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July 31, 1934 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1934-07-31

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The Weather
Generally fair, somewhat
warmer today; tomorrow un-
ettled and warmer. "

Ll r e

iPbc tiganoOTeSe si
Official Publication Of The Summer Session

Editorials

Soviet
Opportunity ...

I

VOL. XV No.31

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, JULY 31, 1934

PRICE 'FIVE CENTS

PRICE FIVE CENTS

.. r . i

Rufus Talks.
On Analysis
Of Starlioht
Spectroscopic S t u d y Of
Light Key To Problems
Of Universe, He Says
Sidereal System
Has Been Studied

32 Accompany Prof. Hobbs On'
Excursion To Niagara Falls

Prof. Curtis
Attacks Unit
TeachingPlan

Astronomy May Be A Key
For So Iu tion Of The
Question Of Matter
By WILLIAM R. REED
Analysis of starlight by use of the
spectroscope holds the key to many
of the problems of. the universe, ac-
cording to Prof. W. Carl Rufus of
the astronomy department, who spoke
yesterday in Natural Science Audi-
torium on "Analysis of Starlight."
By means of the prismatic refrac-
tion.of light the identification of ele-
ments in the light of stars has been
possible, leading to the conclusion
that the same elements which com-
pose the earth make up the sun and
stars, according to Professor Rufus.
Fifty-eight of the terrestial ele-
ments have been identified in the sun
in this manner, he said.
Astronomy also aids the physicist
in the solution of the problem of mat-
ter, or the constitution of the atom,
Professor.,Rufus said, because it gives
data from the spectra of the stars
which cannot be produced in the lab-
oratory. This data is recorded as the
result of the observation of spectrum
lines which are the result of action of
electrons within the atom.
Spectroscope Is Aid
The fact that the sun and stars give
out mass to produce radiation, actual-
ly "shining themselves away," has
been determined by the analysis of,
starlight by means of the spectro-
se. The smn.accnrdin- tn Prnfe-

By CLINTON B. CONGER
Thirty-four excursionists saw Nia-
gara Falls. "Saw" isn't strong enough.
They saw them from both sides. They
saw them from the front. They saw
them from below. And not satisfied,
put the final touch on the tour by go-
ing up and seeing them from the air.'
They heard the Falls, they felt the
Falls, they inhaled the Falls for al-
most 48 hours, and had a wonderful
time doing it.
Thirty-two made the train-trip to
Niagara through Canada by special
car Friday afternoon, stopping at
Table Rock to get their first view of
the Falls under the illumination of
the searchlight batteries of the Ca-
nadian side. They arrived at Nia-
gara Falls, New York, at 9:45 p.m.
Monday they set out for a full day
of sight-seeing, with two more ex-
cursionists following their bus in a
private car. They left the hotel at
9 a.m., and the first stop was the Cave
of the Winds.
Protected by indescribable flannel
garments, felt shoes, and oilskin coats,
they descended to the rocks below
the American andLuna Falls, wherej
they slithered about the platforms

that led out into the mist and spray
under the cataracts. When they
finally returned. there were a few
permanents and make-ups that had
disappeared.
Then the party started 'on the trip
downathe Gorge, making the first
stop at the foot of the two steel arch
railroad bridges to see the Whirlpool
Rapids. Farther down they stopped
at the Whirlpool and about 20 crossed
in the cable car.
The next stop-over was at Niagara
Glen, a former island that stood be-
tween the two cataracts about 30,000
years ago, until the American Falls
at that time captured the Canadian
Falls. Here the party ate a picnic
luncheon before continuing the tour.
Here they left the bus and took the
Gorge trolley for the return trip up-
stream. The open cars parallelled
the water's edge, stopping at the
Whirlpool and the Whirlpool Rapids,
and then ending the trip at the
Schoellkopf Power Station, where
they saw the machinery of the great-
est single power unit in the world.
They concluded the official program
(Continued on Page 4)

Attributes Popularity
System's Capacity
Large dCasses

To
For

Forty Library
Students Attend
LeagueSupper
Prof. Mann, Dunningham
Give Informal Lectures
At Meeting
Forty members, from a total regis-
tration of 53, from the library science
department attended a departmental
supper held at the League Sunday. In
addition, six members of the depart-
ment faculty were present to make the
supper "one of the most successful
of the Summer Session."
Those in attendance heard Archi-
bald Dunningham of Dunedin, New
Zealand, and Prof. Margaret Mann
of tIe department'ive informal talks
based on their own personal. observa-
tions.
Professor Mann told of her studies
in Europe during the past year when
she was a member of the faculty of
the American Library School in Paris.
With our established ideas of the
function of the library as a free public
institution, it is difficult to conceive
of the basic difference in books and in
administration between the systems
here and in Europe, Professor Mann
pointed out.
Outlines History

Dance Policies
Of League Will
Be Continued
Stag Line Is Successful; Is
To Be Kept As Part Of
Regular Program.
Announcement has been made by
Miss Ethel McCormick, social director
of the Summer Session, that due to
the success of the last Friday night
dance in the ballroom of the League,
the changes inaugurated would def-
initely be kept as part of the regular
program. There will be a stag line per-
mitted in the ballroom after inter-
mission. The same system of intro-
ductions will be maintained. -
Plans are being made for a dinner
dance to be given Aug. 6 at the League
for the hosts and hostesses that have
acted this summer. This function will
be given by the League and each per-
son will be able to bring a guest. Ar-
rangements are in charge of Jane
Fletcher, '36, and Jean Seeley, '36.
There will be a second and final
meeting of the Board of Representa-
tives at 4:30 p.m., Thursday. The
heads of houses are requested to be
present, according to Maxine May-
nard, '35, president of the League.
Plans will be discussed at this meet-
ing for a Sunday night supper for
all students and faculty members on1
the campus to be held in the near
future.
Fifth Summer
Concert To Be
Given Tonight
~ .

Speaker Mentions
Four Advantages
Warns Against Monotony
And Less Teacher Aid
Under System
Although there are undoubted
values in the use of a unit plan of
teaching, there are equally obvious
shortcomings to such a method, Prof.
Francis D. Curtis of the School of Ed-
ucation said yesterday in a discussion
of the "Advantages and ShortcomingsJ
of the Unit Plan of Teaching," given'
in the four o'clock lecture series of the
education school.
The unit plan, said Professor Cur-
tis, is relatively new. He described
what he termed the "essential fea-
tures" of any unit plan listing them
briefly as course division, orientation
period for each unit, work with guide
sheets, organization period for the
work, recitation period, and the "mas-
tery" test.
Increases Class Size
Reciting the gain in popularity dur-
ing the last five years of the unit
system, Professor Curtis denied that
this was evidence of the method's
value; according to him, "unit teach-
ing rode to popularity on the depres-
sion because it made possible an enor-
mous increase of class size.";
As for the advantages of the plan,
the speaker listed four. He said that
it permitted- another technique for
organizing instructional materials,1
that pupils were able to cover drill
In the next of the four o'clock
lecture series of the School of Ed-
ucation, Dr. C. A. Fisher, assistant
director of the Extension Division4
will discuss "Adult Education
through the University Extension
Division."
His talk will be given at 4:10
p.m. today in Room 1022, Univer-
sity High School., with everyoner
interested in this phase of educa-
tion invited to attend.I

International
Law Subject
Of Scott Talk
Parley Chairman Says That
Every Rule Of Law Has
A MunicipalSanction
Says That 'Court Of
Conscience' Exists
Emphasizes Necessity Of
Regulating The Relations
Between Nations
By THOMAS H. KLEENE
Every rule of international law has
a municipal sanction in esse or in
posse, and a failure to enact a mu-
nicipal statute for that purpose - or
to apply it if enacted - renders the
state in default liable in damages.
Such was the conclusion drawn last
night by Dr. James Brown Scott from
the text of Francisco de Victoria, that
is, that "international law . . . has
the force of a law; for the world as a
whole, being in a way one single State,
has the power to create laws that are
just and fitting for all persons, as are
the rules of international law . .
moreover, in the gravest matters, such
as the inviolability of ambassadors, it
is not permissible for one country to
refuse to be bound by international
law, the latter having been estab-
lished by the authority of the whole
world."
"Conscience Is Court"
Dr. Scott, chairman of the Summer
Session on Teaching International
Law, whose subject was "Sanctions of
International Law," stated that "for
the violation of this law there exists
the court of conscience, to which no
less an internationalist than Hugo
Grotius appealed in behalf of the
rights of the Netherlands against the
opposition of the Portuguese to Dutch
navigation on the high seas and to
trade withput let or hindrance In the
ilands and territories of' the Indian
Ocean."
He described the court of con-
science as being "the one tribunal
which even the luckiest of sinners
does not escape."
Emphasizing the necessity for a law
regulating relations between nations
and describing that law as "the law
of nations," Dr. Scott explained that
there are various kinds of law which
culminate in the so-called law of na-
tions.
"There is what is called 'natural
law'; there is what is called 'divine
'law'; there is the law of the state,
which we call in English, 'municipal
law'; and there is something inde-
finable and intangible, and yet vastly
important - the law, or as we gen-
erally say, the rule of reason, synono-
mous, in a sense, with what is called
natural law and at the same time a
source of law."
"Nation Is Liable"
Turning again to the thesis of Vic-
toria, Dr. Scott concluded by pointing
out again that the implication of that
text was "if, by the constitional law
of a state, an act of the legislative
body be required in order to carry out'
the rule of international law, then it
is the duty of the nation in question
to pass such a municipal statute, and
if it does not pass the municipal act,
it is liable for damages to the nation
or to the individual who may have
suffered by its failure to do so."
Dr. Scott's lecture was the final ad-
dress in the series of five included asI
a feature on the program of the an-
nual Summer Session on Teaching

International Law. The meetings of
the parley, which has been in session
here since June 27, will conclude to-
day.

Named By Dictator

Slain Chancellor

Named Rintelen
To Be Successor

0

(.,.

-Associated Press Photo
According to Emil Fey, former vice-
chancellor, the slain chancellor Doll-
fuss named Dr. Anton Rintelen
(above), as his successor, as he lay on
his deathbed in the chancellory.

have all been classified by observa-
tion and analysis of starlight. The
density of the various components of
the systems have been computed, and
it is estimated that the density of
Orian nebula is one-millionth of one-
billionth the density of air at sea-
level while that of Sirius, a member
of the sidereal system, is 50,000 times
that of water.
Sidereal System Studied
The diameter of the sidereal sys-
tem, computed by spectroscopic anal-
ysis and comparison, has been esti-
mated at 200,000 light years. Beyond
this galaxy is the extra galactic sys-
tem of stars, called spiral nebulae,'
which are believed to be composed of
75,000,000 spirals.
The stars which compose this ex-
tra galactic system are from 1,000,-
000 to 150,000,000 light years from the
earth, according to Professor Rufus,
and these distant spirals are receding
more rapidly than the nearer ones,
estimated to be moving at a speed of
15,000 miles per second.
The whole problem of the physicist
in his problems of determining the
nature of the universe is thus ma-
terially aided by the astronomer's
study of the stars, data from which
may be used in the solving of the
former's problems, Professor Rufus
added.
Final Meeting Held,
By Education Club'
A meeting of the Women's Educa-
tion Club was held last night in the
Alumnae Room of the Michigan
League. Prof. Louis Eich of the Speech
Department entertained the members
with several short readings. His pro-
gram included some poems of Edwin
Arlington Robinson, Joyce Kilner, and
Kipling, and some humorous selec-
tions.
This was the last meeting of the
club this session. Next Wednesday the
members will hold a joint banquet
with the Men's Education Club at
the Union, which will conclude the ac-
tivities for the summer.
Kate Keith Field Gives
Song Recital In League
Miss Kate Keith gave a song re-
cital last night in the Grand Rapids
Room of the Michigan League. She
was accompanied by Miss Louise

Kipke Fourth In
Poll For Coach

Z

Mr. Dunningham outlined the his-
tory of New Zealand libraries. He said
that a very large number of small li-
braries had been founded in the early
days and that while those in the towns
had progressed, those in the country
had been often poorly maintained and
very often had fallen into disuse.
There are 430 libraries in New Zea-
land, wlich has a population of about
a million and a half people.
Mr. Dunningham said that it was
impossible to administer a very large
number of very small libraries such
as those in the country districts of
New Zealand except by some co-
operative organization of the library
resources of the whole country. This
has been the aim of the New Zealand
Libraries Association, and here they
have been very generously assisted by
the Carnegie Corporation of New York
who agreed some short while ago to
make a technical library survey sim-
ilar to that which was made of the
libraries of South Africa.
Hope To Reorganize
As in South Africa it is hoped that
the government and local bodies con-
cerned will agree to a plan of re-
organization which will provide a
book-service over the whole country
efficiently and without the .very great
duplication of effort which is inevi-
table under the present plan. Mr.
Dunningham said that Mr. Ralph
Munn, librarian of the Carnegie Li-
brary, Pittsburgh was in charge of the
survey, and that his report was not
[yet available..
Mr. Dunningham gave an outline
of the larger municipal libraries and
described also the Parliamentary Li-
brary which was founded by an early
New Zealand Prime Minister, Alfred
Dommett, a friend of Robert Brown-
ing. It is hoped that the Parliamen-
tary Library will ultimately become
the wational library of the country.
Marie Dressler Funeral
Rites At Glendale Today

Professor Christian Is
Pr e s e n t Selections
Modern Composers

To
Of

Wassily Besekirsky, violinist, Dalies'
Frantz, pianist, Joseph Brinkman,
pianist, and Palmer Christian, all of
the faculty of the School of Music,
will combine their talents tonight in
presenting the fifth concert of the
summer series. The program will be
given at 8:30 p.m. in Hill Auditorium.
Professors Besekirsky and Brink-
man will co-operate in the first num-
ber, playing "El Poema de Una San-
luquena," for violin and piano, by
Turina. They will be followed by Mr.
Frantz who will present Liszt's famous
"B Minor Sonata."
The concluding group of the pro-
gram will be- presented by Professor
Christian, who has chosen to present
works of contemporary composers.
They are Leo Sowerby's "Passacaglia,"
the final movement from the com-
poser's "Symphony in G" for organ;
"Through the Mist," a recently writ-
ten work by Ernest Ibbotson of De-
troit; and "A Chinese Garden," by
Eric DeLamarter, associate conductor
of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
The final number will be a trans-
cription which Professor Christian
has made of one of the "Characteristic
Pieces" for piano from the pen of the
Scandinavian composer, Christian
Sinding - "A Norwegian Rhapsody."

sections better, that the pupil's indi-
vidual effort was heightened, and that
many types of work could be inte-
grated in a single unit.
On the debit side of the ledger,
however, he mentioned the "equally
obvious shortcomings." The unit plan,
'if continuously used, tends toward
monotonous and stereotyped presen-
tation, he said.
His most important criticism of the
plan was that administrators would
be encouraged to increase class size
to the point where the instructional
abilities of the teachers would become
reduced to the vanishing point, while
the strong point was that the num-
ber Qf students who might receive in-
dividual aid from the instructor was
inevitably decreased.
Continuing on the theme of less
teacher influence, Professor Curtis
pointed out that the unit plan made
no provision for the personal initiative
of the teacher. He also said thdt
good methods, if they did not fit in
with the unit plan of instruction, must
be discarded.
Criticizes Plan
Social values and social training
must be almost eliminated by the
unit plan, Professor Curtis said, for
socialized class activities must neces-
sarily be at a minimum. In addition,
he criticized the plan for the mechan-
ical burden which it throws upon the
teacher, such as reading guide sheets
and of correcting tests by the hun-
dreds. "The result," said Professor
Curtis, "may be the substitution of
stereotyped and monotonous task per-
formance for inspired and refreshing-
ly varied teaching activities."
"In other words," he concluded, "it
tends to diminish or discourage
teacher enthusiasm and initiative
which are inspired by, and develop
out of, the progress of socialized ac-
tivities fo the classroom."
Farmer Says 'No More
Balloons' On His Farm'
HOLDREGE, Neb., July 30. - () -
Reuben Johnson, whose cornfield was
the landing place of the giant strato-
sphere balloon, proclaimed today:
"I don't want no more balloons
on my farm."

Of All-Star '11'
Latest Tabulations Show
Hanley And Kizer Lead;
3 Wolverines To Play
Harry Kipke, Michigan football
coach, is fourth choice of the na-
tion's fans to direct the team of all-
stars which will meet the Chicago
Bears August 31, according to latest
tabulations of the vote. Dick Hanley,
of Northwestern, and Noble Kizer of
Purdue, are leading the poll.
The all-star team will include three
Michigan stars of last year, Whitey
Wistert, tackle, Chuck Bernard, cen-
ter, and Herman Everhardus, half-
back.
Six of the ten leaders as announced
yesterday are head coaches at Big Ten
schools, indicative of the fact that
the voting is almost entirely centered
in Chicago as yet, other cities not
yet having reported their votes.,
Bob Zuppke of Illinois is third, Os-
sie Solem of Iowa sixth, and Doc
Spears of Wisconsin is ninth in the
voting..
MAJOR LEAGUE
STANDINGS
AMERICAN LEAGUE

Fey Reveals 'Political Will'
Dolfuss Issued Wh il e
Dying
Jugoslavs Resent
Italy'sLone Hand
Mussolini Concentrates His
Troops On Jugo-Slavian
Boundary
VIENNA, July 30. -()-- Startling
testimony that Chancellor Engelbert
Dollfuss, while dying from an assas-
sin's bullet last Wednesday, asked
that a man identified with his oppo-
nents - Dr. Anton Rintelen --be
called on to bring peace in Austria
was offered today by Emil Fey, former
vice-chancellor, at the court-martial
involved in Dollfuss' slaying.
Rintelen, in a hospital, seriously
wounded, was the Austrian minister
to Italy and the man selected by Nazi
revolters as a successor to Dollfuss.
"The last words I heard the dying
Chancellor speak," Fey . testified,
"were 'Rintelen must make peace.'
"'Let there be no blood,' he said,
and a little later he called on Rn-
telen to restore peace to the country."
Fey made the statement which took
many in the court by surprise, after
he was asked whether, Dolifuss re-
signed his office as he lay dying.
Heard Him Invoke Aid
Fey replied that he did not hear,
in so many words, that Dolfuss in-
tended resigning, but did hear him in-
voke the aid of Rintelen as the man
who could bring peace-to the nation.
The former vice-chancellor also
corroborated the testimony of both
defendants - Otto Planetta, dis-
charge'i Brgant who- confessed the
actual kilig, andFranz Holzweber,
charged with being a leader of . the
raid on the Chancellery - that they
had been guaranteed safe conduct
to the German border if they sur-
rendered.
"I heard the promise made, and
I told them they could rely on it," Fey
said.
"Was that after the death of the
Chancellor?" the vice-chancellor was
asked.
"Yes," he replied.
Raiders Were Disguised
Fey also testified the raiders were
well disguised and that when they
came in a body to the Chancellery
they were regarded by everyone as
"Deutschmeister" troops. (The in-
vaders wore uniforms of the Deutsch-
meister regiment.)
Questioned persistently, Fey stated
three times that the putschists had
been guaranteed safe conduct to the
border if they surrendered.
"And I insisted that the promise be
kept," Fey added.
Fey declared that the German min-
ister to Austria came to the Chan-
celery at his telephonic request.
The minister, Kurt Reith, came to
the Ballhausplatz but was reluctant
to enter the building as requested by
the putschists, Fey said,
But they insisted they would not
surrender unless the Austrian promise
of safe conduct was witnessed by a
German minister, "so he finally came
in," Fey said.
Both the defendants denied they
had any intention of killing anyone,
least of all Dollfuss.
Version Differs
Planetta's version of the attack on
the Chancellor differed radically from
the killing as he is alleged to have
described it before taking the witness
stand.
"We were all told that the object of
the raid was to capture the Dollfuss
government, but that no one must be
hurt --that our success lay in keeping
the Cabinet members imprisoped but
unharmed and in our power," he said.,
He said he killed Dollfuss acci-
dentally. At first, he said, he did not

know whom he had shot, and was dis-
mayed on learning it was the chancel-
lor.
After taking testimony of Fey and
several other witnesses, the court-
'martial was adjourned to midnight.
TROOPS CONCENTRATE
TARVISIO, Italy, July 30. - () -
A considerable concentration .of Ital-
ian troops along the Jugoslavian
border near Austria, about a mile and

Boak To Give Lecture
On Ancient Egypt Today
Prof. A. E. Boak, chairman of
the history department will speak
at 5 p.m. today in Natural Science
Auditorium on "Private Life in
Rural Egypt Under the Greeks and
Romans."
Professor Boak has been with
the University since 1914. He is a
member of Royal Historical So-
ciety, the American History Assj-
ciation, and the American Philol-
ogy Association.
He is the author of several noted
works including "The 'Master of
the Offices in the Later Egypt,"
"A History of Rome to 565," and
He has also contributed to several

W L
Detroit ..............59 36
New York .:..........57 36
Cleveland...........53 41
Boston..............52 45
St. Louis............42 48
Washington .........44 52
Philadelphia .........37 55
Chicago ......... ..33 63
Yesterday's Results
Boston 8, Washington 0.
St. Louis 4, Chicago,3.
Only games scheduled.
Games Today
Detroit at Cleveland (2).
Boston at New York (2).
Washington at Philadelphia.
Chicago at St. Louis.
NATIONAL LEAGUE

Pct.
.621
613
.564
.536
.467
.458
.402
.340

Pct.
.635
.60
.55

W
New York ...........61
Chicago.......... ..57
St. Louis .......5

L
35
38

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