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July 11, 1939 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1939-07-11

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The Art-Theory Of The Renaissance
Artists Paved The Way For The Natural Sciences And Certain
Branches Of Mathematics, According To Prof. Erwin Panofsky


tudents of the University of
y of the Board in Control of

morning except Monday during the
di Sunmi Session.
of the Associated Press
Press is exclusively entitled to the
on of all news dispatches credited to
ise credited in this newspaper. All
tion of all other matters herein also
ost Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
ring regular school year by carrier;

National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publishers Represetative
Member, Associated Collegiate Press,
Editorial Staff
Robert D. Mitchell . . . . . . Managi
Stan M. Swinton... .... . City Ed
Ethel Q. Norberg . Women
John N. Canavan...... . . Assoca1
Harry M., Kelsey ..... ...Associa
Rarl G. Kessler. .......Agsociat
Malcolm E. Long ... .. ..sociat
Harry L. Sonneborn...........Asocia

ng Editor
's .ditor
te Editor
te Editor
te Editor
te Editor
be Editor

Business Staff
Philip W. Buchen . . . . Business Manager
Paul Park . . . . . . . Advertising Manager
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of -the
writers only.
P~rej udice
In A Democracy .*
cently named what it considered to
be the ideal Democratic candidates for 1940:
Governor Lehman of New York, who would run
for president, and Attorney-General Frank Mur-
phy, who would be the vice-presidential candi-
date. And then the magazine went on to point
out with cruel truthfulness that in all probability
neither could aspire to such high office because
of religious bias. Lehman is a Jew; Murphy a
Much has been written and said of the in-.
creasing wave of racial and religious prejudice
which has swept over the United States. One of
its concrete manifestations was the vicious whis-
pering campaign directed against Al Smith when
he ran for the Presidency in 1928. Another is to
be found in the virulently anti-Semitic publi-
cations which have been appearing with more
ahd more regularity of late-publications 'which
continue despite John L. Spivack's brilliant
expose of their origin in. "Secret Armies."
Even on the University campus an- increase,
in stupid race prejudice is noticeable. A poll taken
last year, the results of which were never pub-
licly released, showed anti-semitism to be preva-
lent to an amazing degree. It was not many
ionths ago that someone-perhaps a fool in-
tent on a practical joke, perhaps someone whose
intelligence could not grasp the meaning of the
Bill of Rights which is a keystone of American
life-smeared a Nazi swastika on the walk in
front of a Jewish fraternity. This in a Universi-
ty community where the universality of human-
ity, the vital importance of maintenance of
human dignity; the clear thinking which alone
can prove the salvation of democracy at a time
when it is so bitterly challenged, should possess
vital life.
It is a time-in Minnesota as well as in Jersey
City; in Harlan as well as in New York-for a
reaffirmation of those principles upon which the
United States was founded. New emphasis must
be given the concept of a United States which
tolerates no prejudice and makes its decisions
uninfluenced by these outcroppings of stupidity.
And nomination of a Jew and a Catholic, both
of whom have proven their greatness and their
devotion to the nation, to the highest office in
the United States would, in those eyes in the
world which still remain unclouded by ideologi-
cal bias, reaffirm these principles.
-Stan M. Swinton
An educated man is one who can tell you what
interests prepared the lying propaganda that
causes him to hate certain foreigners.
The fault in isolation is that it takes two people.
You can't be a lonely hermit if somebody keeps
trying to take part of your cave.

Renaissance art-theorists, in seeking to prove
that the production of a work of art is an in-
tellectual rather than a mechanical process,
paved the way for the efflorescence of natural
science and, certain branches of mathematics and
laid the, foundations of art history and art phil-
osophy, Prof. Erwin Panofsky of the Institute for
Advanced Study at Princeton University told his
audience yesterday in the amphitheatre of the
Rackham School.
Professor Panofsky's talk, entitled "The Art-
Theory of the Renaissance," was the second of a
series of public lectures sponsored bythe Gradu-
ate Conference on Renaissance Studies.
In the Middle Ages, the lecturer pointed out,
there is found no such thing as an art-theory or
art-philosophy. Medieval art, he said, was based
on traditions, and was largely a matter of copy-
ing a previous work of art, or a previous copy
bf another artist's work. A "revolutionary pro-
nunclamento" was the statement at the begin-
ning of the Renaissance that a work of art should
be "the direct and faithful representation of a
natural object," the German scholar claimed.
Professor Panofsky.-listed the various sources
by which medieval ideas on art have come -to
later generations as treatises written by practis-
ing artists, theological literature, descriptions
of works of art found in poetical, historical or
biographical literature and the writings of schol-
astic philosophers. Of these he termed the first
the forerunners of the writings of Renaissance
theorists, though approaching their subject "from
Pharaohs' Search
For Eternal Life
The quest of Egypt's Pharaohs for "eternal
blessedness" is reflected in their tombs,Prof. G.
E. Edgerton, of the University of Chicago, told
a lecture audience in the Rackham Auditorium
To the accompaniment of slides, Professor
Edgerton, a world acclaimed authority on Egyp-
tology, traced this quest from its bold beginnings
when the Pharaohs reigned supreme autocrats
of the ancient world until their eventual wane.
Because practically aill our knowledge of
ancient Egypt was gleaned from the tombs of
the dead and the temples of the Gods the im-
pression is fairly current that the Egyptians were
a gloomy people, intent only on thoughts of death,
Professor Edgerton declarei.
This concept is false, he emphasized. Describ-
ing the Egyptians as a race intensely in love with
life, he pictured them playing games, working in
fields, and following a "normal" life.
Their apparent preoccupation with the sub-
ject of death arose from their material concept
of the hereafter, Professor Edgerton pointed out.
Hence they were anxious to preserve the body
after death. Thus the Pharaoh's emphasis on
erecting impenetrable ┬░tombs to preserve their
bodies was part of their search for "eternal bless-
edness," he said.
Stone architecture appeared first in the tombs
of the Pharaohs, long before it began to man-
fest itself in temples and residences, Professor
Edgerton observed. The first "sudden bursting
forth of stone architecture," he said, was the
"step" pyramid.
The purpose of the stone tombs was threefold,
he pointed out. First, of course, it was to pre-
sepve the Pharaoh's physical body, second to pre-
serve foods for his use in the after world, and
third to provide a place for services for his de-
parted spirit. The last was manifest in the
temples connected with the tombs. - Mere the
priests made offerings and recited prayers for
his welfare.
Thus were erected the most tragic monuments
in history, Professor Edgerton believes. They
"represented a desperate attempt of a great auto-
crat to preserve his body after death."
The pyramids of later dynasties were much
smaller and less impressive, Professor Edgerton
declared, not because the Pharaohs were less
anxious to preserve their bodies but because their
wealth and power was on the wane.
Written stone texts on the walls of these later
tombs "represented a great disillusionment," Pro-
Lessor Edgerton said. Realizing that food and
drink stored in the vaults would not suffice them
in the after world and having witnessed plunder-

ing of the tombs once thought inviolable, they
relied on the inscription of magic spells and
charms to aid their spirit wanderings,
Finally they came to believe that even the
preservation of their name on earth, whether
written or spoken, would preserve their spirits.
Hence the name inscribed on the walls of their
burial vaults.
The decline of the once powerful Pharaohs
continued until finally the government was too
weak to protect the bodies in the tombs and
pyramids, Professor Edgerton said. The remains
of the dead were then torn from what was ,to
have been their eternal resting place and buried
in holes in cliffs, safe from plundering hands.

a mere craftsmanlike or technical point of view;"
the second, discussions of whether or not images
should be tolerated or if it were proper to display
rich ornaments in monastic churches; the third,
inclined to lean on literary tradition rooted in
classical writings rather than visual experience;
and the fourth, presupposing the Aristotelian
definition of art.
With this as a background, many theoretical
questions pertaining to art and the artist re-
mained unanswered in the early Renaissance
when, Professor Panofsky stated, for the first
time since classical antiquity, problems which
"hitherto had been dealt with only in the theories
of cognition and apperception" were studied.
One of the first to consider these problems
and write on them was Cennino Cennini, who
lived and wrote about 1400, according to the lec-
turer. Cennini, he said, recommended a direct
contact with nature in art, and claimed for
painting the rank of a liberal art.
The two primary principles of Renaissance art,
Professor Panofsky remarked, were to aim at a
"direct and correct representation of the visible
world," and for the work of the artist to be
"based on scientific rules." Thus, he said, "the
artist had to be sufficiently acquainted with the
objective quality and structure of natural phe-
nomena, and he had to know the rules determin-
ing the translation of these phenomena into the
artistic language of lines and surfaces." Art
theory, therefore, had to take a direct part in
the formation of the natural sciences, he added.
-This gave rise to various mechanical and math-
ematical processes for taking of the realistic
reproduction of three dimensions upon a plane
surface, some of which Professor Panofsky spoke
of and illustrated with slides.
Another Renaissance art problem, the Prince-
ton Professor informed his audience, was the
theory of human proportions. He traced methods
of coping with this problem from the Mesopota-
mian and Egyptian artists through the Greek,
the Byzantine and the Gothic solutions. In the
Renaissance, he pointed out, Alberti and Da Vinci
reinstated the classical principles which had
lost caste through the Middle Ages on a new
scientific basis, computed by actual measure-
ments and collected statistical data.
Speaking of the Florentine neo-Platonic
movement in the fifteenth century headed by
(Continued on Page 6)
own &own
I am going to take advantage of an American's
prerogative of freedom of opinion today and, in
a voice as loud as the town-crier's, declare that
the editorial on "Rending the Cloak of Propa-
ganda" in Sunday's Daily was more than a trifle
I do not attack the writer's right to express his
opinion, but since his point on Sunday morning
was that the American YouthCongress refused
to pass a resolution which the Congress HAD"
passed the previous Tuesday, it 'struck me that
his words were something less than pertinent.
Moreover, the 23 tried and true Americans who
bolted and labeled the Congress Communistic
seemed to be in fairly close touch with the Hearst
reporter covering the convention. I don't
openly say that the Save America From
the Red and Yellow Perils And Make Sure
the Headlines Telling About Us Are at Least 72
Point boys were ringers but conventions are con-
ventions and the last time I covered one, my
bar-tender turned up the next morning repre-
senting a Northern Michigan county he'd never
gotten around to visiting. As a matter of fact,
it is fairly well established that the 23 joined the
Congress organization just before the convention.
If a couple of guys named Joe Smith slipped me
expense money under the condition that I walk
out of a convention at 10:41 a.m. and save the
world for democracy, a good five cent cigar and
two chickens in every kettle, even the rigid moral
code of a Swinton might weaken.
But granting the 23 who volleyed and thun-
dered weren't ringers-which is granting a good.
deal-let's look at the resolution passed by the
Congress. It put youth on record as opposing all
forms of dictatorship, whether Communist; Fas-
cist, Nazi, Francoite or otherwise and at the same
time said the Congress was in favor of full free-

dom of speech and discussion to all young people,
regardless of race, creed, religion or political
label, "whether Republican, Democratic, Social-
ist, Communist, Fascist or any other." That
doesn't quite agree with the editorial's statement
that the Congress leftists, who were pretty nasty
not to believe Adam Smith and who go around
neglecting economic and institutional problems
with the greatest abandon while showing abso-
lutely no respect for the great truths of Ec 51,
urged the suppression of Fascists' freedom of
speech but refused to condemn Communism.
There also was a crack about the Republican's
part in the Spanish war being an attempt to
preserve collectivist government which was a
little on the banal side. Unless a journalist quotes
from Heraldo de Aragon, he's not liable to dis-
agree with the American press on that-even the,
Hearst papers have decided Spain is Fascist now
that the death of human dignity, suppression of
liberties and construction of a corporative state
are actualities.
As a matter of fact after reading that editorial
I handed it to a Hearst reporter who was out
for the day. He said: "You mean there are news-
papermen who use phoney information to red-
bait even when the front-office doesn't make
INTERESTING: The faces on that Law School

'The Two Gentlemen
Of Verona'
(Designer of Costumes and Settings)
Costumesand settings for most
good plays should be merely a means
to help the director and actors in
conveying a playwright's intentions
to an audience. They have no right
to intrude themselves on an audience
except perhaps in a spectacle.
Settings, especially for Shakespeare,
should .be functional. Scene must
follow scene without pause if the flow
of comedy is not to be interrupted or
if the tragedy is allowed to accumu-
late. The audience must not be giv-
en a moment to come back to reality
and realize it is in a theatre.
In a modern play in many scenes
the playwright consciously or sub-
consciously allows for a pause. And
if the settings are at all realistic
there must be a pause no matter how
many mechanical devises of the mod-
ern theatre are used. Shakespeare
wrote his plays for continuous per-
formance. Consequently scenes as a
rule are not built to an effective
"curtain." And there is no filler at
the beginning of scenes to give the
audience a chance to look at elaborate
settings and other paraphrenalia..
Furthermore, when Shakespeare
and the other Elizabethans want us
to know the locale, they tell us. Many
times it is not mentioned because it
is not important. Probably the play-
wright himself had no idea where
the action was supposed to be taking
place. This is especially true of the
frequent scenes in the plays where
the First and Second Gentlemen de-
scribe the plot or comment on it.
Such scenes might be supposed to be
taking place in a street, a corridor,
or in an anteroom. Actually they
are merely taking place on the fore-
stage of an Elizabethan playhouse.
That is why a primarily functional
arrangement of curtains and levels is
used in the current production of
"The Two Gentlemen of Verona.?'
Such an arrangement must always be
a collaboration with the director who,
in the process of studying how he
wants to play his play on the stage,
will decide where he wants his scenes
to play and how he wants them to
relate to each other. After such an
arrangement is decided upon, it is1
decidedly of secondary importance,
what the settings look like. Of1
course, if they can help define the
mood and the style of the play so
much the better.I
In "The Two Gentlemen of Ve-
rona" the settings are decorative be-'
cause the play itself has this quality.
It is decorative as to language and
style and highly romantic as to.
character. In its main plot it relatesj
more closely to the convention of love
poetry of the period than to the the-
atre. In its comedy scenes, of course,
it is purely of the theatre and based
on a long tradition.
Costumes, too, help to define the
mood of a play But they are more
intimately associated with an actor's
individual performance than settings
are. A costume is merely inanimate
material that must be brought to life;
by an actor and made a part of his
performance. This is true of the rags,
worn by a Dead-End kid as it is of
an elaborate creation worn by a star
in a period play.
In the current production, Eliza-
bethan costumes are used. Any oth-
ers would seem to me anachronistic
because no matter in what time or
place Shakespeare has laid his play,
it is in style and manners purely'
Elizabethan. From the greatest art
and literature of a period down to
minor customs a oneness seems to ex-
ist. So Elizabethan costumes seem

most appropriate to the style, lan-
guage and mood of Shakespeare's
"The Two Gentlemen of Verona."

Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
copy received at the office of the Summer Session until 3:30 p.mn.;11:00 a.m. Saturday.

(Continued from Page 2)
Faculty Members. Faculty wives and
women faculty members are invited
by the Summer Session and Faculty
Womens' Club to a tea on Wednes-
day afternoon, July 12, from i330
to 5:30 p.m. in the Assembly Hall
of the Horace E. Rackham School
of Graduate Studies, honoring wives
of visiting staff members and their
Symposium on Graduate Studies
in Speech: A Symposium on ,Gradu-
ate Studies in Speech will be held
Wednesday afternoon, July 12, at 4
o'clock in the Lydia Mendelssohn
Theatre. All graduate students en-
rolled for advanced degrees in the
Department of Speech ae required
to attend. All undergraduate st-
dents contemplating advanced de-
grees will find it to their distinct
advantage to be in attendance at
this meeting.
G. E. Densmore.
Albion College students and former
students attending the Summer Ses-
sion are invited to attend a get-to-
gether dinner at the Russian Tea
Room of the Women's League at 6:30
p.m., Wednesday evening. It would
be appreciated if all those expecting
to attend would call J. W. Peters at
Linguistic Institute: Lecture, "Some
Aspects of Word Order in Egyptian"
by Professor William Edgerton. This
lecture will be given in the Amphi-
theatre (third floor) of the Rackham
Building on Wednesday, July 12, at
7:30 p.m
Men's Education Club: The regular
meeting of the Men's Education Club
will be held in the Michigan Union
at 7:15 p.m., Wednesday, July 12.
Professor Allen F. Sherzer of the
Engineering Department will show
movies taken in the Hudson Bay re-
gion. Members of the club and those
who wish to join are asked to hand
in their name, address, and position
at the meeting, or give it to a mem-
ber of the Education Club Commit-
tee before that date. The informa-
tion is needed for the Men's Educa-
tion Directory.
Members of Pi Lambda Theta are
reminded of a reception for guests
Wednesday evening, July 12, from
7:30 until 8:30 o'clock in the Assem-
bly Hall on the third floor of the
Rackham Building. All members
are hostesses and have agreed to dress
formally. Please phone your reser-
vation to Elizabeth Crozer, 1008 Oak-
land Ave. (Phone, 2-1168).
All persons who plan to go on the
Niagara Falls excursion must come
into the Summer Session office, 1213
Angell Hall, Thursday afternoon
from 2 to 5 to buy steamboat tickets.
Graduate Students Specializing in
Education: The Advisory Inventory
Test for Graduate Students in Edu-
cation will be given on Thursday,
July 13 at 2 o'clock and on Saturday,
July 15 at 9 o'clock Students may
take the test on either date. Com-
plete printed information regarding
the test is available in the office of
the School of Education, 1431 U.E.S.
Treble Aires of the School of Music:
There will be a party, Thursday, July
13 in the Womens' League from 7:30
to 9:30. All women of the School of
Music are invited. Come, get ac-
quainted, listen to a fine program
and partake of a bit of sustenance.
Exoirsion: Royal Ontario Museum

of. Archaeology, Toronto, Canada, to
study important Chinese archaeo-
logical collections. No public bus
will be hired. Groups in private cars
will leave the University Museum on
Friday, July 14, at hors to be ar-
ranged. The Canadian Pacific Rail-
way has announced a special round
trip fare of $6.60 for the weekend.
Students must make their own train
reservations. Excursionists may re-
turn either Sunday, July 16, or Mon-
day, July 17 Those interested, ap-
ply to Mr. Plumber, 4018 Museums
Mail for Stuents, Faculty and
temporary residents at the Univer-
sity: All students and new members
of the faculty should call me the U.S.
Post Office and make out a pink
card, "Order to Change Address,"
Form 22, if they have not already
done so. This applies also to teinpor-
ary residents in Ann Arbor who may
be doing reference or research work
on the Campus.
Mail is being held in the Summer
Session office, 1213 Angell Hall, for
the following:
Francis Russell von Bichowsky
Leslie Boldrey -
A. B. Bronwell
Dr. Carpenter
Harland A. Carpenter
Beatrice Clark
Walter Coulles
Dave Cushing
Sinesio Doedor
H. A. Fawler
Richard Heidner
Orlo Heller
Arthur Hocket
John Hollen
Hubert Holloway
Samuel Jacobs
Anatole Kopp
Paul S. Lane
V. Z. Lee
Y. J. Lee
Sam C. Little
George Luke
James. MacDonald
James Mercer
R. K. Merton
Robert Mohlanan
Harold E. Morgan
Seymour Morrison
Antigone Papageorge
Eileen Penhale
Harold Perkel
Ames Samuel Pierce
Blanche M. Rousseau
Elver A. Schroeder
J. F. Shronts
Horace S. Telford
H. M. Tieter
Burgess Vine
Donald Courtney Wingo
James H. Zant
Exhibition of Latin-American and
Pre-Columbian Art, shown under the
auspices of the Institute of Latin-
American Studies. Rackham Build-
ing, 2 to 5 and 7 to 10 p.m. daily ex-
cept Sundays, through July 25.
Preliminary Examinations for the
Doctorate in English will be held in
3217 Angell Hall on the following
- American Literature with contin-
ental backgrounds, July 26, 9-12 a.m.
English Literature, 1700-1900, July
29, 9-12 a.m.
English Literature, 1550-1700, Aug.
2, 9-12 a.m.
English Literature, Beginnings to
1550, Aug. 5, 9-12 a.m.
All those who intend to take the
examination should leave their names
with Professor Nelson, 3232 Angell
Hall, 11-12, MTWTh.
Students, College of Literature,
Science and the Arts:r
Students whose records carry re-'
prsof I or X either from last sees-
ter or (if they have not been in
residence since that time) froi any
former session, will receive grades of
E unless the work is completed by
July 26th. N,
Petitions for extensions of time,

with the written approval of the in-
structors concerned, should be ad-
dressed to tthe Administrative Board
of the College, and presented in
Room 4, University Hall, before July
E. A. Walter.
School of Education Students (un-
dergraduate) who received marks of
Incomplete or X at the close of their
last term of attendance must com-
plete work in such courses by July
26. Petitions for extension of time,
with the approval of the instructor
concerned, should be directed to the
Administrative Committee of the
School of Education and presented at
1437 U.E.S. before July 27 In cases
where no supplementary grade or
petition for extension of time has
been filed, these marks shall be con-
sidered as having lapsed into E
Teacher's Certificate Candidates
who expect to be recommended by
the Faculty of the School of Educa-
tion at the close of the Summer Ses-
sion are requested to call immediate-
ly at the office of the Recorder of
the School of Education, 1437 U.E.S..

750 KC - CBS 920 KC-NBC Red 1240 KC - NBC Blue 1030 KC - Mutual
Tuesday Afternoon
12:00 Goldbergs President & Cabinet Noonday News Mews
12:15 All Star Game Foot Health Farm Almanac Turf reporter
12:30 Bradcast Golden Store All Star Game
12:45 Women's Clubs Fan on the Street
1:00 Tyson Interview Betty and Bob
1 :15 Federal Housing Grimm's Daughter
1:30 " Kitty Keene Valiant Lady"
1:45 " Medical Talk Hymns
2:00 Mary Marlin Army Band
2:15 " Ma Perkins is"
2:30 Jean Abbey Pepper Young Rhythm and Song
2:45 Linda's Love { Guiding Light " Musicale
3:00 Editor's Daughter Feature Club Matinee News
3:15 Dr. Malone "Moods in Music
3:30 Three Aces ""wo Keyboards
3:45 Duncan Moore "M~ews To be announced
4:00 Musical Ryhthmaires Rhythm, Romance Jamboree
4:15 Peaceful Valley
4:30 o r Feature Affairs of Anthony "
4:45 Alice Blair' " Organ"
5:00 Miss Julia Eugene Conley Hlollywood Highits. Organist
5:15 River Boys Malcolm Claire To Be Announced Turf reporter
5:30 Tomy Talks Dance Music Day in Review Baseball scores
5:45 Back to School Lowell Thomas Baseball Final News
Tuesday Evening

- ,,

Today's Events

10:00 a.m.
12:00 noon
4:00 p.m.

Physics Symposium, Prof. John A. Wheeler, Princeton Universityj
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
Phi Delta Kappa luncheon (Union).
Latin American Tea (International Center).
"Why Science Did Not Flourish in China," Institute of Far Eastern
Studies lecture by Prof. Arthur W. Hummel of the Library of
Congress (Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
"Who Are the Eenemies of Education?" lecture by Prof. Mentor L.
Williams (University High School Auditorium).
C n ml . ,, T- 4:. ...1I . .] 'rts .. _ r _ ___ _.x. . - -- . n. _

6:00 News
6:15 Musica
6:30 Helen Mencken
6:45 "t
7:00 Edw. G. Robinson
7:15 t
7:30 Dick Powell
8:00 We, the People

Tyson Review
George Krehbiel
Johnny Presents
Battle of Sexes

Easy Aces
Mr. Keen, tracer
The Green Hornet
Inside Story
Information, please
Melody & Madness

Stop and Go
Jimmie Allen
Washington News
Here's My Story'
Benno Rabinotf

4:05 p.m.


A.1 --

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