1 ft IRC-RIGMV D- UL
§UNDAY, JULY 19, 1939
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! Program Notes
By WILLIAM J. LICHTENWANGER
1e Tuesday evening, July 21, 8:30 p.m.
PROFESSOR PALMER CHRISTIAN, University
Organist. Program of Compositions of Johann
Sebastian Bach (born March 21, 1685, at Eis-
e enach. Germany; died July 28, 1750, at Leipzig).
&; Toccata and Fugue in D Mior-A not infre-
fquent conception of Bach is that of a simple,
s sedate paterfamilias, seated at a clavichord and
playing hymns for his family of nineteen children;
, or of a pious, devout churchman, evoking grave
y and reverent harmonies from a sonorous-toned
t organ. But, simple and devout as Bach most
certainly was, it is not to be supposed that he was
without his lighter, even vainer, moments. As
one of the greatest organists of his time, it is not
unnatural that he should have experienced and
gratified the desire to exhibit his remarkable vir-
For this purpose the toccata form was admirably
d suited; originating in the Italy of the seventeenth
, century, the form derived its name from the Ital-
e1 ian verb toccare, "to touch," and was intended as a
E, piece to exhibit the touch and execution of the
r performer. The early examples had merely the
air of short, showy improvisations, but Bach raised
the form by dwelling on it at greater length, and
N imparting to it something of the grandeur of his
In Like the greater part of his organ works, the
e Toccata and Fugue in D Minor is a product of the
years 1708-1717, when Bach was Hof-Organist, and
later Konzertmeister, in the court of the Duke
Wilhelm Ernst at Weimar. It is the best example
of his work in this form, and is probably the most
popular of all his organ compositions. Attendants
at the last May Festival will recall its thrilling
e effect as transcribed and conducted by Leopold
d Stokowsky, and played by the Philadelphia Or-
Le* * * *
h Three Chorale Preludes: (a) Wachet auf, ruft'uns
1 die Stimme; (b) Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot;
e (c) Ich ruf' zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ.-The Chorale
and Bach are inextricably associated. His earliest
1, compositions, written when he was a choirboy of
- fifteen or sixteen years, were Chorale studies for
s the clavier or organ. Hymn melodies innumerable
it he enriched with his matchless harmonies, and
d they abound in his cantatas and oratorios. His
y organ technique was developed upon them, and
d they are the theme of the bulk of his music for
s, that instrument. Ernest Newman, the eminent
English authority, writes: "The Chorale Preludes
e are the key to the very heart of Bach. If every-
y thing else of his were lost, from them we could
g reconstruct him in all his pathos, and almost all
- his grandeur."
t Of the three Chorale Preludes included on this
t program, the first and last are based on familiar
Lutheran hymn tunes, while the second is one of
two settings Bach made of a hymn melody based
on the article of the Lutheran Catechism which
has to do with the Ten Commandments.
* * * *
r Concerto in G-He who has been studied and
d imitated perhaps more than any other composer,
- was himself an eager student of innumerable com-
posers, most of whose names are forgotten today.
One, however, whom Bach admired and .studied
much, is remembered today for his remarkable vir-
tuosity on the violin, which virtuosity he recorded
through his voluminous writings for that instru-
ment, and for his contributions to the develop-
ment of musical form, particularly that of the
r concerto. Antonio Vivaldi was a Venetian of a
slightly earlier date than Bach, and sixteen of his
concerti for violin were transcribed by the latter,
twelve for clavier and four for organ. Of the
e latter group, the one in G Major, which appears
~ on this program, is in the traditional Italian style
' -a slow movement between two lively ones.
* * *
e Toccata, Adagio, and Fugue in C-Following are
I Prof. Christian's notes concerning this work: "The
C Major Toccata (the term embracing the three
sections) is totally unique among Bach's organ
works, particularly distinguished for the effect of
sectional contrast. As in the clavier sonatas in F
Sharp Minor and C Minor, 'the bravura passages
e are preliminaries to very serious and noble pas-
sages of slow and expressive character, and the
e scheme of each is rounded off by a long and ex-
d tensively developed fugue.'
e "The Adagio (in A Minor) is an especially beau-
n tiful example of classic cantabile writing, recalling
r the slow movements for violin 'in which Bach
poured out his soul so freely.' Following the
n Adagio is a short section, marked Grave, leading
- to the Fugue."
* * * *
s Two Transcriptions of Cantata Orchestral In-
a terludes: (a) March (Dramma per Musica); (b)
r Sanotina (Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit).-
- The Dramma per Musica from which this March
k is taken is one of three such works which Bach
- composed during the period (1723-1750) in which
a he was Cantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig. It
s was written to celebrate the inauguration (Dec. 11,
s 1726) of Dr. Gottlieb Korte as Professor of Roman
Law at Leipzig University, but some years the
- later the same music was set to another text,
o celebrating the king's birthday. The March is a
r rather humorous piece which was intended to
t accompany the characteristically undignified en-
1 trance of the students into the hall of the Uni-
Letters published in this column should not be
construed as expressing the editorial opinion of The
Daily. Anonymous contributions will be disregarded.
The names of communicants will, however, be regarded
as confidential upon request. Contributors are asked
to be brief, the editors reserving the right to condense
all letters of more than 300 words and to accept or
reject letters upon the criteria of general editorial
importance and interest to the campus.
The Guilt Of The United States
To the Editor:
Our countrymen reveal an astounding indif-
ference towards the victory of Italian barbarism
in Africa; appropriately these "civilizers" them-
selves named one of their units, "Hell on Wheels."
The United States has a tremendous guilt: our
isolation policy and inadequate neutrality law in
fact made us the best ally of Mass-Murderer Mus-
solini for we sold Italy twice as much oil as in
peace time. And oil was the decisive factor: the
oil-experts declared at Geneva that Mussolini
would be compelled to submit within three and
cne-half months if an effective oil-embargo was
carried through: but they added that, as long as
the United States continued to sell oil, it would
be useless for the members of the League of
Nations to bring the sacrifice. And so-just as in
the Manchurian crisis - the stupid, provincial
isolation policy of our nation wrecked the attempts
of the young, weak peace machinery of the world
in the decisive moment!
The least our government could have done
would have been to withdraw our ambassador
from Rome in protest against the violation of the
Kellogg Pact by Italy. But after Secretary Hull
had declared that he was "loathe to believe" that
Italy and Ethiopia would forget their obligations,
we forgot ours completely by hiding our head-
ostrich-like-and pretending that this greatest
crime of history did not concern us. But it did!
By permitting Italy to prove that treaties are un-
reliable, by doing nothing to prevent the moral
standards of governments to be lowered to the
level of Al Capone and "Lucky" Luciano (who
are just as vain as Il Duce) we have increased
the apparent necessity for armaments and so our
isolationist countrymen have to bear an ever-
Isolation is a fiction in modern times: our de-
cisive sale of oil proves it.
The disgraceful behavior of the governments
represented at Geneva does not prove that the
League of Nations cannot function; it only shows
the truth of Reinhold Niebuhr's thesis concerning
"Moral Man and Immoral Society" and the depths
to which mankind has sunk in this Dark Age.
When the Italian newspaper men had been ar-
rested in the gallery of the Assembly Hall after
demonstrating like rowdies, the Emperor of Ethi-
opia accused Italy:
"It was when the operations for the encircle-
ment of Makale were taking place that the Italian
command, fearing a rout, followed the procedure
which it is now my duty to denounce to the world.
Special sprayers were installed on board aircraft
so they could vaporize over vast areas of terri-
tory, a fine, death-dealing rain . . . from the end
of January, 1936, soldiers, women, children, cattle,
rivers, lakes and pastures were drenched con-
tinually with this deadly rain. In order to kill
off systematically all living creatures and in order
more surely to poison the waters and pastures,
the Italian command made its aircraft pass over
and over again. That was the chief method of
warfare. The very refinement of the barbarism
consisted in carrying ravage and terror into the
most densely populated points ... points the farth-
est removed from the scene of hostility . . . These
fearful tactics succeeded. The deadly rain that
fell from the aircraft made all those whom
it touched fly shrieking with pain. All those who
drank poison water or ate infected food also suc-
cumbed in dreadful suffering. In tens of thou-
sands the victims of Italian mustard gas fell."
(From the CHRONICLE OF WORLD AFFAIRS,
published by the League of Nations Association,
8 W. 40th St., New York City).
We must boycott Italian wares and Italian
We must join the League of Nations to strength-
en and improve it!
The Duke of Wellington, at the height of his
fame, was walking down Picadilly when a gentle-
man came up, took off his hat, and said: "Mr.
Brown, I believe?" The Duke's answer was simple
and direct. It was: "Sir, if you believe that you'll
All enchantments die; only cowards die with
them. Charles Morgan, "The Fountain."-From
dicating a tune played in the street by itinerant
musicians. At any rate, such was the name given to
a dance which originated in Spain during the
fifteenth or sixteenth century and which was later
elevated above the majority of dance forms to a
position of dignity among the serious contra-
puntal forms. The modern piece consists of a set
of variations upon a recurring theme which is an-
nounced in the bass.
The Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor is one of
Bach's loftiest and grandest works, utilizing every
device known to counterpoint, and leading to a
fugue of massive proportions, constructed upon the
same subject. It has three times been transcribed
for orchestra, the Stokowsky transcription having
been heard at the recent May Festival.
* * * *
Bach's character and attitude toward music have
been summed up admirably by Charles Sanford
Terry, English authority on Bach and his music:
"Music, to Bach, was the apparatus of worship,
and, it has been truly observed, the line of demar-
cation between the sacred and secular forms
was for him not decisively drawn. He himself
defined music as a 'euphonius harmony to the
glory of God and a permissible joy of the spirit.'
Even the little clavier exercises he composed for
his children are prefaced with the words 'In
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FOR RENT: Furnished and unfur-
nished apartments. One block
from campus. 614 Monroe St. Tele-
phone 8507. 13
Am interested in obtaining an old-
fashioned lantern of the type used
on horse and buggy carriages. Reply
LAUNDRY WANTED: Student Co-
ed. Men's shirts 10c. Silks, wools,
our specialty. All bundles done sep-
arately. No markings. Personal sat-
isfaction guaranteed. Call for and
deliver. Phone 5594 any time until
7 o'clock. Silver Laundry, 607 E.
LOST AND FOUND
LOST: Envelope containing notes en-
dorsed by Nicholas and Ellis Yost,
probably on Hill St. east of State
St., or on State between Hill and
Athletic Association. Call Fielding
LAUNDRY 2-1044. Sox darned.
Careful work at low price. 1x
W J EW E IE R G
WATCH & JEWELRY REPAIRING
Class & individual in-
structin in all types
of dancing. Teachers
course. Open daly dur-
ing Summer Session.
10 A.M. to 9 P.M.
Terrace Garden Studio
Wuerth Theatre Bldg
VOL. XLV No. 17
SUNDAY, JULY 19, 1936
Bethlehem Evangelical Church,
South Fourth Avenue.
Two services will be held in Beth-
lehem Evangelical Church. The early
service at 9 a.m. will be conducted in
the German language. The regular
morning worship at 10:30 a.m. is the
main service of the day and is con-
ducted in English. The pastor, Rev.
Theodore Schmale, will preach on the
theme "Better Righteousness."
The regular student meeting will be
held on Sunday evening at the Saline
Valley Cooperative Farms. Cars will
leave St. Andrew's Episcopal Church
at 5 p.m. Dr. Blakeman will be the
speaker for the evening. All stu-
dents and their friends are cordially
Saint Andrew's Episcopal Church:
Services of worship Sunday are: 8
a.m. holy communion; 11 a.m. kin-
dergarten; 11 a.m. morning prayer
and sermon by The Rev. Henry Lewis.
First Presbyterian Church:
Meeting at the Masonic Temple,
327 South Fourth. Sunday, 10:45
a.m. worship with sermon by Dr.
Robert Worth Frank of Chicago, sub-
ject, "Christian Optimism."
At 5:30 p.m., on the lawn of the
new church site at 1432 Washtenaw
Ave., a social half hour and plate
supper, followed by a review of the
recent book "The Return to Religion"
by Dr. Link, to be given by Norman
10:45 a.m. service of worship with
sermon by the minister, Allison Ray
Heaps. Subject, "The Pillar and the
Lily-work." Grace Johnson Konold
will sing "O Lord Most Holy," by
Caesar Franck. She will be assisted
by Francis Bruinsma, a sixteen year
old violinist from Grand Rapids, a
summer student in the School of Mu-
Stalker Hall: Wesleyan Guild meet-
ing at 6 p.m. in the First Methodist
Church. Prof. H. Y. McClusky will
speak on "The Christian Considers
Mental Health." Fellowship hour
follows the meeting.
First Methodist Church: Morning
worship service at 10:45 a.m. Dr.
C. W. Brashares will preach on "Tol-
First Baptist hurch, Sunday, 10:45
a.m. Rev. R. Ed ard Sayles, minister,
will speak on "Jesus, the Distributer."
The church school meets at 9:30. At
6 p.m. Dr. Leroy Waterman will speak
to students at the Roger Williams
Guild House, across the street from
the church. He will discuss, "An Un-
tried Religion-in the New Testa-
ment." This is the second of two
special addresses. A social period
will follow the address.
The Graduate Outing Club will
meet at Lane Hall, 2 p.m. where they
will be taken to Silver Lake for swim-
ming, games and picnic supper. The
approximate -cost will be 45 cents.
Those planning to go who have cars
call 4367. A refund will be made to
those furnishing cars. All graduate
students are cordially invited to at-
tend all meetings of the club during
There will be a meeting of the Men's
Education Club at 7:30 p.m. Monday,
July 20, in the Ballroom of the
Michigan Union. The speaker will be
Dr. William R. Smithey, professor of
Secondary Education, of the Univers-
ity of Virginia. The subject will be
"This and That or This or That."
Weekly Reading Hour: Miss Helen
/ii CHARLES COLLINS
T I L'TTT 2 P M . .
IFI',, W AMW Arg WFIAbOW, -::-M, .ff "W
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at the Barton
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