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July 14, 1940 - Image 3

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Michigan Daily, 1940-07-14

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SUNDAY, JULY 14, 1940

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

PACE TYMEN

Will England
Be Next.?

THE

WORLD

THIS

WEEK

Will Roosevelt
Run Again?

THE
Next Phase...
KEY TO AN UNDERSTANDING ofi
the war this week appears to beI
"fulfillment of the expected," even
down to the usually unpredictable
Balkans. Several important ques-i
tions, however, were left unanswered8
by events abroad, among them: Are
Russia and Germany splitting the
Balkans according to secret and pre-
arranged terms of their modus-vi-
vendi of last summer, or are the two
countries falling out over rich and
war-mportant southeastern Europe;
and what is England doing in the
way of preparation for the Nazi
super-Blitzkrieg, the next phase of
National Socialist dynamism, which
has yet to reach its full power and
fury? The answers may come at any
moment, but in the meantime...-
In Engad ..
T HE THREAT of invasion echoing
from Nazi-held French ports across
the Channel, hastened last-minute
attempts to vitiate the portions of1
the French fleet that escaped Eng-
land's 'with us or against us' blow
of. last week.(
Early in the week Britain an-
nounced that France's new - andi
mightiest warship Richelieu had been
made "safe" from Nazi control, and
that the French fleet at Alexandria
had been persuaded to immobilize
itself.i
Simultaneously England found time
to engage Mussolini's Mediterranean
fleet, and made vague claims to vic-
tory, but the incident was shrouded
in the familiar counter-claims of
war communiques on both sides.
The British cause looked encour-
aging for the first time in a long
while-when Italian communiques ad-
mitted heavy losses in air and sea.
Rome disclosed more than 250 fliers
killed or wounded; most of a Medi-
terranean air fleet of 300 planes dam-
aged; and loss of the motorship
Paganini with 220 men aboard-all
in Italy's less thantthree weeks of
war were deemed to indicate even
more serious defeats. These reports
were offset, however, with claims-
unadmitted by England-of hits on
mightiest cruiser Hood and 22,000-
ton plane carrier Royal Oak.
But activities againstdFascist
France and the Italians faded into'
insignificance the latter part of the
week as the prelude to total war in
England was heard from Scotland to
Wales to the tune of machine gun
staccattos and bomb explosions.
Small but incessant waves of Nazi
planes strafed southern England, pit-
ting cities and countryside. An an-
nouncement that King George had
escaped by minutes a bomb raid in
an undisclosed portion of the under-
fire zone, heightened the drama of
modern war.
Raid casualties had mounted to
hundreds in the three days of bomb-
ing, while Britain claimed a toll of
more than 65 raiders, some of them
big bombers, and loss of only a
handful of defense ships.
While the symphony of death and
destruction goes on, Englan} moved
quickly to save her youngsters from
the -crushing effects of war. Plans
were drawn for "exporting" 100,000
children, and 20,000 overseas homes
volunteered sanctuary for the young
refugees. But the spread of the war
caught up with the errand of mercy,
reports yesterday showed: The shil-
ment of children has been abandoned
as too dangerous without the con-
voys that can not be spared from
the business of defense of the coun-
try.

The Axis....
GERMANY MATCHED BRITAIN'S
BLOCKADE with one of her own
last week: a week that the Nazis
claimed cost the British shipping its
greatest losses of the war.
Pitting submarines and light cruis-
ers against battlewagons; wave upon
wave of dive'bombers against super-
idr, but fewer English fighting planes,
The German High Command con-
fidently reports that the backbone
of Britain's offensive, the blockade,
which the Royal Navy is now des-
perately trying to string around
France and up through the Mediter-
ranean, is breaking up.
Extensive naval operations, many
of them radiating from Hitler's new
conquest in Norway, resulted in the
capture of what the Nazi High Com-
mand described as "valuable prize
ships." Forcing their way swiftly
through the reputedly impregnable
British blockade line, the Reich's
men-of-war have reaped a harvest
of richly laden cargo vessels: food
for hungry Germans and raw ma-

WAR
been paralyzed by the sting of light-
ning air attacks.
Against Germany's relentless aer-
ial onslaught England has sent her
best airmen, claims Nazi raids were
hit-and-miss expeditions, doing lit-
tle damage and costing Germany 80
warplanes: a cost of approximately
$4,000,000.
In France . .
DICTATORSHIP DROVE another
nail into the coffin of democ-
racy this week when beaten France,
once a symbol of "liberty, fraternity
and equality" underwent a political
metamorphosis and emerged as Eur-
ope's newest exponent of "work, fam-
ily and fatherland."
France, bureaucracy supreme, with
a reputation among political scien-
tists for never having a government
during time of crisis, came out of this
one with a government that gives all
signs of sticking with the typical
tenacity of totalitarian regimes.
In the formal language of mon-
archs, 84 year old Premier Henri
Phillippe Petain solemnly placed ace
dictator-appeaser Pierre Laval at his
right hand and first in line for suc-
cession. Gen. Maxime Weygand and
Adrien Marquet form with Laval a
power-behind-the-throne triumvir-
ate in a 12-man cabinet.
Parliament was rendered an advis-
ory committee when the French near-
fascists at Vichy finished streamlin-
ing the 'antiquated' constitution.
In true fascist style, provision for
indoctrination of youth with the pro-
per spirit was also immediately pro-
vided, to be directed by Jean Ybar-
negaray, formerly of the outlawed
"Croix de Feu."
Petain awaited only German ap-
proval beforeputting his government
physically as well as ideologically
under Hitler control: he plans to
move to German-occupied Versailles.
Irony mixed with tragedy in the
French scene when ex-president Le-
brun made his farewell speech to the
nation-only the Parliament that
voted him out of his job, failed to
convene to hear his adieu.
It is only a strange quirk of fate
-that makes the anniversary of the
storming of the Bastille (symbol of
the life and death struggle of the
French people for liberty) the day
when France falls completely under
the heel of her traditional enemy,
and is ground into the mire of dic-
tatorship:-today, July 14.
In the Balkans
THE "NEW ORDER" IN THE
BALKANS moved this week to
stabilize the delicate situation in the
Balkans. Italy and Germany took
steps to maintain, at least for the
moment, peace in that sector, to
avoid a Balkan revision that would
upset the productive system of this
vast, region, damaging a valuable
source of raw materials. And Rus-
sian annexation of Bessarabia pre-
cipitated a situation to be cleared
up before the big guns can be trained
on Britain.
Chancellor Adolf Hitler conferred
with Count Ciano in a hurried meet-
ing in Berlin to settle the fate of
Rumania and to discuss the Russian
threat to Italy's vital interests in this
area.
Rumania, under German pressure,
Nazified her regime and banished
the last vestiges of British economic
and political influence. Rumania
found herself in, the same plight as
post-Munich Czecho-Slovakia, and
while Germany has decreed that the
Hungarians and Bulgarians shall not

press their claims by force .of arms,
indications were that they will be
awarded territory to preserve that
"peace in the Balkans.'
Yesterday in Ankara Prime Minis-
ter Refik Saydam told National As-
sembly that Turkey was determined
to fight if attacked. The Turks still
are worried, apparently, over the
"offensive of documents" published
by Germany and purported to be
captured French diplomatic corre-
spondence, showing' Turkish collab-
oration with the Allies last spring in
plans for attacking Russia's Cau-
casiap oil fields.
If Stalin decides the time is now
ripe to press his claims against Tur-
key the coming week may well upset
the wobbly structure of Southeastern
Europe.
In the Far East
THE "BAD SITUATION" in the Far
East fared up again this week as
handbills carrying anti-American
slogans were posted in Shanghai,
registering protest by "indignant
Japanese patriots" against the "mis-
treatment" of Japanese gendarmes
a Ad y T a rinns eeetanrvte

Democratic Convention Leaders Are Confident
President RooseveltWillAccept Renomination

Principal Task IsTo Find
FDR's Running Mate;
Hull Retains Refusal
The Democratic Party was looking
for a vice-president this week as it
made ready for its Chicagon conven-
tion on the assumption that Presi-
dent Roosevelt, will accept a third
term.
The President revealed his long-
awaited decision to Postmaster Gen-
eral James A. Farley Sunday, follow-
ing the meeting, but the latter would
only say, "It is up to the President
to discuss his plans. He was ex-
tremely fiank with me and I was
frank with him, but I will not di-
vulge what he told me."
President Roosevelt broke his long-
contined reticence on the subject
of the convention with a statement
Friday that he would not attend the
nominating sessions in Chicago, but
still made no comment on his own
plans.
The "draft" movement to renomin-
ate President Roosevelt took definite
shape Friday with the arrival of
Senator Byrnes of South Carolina and
Secretary of Commerce Harry L.i
Hopkins, who dispelled any doubtf
that the President would run again.
These leaders professed to be acting
without direct authority from The
Chief, but with complete belief that
he will accept renomination on the
ground that his Administration
should be continued in a time of na-
tional emergency.
The plan to renominate the Presi-
dent by acclamation appai-ently is

Will This Be The Slate Chosen At Chicago?

sphere as the leading issue in the
campaign. The President's pledge
Wednesday that no American troops
would be sent to Europe was also
destined to be a leading provision
of the foreign relations plank
Secretary Hull, it was reported in,
Chicago, continued to be unwilling
to accept the Vice-Presidential nom-
ination, which should be the most-
pressing business of the convention.
Among the avowed or receptive can-
lidates are: New Deal Supreme Court
Judge William O. Douglas, former
chairman of the SEC; Paul V. Mc-
Nutt, former governor of Indiana,
who held the inside track for a while
when the President named him to
head the new Security Agency; Sen-
ator Byrnes, of South Carolina; Sen-
ator Lucas, of Illinois, Gov. Lloyd
Stark of Missouri; Representative
Bankhead of Alabama, Representa-
tive Rayburn of Texas, Secretary of
Agriculture Wallace and Senator Bar-
clay, of Kentucky.
High party officials were divided
as to whether the nominee for Vice-
President should be a 100-per cent
New Dealer or whether he should be
selected for strategic political or
geographical considerations, in the
event Secretary Hull maintains his
unwillingness to run.
First representations made to mem-
bers of the resolutions committee,
led by Senator Robert Wagner, of
New York, demanded that the Demo-
cratic Party pledge itself to a policy
of non-intervention in the Euro-
pean war and devote itself to a de-
velopment of national defense and
reemployment.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

CORDELL HULL

meeting obstacles and may not be
pressed. It depends on withdrawal
of all the other candidates and the
indications were that these candidates
would not withdraw.
Texas supporters of Vice-Presi-
dent Garner insisted that Mr. Gar-
ner's name would be presented to
the convention, if it should be the
only one except that of the Presi-
dent. Senator Wheeler of Montana
declared that his name would be pre-
sented unless President Roosevelt

should publicly announce his will-
ingness to run before Montana was
reached on the State roll call.
Simultaneously there developed a
second "draft" movement, one to
nominate Secretary of State Cordell
Hull for Vice-President. A ticket of
Roosevelt and Hull, it was said, would
indicate the willingness of the Demo-
cratic Party to enter the campaign
with the' Administration's foreign
policy and adequate preparedness for
the defense of the Western Hemi-

f

IsThe
A HUNK of sky-piercing limestone
two miles long is Britain's trump
in Mediterranean power politics. So
long as Gibraltar is Britain's, traf-
fic through the western Mediterran-
ean is by her leave.
Nature made Gibraltar a fort. The
narrow spit juts into the sea for
two and a half miles. Its tip, Point
Europa, is only 15 miles from Ceuta
in Morocco, well within the range of
modern artillery. No ship could run
its gauntlet of guns.
Sheer cliffs rise from the sea to
heights of from 300 to 1,500 feet on
the east side. The west approach is
less precipitous, but its lofty escarp-
ments are formidable and bristle with
guns enfilading all approaches.
Natural Caves Enlarged
But i is Gibraltar impregnable un-
der modern conditions?
Britain has been fortifying the
Rock steadily since Sir George Rooke
grabbed it as a crown colony in 1704.
Natural caves deep in the living rock
have been enlarged as storage space
for food, water and munitions for
1,000 to 1,500 civilians. There are
ten such caverns, gas proof and bomb
proof. A regular rabbit warren of
tunnels connects the vaults, far be-
low the penetrating range of air
bombs or artillery. The estimated
10,000 soldiers who would man the
guns in the upper galleries also have
been similarly provided for.
Has Known Siege
Gun ports dimple the face of the
cliffs. Cannon poke out their noses,
commanding the straits in all direc-
tions, from level on level in the great
fortress.;
Gibraltar has known siege. The
French and Spanish besieged the fort
for four years, from 1779 to 1783.
They failed to dent the great redoubt.
But that was before the days of the
airpane and high explosives.
Britain has spent millions upon
millions in erecting breakwaters and
moles to enclose the harbor as a
naval base. Its miles of jetties, grav-
ing docks and drydocks;, fuel yards
and naval facilities present tempt-
ing targets for air raiders and land-
based artillery in Morocco or Al-
geciras, Spain, just four and a half
miles away across the bay of Gibral-
tar.
Test Seems Near
The surface guns could be de-
stroyed, but the Rock itself is a
tougher nut to crack. The whole
garrison could live deep in its sub-
terranean labyrinth and brings its
full might to bear on any attacker.
. The Rock seems likely to be tested
soon. Military observers expect that
the Nazi bombers will be able to use
Spanish landing fields just a few min-
utes from the Rock.
Yet holstered against air attack.

Rock

Impregnable Today

f - r '

L i

A
VA 0,

IA ®

:

BARRACAS CK __
CAS & ELECTRIC UTILITIES -.
DRYDOCKS & NAVAL FACILITIES-ft
OIL & FUEL STORAGE -.

S'PAI N
LA LINEA'
~~Neutral nish

.A4.

Roosevelt Acts
To Accelerate
Defense Move
?RESIDENT ROOSEVELT moved
this week for speedy fulfillment
of the national defense program but
pledged that this country would not
send our men to take part in Eur-
ope's wars.
In a special message to Congress
the President asked for another $4,-
848,171,957, for further expansion of
the military and naval forces bring-
ing the total amount requested this
year for defense purposes to approxi-
mately ten billions of dollars. This
expenditure is designed to give the
nation a start on its two-ocean Navy,
a combined Army and Navy air force
of about 36,000 planes, and modern
weapons and equipment for a land
force of 2,000,000 men.
Adding a grim touch to America's
position in a world of totalitarian
aggression, was the virtual endorse-
ment by the President of the Burke-
Wadsworth bill providing a system
of selective training for developing
defense manpower, and additional
manpower for noncombatant pur-
poses.
Political Defense Is Out
The principle lesson of the war up
to the present, the President stated,
was that partial defense is an inade-
quate defense. If this nation is to
have any defense it must have "total
defense."
After the confirmation by the Sen-
ate of the two new coalition cabinet
members, Henry L. Stimson as Secre-
tary of War, and Frank Knox, as
Secretary of the Navy, events moved
rapidly as the weekend neared. On
Thursday, Secretary Hull, in an in
formal statement to a press confer-
ence in Washington, said he had
received reports of attempted intim-
idation of Central American delegates
to the scheduled Pan-American Con-
ference at Havana.
With the opening of the Confer-
ence only eight days away, German
diplomatic and commercial agents in
Central and South America appar-
cntly were bringing all possible pres-
sure 0~ bear to forestall any action
at Havana that might interfere with
their economic penetration of the
southern half of the Western Hemi-
sphere.
Nazis At Work
"Such intimidating tactics," Secre-
tary Hull said, "were a violation of
the integrity and sovereignty of free
nations." Less open but no less force-
ful pressure has been brought on the
larger South American governments.
That it has been effective is shown
by the release recently of the Nazi
fifth column leaders in Uruguay.
A decision to call up four divi-
sions of the National Guard and other
anti-aircraft and harbor defense
units as .soon as Congress can pass
enabling legislation was made Friday
by President Roosevelt and Secre-
tary of War Stimson. It would bring
the United States' active Army force
to, thirteen divisions, the minimum
deemed necessary for defense in this
time of "troubled world conditions."
Mexico Holds
BloodyElection
MEXICO HAD A PRESIDENTIAL,
ELECTION this week. But the
results won't be announced for 60
days, and the "Government," which
runs a candidate, is counting votes.
Under such a set-up, the Govern-
ment candidate, General Manuel
Avila Camacho, should not encounter
much difficulty in winning. H had
1 the support of President Cardenas

and his Partida de la Revolution,
and the federation of labor unions,
which boasts 1,000,000 members.
But there were three other can-
didates, one of whom, Gen. Juan
Andreu Almazan, was rated a good
chance of winning a sizable number
of votes.
Election day was Sunday, and it
was bloody. Bombs, tear gas, brick-
bats, machine guns were the order
of the day. Camachistas seized polls,
Almazanists drove them off, Govern-
ment soldiers came next, and with,
the polls restored to the favorite son,
Camachistas forced illiterate Alma-
zan followers to mark Camache bal-
lots. Typical in this "South of the
Border" land, both sides are counting
ballots now.
Incomplete returns placed the cas-
ualty list at: 48 dead and 400 wound-
ed.
Supporters of Gen. Camacho de-
clared he had swept into the pres-
idency by a 5 to 1 majority. Camacho
himself said Monday, "With respect
for what occurred yesterday (fight-
ing), I am completely satisfied with
the low number of dead and wounded
among the 20,000,000 population of
Mexico. I am taking into considera-
tion that in the United States thou-

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