to1
obey orders. The Army has its ex-
perts looking the situation over.;
Something will pop-and should.
What's In A Grin?
Out of Washington last week came
news that Wendell Willkie was pre-
paring for another of his trips
abroad. Where he would go this time,
Willkie would not say. But obser-
vers smiled when reporters asked:
Willkie made the announcement
shortly after a luncheon date with
President Roosevelt. Earlier he had
conferred for two hours with Secre-
tary Hull and Soviet Ambassador
Willkie said the trip was arranged
on his own initiative because he de-
sired to "get acquainted with the
countries and the leaders with whom
the United States would cooperate
more and more both in the immedi-
ate and long-range future." With a
grin, Willkie admitted one thing that
made reporters happy. He said that
President Roosevelt had asked him
to perform certain services for the
government. The accent was on "ser-
vices." -Robert Mantho
Little smiles of victory--of small
victories but hopeful--were justified
for the Allies last week.
Nazi troops watch the French
beaches carefully for men with paint-
ed faces and long knives who swarm
out of shallow barges from across
the Channel to kill their comrades
without pity and to destroy their
marvelous fortifications. The ever-
present threat of invasion worried
Hitler's diabolically clever generals
so much that they put heavy armor
on the captured coasts.
For nine hours last week those
fortifications felt the sting of a hea-
vy lash - that of the Commandos-
more of them than had ever landed
before. They struck at Dieppe, show-
ed their mettle, now well proven, as
they destroyed a gun battery and an
American hearts pounded hard as
the blackest of headlines announced
that United States Rangers had gone
along for their first. blow at the
Germans. With them were the ac-
tion-hungry Canadians who have
been idling in Britain for months and
the experienced, tough, Britishers.
On land the Commandos struck
fear into the enemy with their bru-
tal killings, but overhead a real vic-
tory was won. Shielding the troops
from the Luftwaffe, more than a
1,000 Allied aircraft roared across
the Channel as they had done before
to strike at Rostock and Cologne.
When their mission of protection
was accomplished, the Nazis found
themselves with 275 planes lost or
out of commission.
Immediately, the loss of those
planes was the most important out-
Senator James A. Mead, heavily
backed by the President himself to
win the Democratic nomination for
governor of New York, couldn't
beat the political razzle-dazzle of
Jim Farley. Farley's man John
Bennett won on the first ballot.
Southern California for a distance
of 150 miles inland joined the rest
of the Pacific coast in a dimout last
week. It will last for the duration
of the war. But trouble was ob-
served immediately. The "hot spots"
couldn't be bothered. Their bright,
gaudy signs still blinked in the night,
served immediately. The "hot spots"
Conferences in Moscow brought Winston Churchill, Britain's Prime
Minister, and Josef Stalin, Premier of the Soviet Union, together. The
topic of discussion was the long-awaited second front. What decisions
were reached are not yet known, but they may he among the most
significant of the war.
come of the terrific Commando raid.
The Germans are now compelled to
withdraw part of their air strength
from either Africa where it is already
none too secure with Americans oper-
ating or from Russia. Every little
bit counts to help Russia now.
In the long run the vital necessi-
ty of such Commando raids will be-
come obvious. Those men who
smashed German skulls in France
are learning how to fight, how to
GATEWAYS INTO THE CAUCASUS 1
land on rough beaches and how to
use every trick in the business. When
the Second Front is opened as it
must be, they will be the operating
nerve-center for the larger forces.
Two days before the huge bush-
whacking in France, the news broke
that Britain's Prime Minister had
been in Moscow from Aug. 12 to 15
to confer with Stalin and his gov-
ernment about the Second Front.
Gen. Sir Archibald Wavell and Maj.
Gen, Russel P. Maxwell, cormander
of the U. S. forces in the Middle East
went along with him to uphold the
nilitary side of the Second Front in
the conferences with Molotov, Rus-
sia's Peoples' Comimissar for Foreign
Affairs, and, Marshal Clementi Voro-
News men could only guess about
the decisions; those affairs were kept
secret as the Soviets know how to
keep them. But in all the world,
unimportant men sincerely hoped
that the pipe-smoking dictator of
the Soviets and the cheroot-puffing,
pudgy Prime Minister had planned a
follow-up to the huge raid that was
due in the next week. Perhaps, the
Soviets were told in advance about
the coming stab at France.
The Dieppe raid meant to Wash-
ington observers that a Second Front
was possible, to London observers the
same thing. To the Russians it was
like a drop of water on a feverish
But the wily Churchill kept his
counsel next turned up in Cairo to
look over his shuttling desert armies.
Some military experts remembered
that Italy might be a pushover for
invasion. Presumably, Cairo danced.
That Second Front must come
quickly. It could be too late.
The Nazi columns push further
and further into the Caucasus like
a spit in a barbeque. They squirm in
through the mountains with their
tanks and find themselves in the
ruined, sabotaged oil' fields. The Rus-
sians greet them with scorched earth
Stalingrad still is in Soviet hands.
The Nazis have not yet broken
through the defenses at the great
bend of the Don as the Soviets pick
off each soldier who manages to cross
the great river.
But in the South the Nazis are
still gaining, Not only are they pene-
trating to the rich oil-fields where
they will get, that strategic supply,
but toward the Black Sea go columns
split from the main body. The Allies
will need three fronts or more if the
Germans succeed in attacking by sea
* * *
Tulagi And Points East
A beautiful, deep blue harbor has
Tulagi. Tourists from the United
States used to stop there on
paid trips and admire the palms.
Tulagi has been having different
visitors lately. The Japs took over
the hotels and beaches first, and now
the United States Marines are taking
them over again.
Through all the Solomons last
week, U. S. planes have pounced Jap
bases. And in Tulagi, Malaita and
San Cristobal the tough Marines are
now "mopping up." It is the first
time that the American forces have
regained lost land in the war.
The fighting is still going on. Ma-
rines are hitting hard, killing 600
Japs in one battle, Last week was the
second week of battle in the Solo-
mons; it was the first time in the
war that it has been offensive battle.
Now the third week begins with con-
tinuing fighting and probable new
Full of meaning was this first vic-
tory. The Japs are no longer in the
nerfect nosition they once held for
by Borneo, not far from Java. And
commando work was not confined to
Europe alone. Marines swept up to
Makin Island, one of the Gilbert
group, killed 80 Japs, ruined a sea
plane base and left town. Only mo-
derate losses were recorded.
One of the raid's leaders was Ma-
jor James Roosevelt, the President's
son. He has been in the Marines on
active duty since November, 1940.
When Jimmy went on active duty
after receiving a captain's commis-
sion, there was a loud uproar from
Congress-now he has proven nim-
Thus the smashing Marines have
taken on of the first steps toward a
really large victory. But the Marines
and the Navy men who won them
proved to themselves that, they are
the equals of the Japs--more than
equal, are they not licking them?
,* * *
Join Our Party
"Piracy" is Brazil's technical term
for ship-sinkings by Nazis. Already
committed to a strong partisanship
for the Allies, Brazil and her bene-
volent despot, Getulio Vargas, was in
no mood to play when her boats were
sent woefully, piratically to the bot-
tom by Nazi U-boats.
Crowds roamed the streets of Rio
de Janeiro, looking for German na-
tionals. and their shops. When they
found one or the other, violence oc-
curred. The people of Brazil were de-
Diplomatic relations have not been
maintained with Germany or Italy
since Jan. 29, the time of the Pan-
American conference. The Axis could
not stop its spy work. There was in-
ternal trouble and the U-boats
threatened Brazil's ships. In May,
Brazilian plans sunk an Axis subma-
rine. Nothing further happened until
Five ships were sunk along Brazil's
coast line last week. One of them was
an Army transport; gruesome, shark-
scaned bodies floated ashore. No
wonder the Brazilians wvhre sore.
Vargas promised revenge. Brazil's
planes were out over the Atlantic
patrolling with the Americans. Ger-
man nationals were taken into cus-
tody as hostages and the Army and
Navy exercised to put itself in shape.
The Republic of Brazil declared
war on Germany and Italy yesterday.
She called it "a state of belligerency"
with a South American flourish, but
phone calls to Buenos Aires revealed
that actual hostilities-no reserva-
tions-would- be started. Brazil join-
ed 28 other United Nations in the war
against the Axis.
Revolution in India is not pro-
ceeding at an unabated rate. The
Viceroy of the Raj showed the Hin-
dus a sample of real imperalsm by
bringing out the police, first with
tear gas, then with clubs and finally
with guns. His motives were clear;
the Japs were at India's back door.
Mohandas Gandhi was still in pri-
son, looking his mournful saintliness
in a white loin cloth. He was joined
by his son, Devadas, editor of the
Hindustan Times, who was arrested
under the provisions of the Defense
of India' act.
All India was not behind the wave
of civil disobedience led by the aged
holy man and his reflection polished
slightly more in the ways of the
modern British-Pandit Nehru. The
All-Inda Congress Party had never
the backing of the Moslem League.
But from Congress' inner circle there
came a plea for reconciliation by Sir
Tej Bahadar Sapru, eminent Hindu
Rumors were that Sir Tej was go-
ing to visit Lord Linlithgow, the Vi-
ceroy from Britain, the Raj, to try
to bring about a settlement. Influen-
tial Sir Tej, often a middle-man for
Gandhi and the British urged at the
famous All-India Congress that a
parliamentary commission be sent
from Britain to study the affair.
Stubbornly sticking to its guns, the
Moslem League, the old rival of the
All-India Congress Party, reaffirmed
its complete opposition to a govern-
ment by the Congress. If Britain
were to seek peace with the All-India
Congress Party "it would be a betray-
al of the Moslems," said shrewd Mo-
hammed Ali Jinnah, president of the
Then came what seemed a com-
plete about face. A committee of the
Moslem League was drafting a reso-
lution to make peace with the All-
India Congress if she would join a
war government. For four days the
committee bickered and shouted, de-
bated and cross-examined. The result
was a disappointment to the western
world-only a minority wanted peace
with the Congress. Spat Jinnah fresh
from drafting a cutting resolution
against the Congress: "Our attitude
Unchanged also was the attitude
FROM TURKEY come reports that the German high command
may be satisfied to settle down for the well-known Russian win-
ter north of the Caucasian Mountain Range. Winter is only a few
weeks off in the upper passes of the rugged, snowcapped Caucasian
peaks that barricade the isthmus for nearly 1,000 miles from the
Black to Caspian Sea.
Many horse passes, merely rough bridle paths open only to un-
mechanized cavalry, and three military roads cross this barrier;
railroads flank it on the two sea coasts as do the sea lanes.
On these mountains and on the fighting Cossacks and the hardy
guerrilla mountaineers Russia's strategic retreat to the mountains
may well be based-on them and on the ability to plug the few pas-
sageways through and around the mountains with troops and well-
placed dynamite blasts.
In 1832 an avalanche blocked the then new Georgian Military
Road, most historic of the three invasion and caravan routes be-
tween Europe and' Asia via the Caucasian Isthmus, And it took
three years to clear that highway to traffic.
* * * *
MAN-MADE AVALANCHES may serve to keep German Alpine
troops, apparently brought up for the mountain fighting, on the
other side of the hills. Good tank and motorized warfare country
ends abruptly north of the mountains. From there on the Nazis face
an uphill climb such as they have not seen in three years of war.
The Russians have been making a stand where the steppes give
way to mountains on the southbound rail spur to Mikoyan Shakhar,
northern apnroach to the Sukhum Military Road. From here a
bush and are perfect set-ups for inspired avalanches. Both begin at
or near Ordzhonikidze and cut across the center of the mountain
The Ossetian Highway is the longer of the two and goes over the
top at 8,700 feet through the Mamison Pass. Its general direction is
southwest, away from Baku, and its southern terminal is Kutaisi on
the Rion River and the Trans-Caucasion railroad.
The easternmost highway is the Georgian Military Road, 128
miles of winding, twisting, hairpin turns. The tourist bus used to
make the trip in eight hours, averaging 16 miles an hour.
From 2,000 feet above sea level at Ordzhonikidze the road winds
up through wild Darial Gorge (or pass), weaves across racing moun-
tain streams on narrow iron bridges, crossing the range at 7,000 feet.
Hereabouts the mountains tower above 9,000 feet. From snow-
covered peas the road falls away to Tiflis and the sub-tropical
climate of Georgia.
This road, known as the "Gates of the Caucasus," is subject to
avalanches through its highest point, which the mountain people call
the "Pass of the Cross." None of these military roads is particularly
inviting to an invader accustomed to roll full tilt through low coun-
tries along normal automobile highways, The alternatives are the
seacoasts and here, too, the percentage is with the house, in this
case the defenders.
* * * *
PERSONS familiar with railroads along the Black and Caspian Sea
shores compare them to the railroad on the narrow ledge between
the Palisades of the Hudson River and the river's edge-if the Pali-