"Later On, I'd Like To Ask You Something"
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Vhen Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
.Y, OCTOBER 3, 1957
NIGHT EDITOR: DAVID TARR
Princeton's Father Halton
LCADEMIC FR 1XCM at Princeton, it ap-
pears, does not include the right to criticize
ae powers-that-be at that university. Witness
ie case of the Rev. Dr. Hugh Halton, Roman
atholic chaplain there.
Father Halton has made no secret of his
isagreement with the way things are done at
rinceton. In particular, he objected sharply
ian undergraduate group's invitation to con-
oted perjurer Alger Hiss to speak there.
owever, Father Halton went farther than
tat: he set up a counter-lecture, at which-
7ashington newsman Willard Edwards and
emocratic Congressman Francis Tumulty pre-
mted the "other side."
Recognition of Father Halton was withdrawn
r the university ,at its first faculty meeting.
resident Robert F. Goheen read a nine-page
atement explaining why.
He accused Father Halton of making "large
'substantiated charges of malfeasance against
ze administration of the university and against
number of other respected and stable insti-
tions as well." He further accused Father
alton of "bigotry."
LT THE SAME TIME, Princeton has been one
of the universities where the rights of clergy-
en have been held sacrosanct; members of its
,culty were loud in the denunciation of the
ouse and Senate committees which inquired
to the Communist affiliation of some of the
ergy. Surely the same "benefit of clergy"
iould extend to Father Halton, who is, after
1, merely critical of Princeton University,
id gives no grounds for doubt about his
yalty to the United States.
This unwillingness to face up to criticism on
Le part of a university administration is ex-
tremely disturbing. Father Halton's ecclesiasti-
cal superiors, despite numerous communications
about him, apparently felt they had no basis
for reprimanding or removing him from his
post. This itself suggests that the Princeton
administration is being over-sensitive about the
Refusing university privileges to an author-
ized representative of a church is surely a petty
thing to do. The university should have met
Father Halton's criticism fully and fairly and
examined itself. If Princeton could exonerate
itself with a clear conscience, it should then
have recognized Father Halton's right to dis-
agree, as evidence of its own devotion to free
speech. Its chosen path may have been easier,
but it is in itself evidence of "bigotry."
Hardly an Exaggeration
THOSE WHO thought The Daily's cartoon a
week ago Sunday was a bit absurd can rest
assured that it wasn't too distant from reality.
It pictured an apologetic professor telling a
bulging lecture room, "Ah . .. I realize this is
rather large for a seminar, but . .."
Recently, a call came to this desk from
a professor in the psychology department in-
forming us that a 200-series seminar in the
Dynamics of Disturbed Children, originally
planned to receive 10 or so students, now has
"near to 50" enrolled. Prof. McNeil, who will
co-teach the course, reports the assigned room
will only seat 15, and that some students will
have to be asked to leave the course.
-J. E. JR.
d . r f a
To The Editor
An Additional Word ..
To the Editor:
I'D LIKE TO ADD a letter to the chorus of replies to Mr. Drake's
views on integration.
Mr. Drake's main argument is that force is not an effective way
to resolve social conflict. I agree. Hence, the use of force is always prima
But Mr. Drake seems unaware that the argument cuts force both
There are some Negroes who want to go to certain schools,, theatres,
restaurants, etc. in the South. But there are laws and customs which
prevent them from doing so. These laws and customs are made
. -- ,
Refugee Bitterness Grows
By DREW PEARSON
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
By WALTER LIPPMANN
E SITUATION at Little Rock is one which
is not uncommon in human affairs-that
there is not in sight the prospect of a solution
which can win general approval. The President
cannot hope to be faithful to his commitments
and at the same time to satisfy such eminent
Southern leaders as Byrd, Byrnes, and Russell
--not to mention demagogues like Faubus.
There exists a national predicament, with the
President in the middle of it. Since- the issue
cannot be settled by agreement, the first neces-
sity is that the issue should be clearly and
precisely defined. Men of honor and good will
can live together, though they disagree, it if
is quite clear what it is that they differ about.
It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that
there should come from the White House an
exact and authoritative statement as to why
the Arkansas National Guard was Federalized,
why Federal troops were sent into Little Rock,
how those Federal troops can be withdrawn,
how the National Guard can be restored to the
control of the state of Arkansas.
On two occasions-after his conference with
Gov. Faubus in Newport and in and in his
broadcast last week-the President did not de-
fine the real reason which justified, and indeed
compelled, him to take the military measures.
The real reason was that Gov. Faubus, by
ordering the National Guard to bar the Negro
children and then by withdrawing it in the
face of a mob, had emasculated the law enforc-
ing power of the state of Arkansas. Taking Gov.
Faubus' explanation at its face value, it comes
down to a plea that the state of Arkansas was
unable to preserve order at the school unless he
nullified the law. Thus, there existed a vacuum
in the law enforcing powers of the sovereign
state of Arkansas and it was this vacuum that
the Federal government has been compelled to
ON SATURDAY, in his telegram to Sen. Rus-
sel, the President had been better advised
than at the Newport conference and in his
broadcast. He arrived at the real issue, which,
as he put it, is that "the police powers of the
state of Arkansas" have "been utilized . .. to
frustrate the order of the court." This is solid
ground for him to stand upon. For men like
Byrd, Byrnes, and Russell have not said, and
would not say, that a state may use the Nation-
al Guard to nullify the laws of the United
The exact definition of the real issue is of
PETER ECKSTEIN, Editor
JAMES ELSMAN, JR. VERNON NAHRGANG
Editorial Director City Editor
DONNA HANSON................Personnel Director
TAMMY MORRISON ......Magazine Editor
EDWARD GERULDSEN ...Associate Editorial Director
WILLIAM HANEY ..................Features Editor
ROSE PERLBERG. . ........Activities Editor
CAROL PRINS...........Associate Personnel Director
JAMES BAAD ............. Sports Editor'
BRUCE BENNETT ............Associate Sports Editor
JOHN HILLYER.. ............Associate Sports Editor
CHARLES CURVISS ..........Chief Photographer
crucial importance in dealing with the question
of how the Federal power can be withdrawn
from Little Rock. This is the question which
the President agreed to discuss Tuesday with
the committee of five governors, headed by Gov.
Collins of Florida, who represents the Southern
This question has two parts. One is when
can the Federal troops from the airborne divi-
sion be withdrawn? The other is when can the
Arkansas National Guard be discharged from
the Federal service?
The answer to the first question is that the
Federal troops can be withdrawn as soon as the
Arkansas National Guard, now under Federal
orders, is judged to be able and willing to pre-
serve order and to enforce the law.
The answer to the second question is, I sub-
mit, that the National Guard cannot be dis-
charged from the Federal service until the
Governor of Arkansas reverses his orders to
the National Guard, and commits it to enforce
the law and to preserve order. The Federal
intervention can end only when the police pow-
ers of the state of Arkansas have become again
agencies for the enforcement of the law. The
President cannot agree to anything less than
this condition. To do so would be to establish
an intolerable, and an infinitely dangerous,
precedent-that a state may use its troops to
nullify the laws of the United States.
HAVING SETTLED this, we, must remain
acutely aware that integration in the public
schools of the South cannot be treated solely
or mainly as a problem in Federal law en-
forcement. That was the vice of Title 3 of they
Civil Rights bill that Congress dealt with dur-
ing the summer. Integration is a problem in
persuasion and consent, w)hich cannot be solved
by injunctions and soldiers.
My own view has been that we ought long
since have begun "asking ouselves whether the
decision of the Supreme Court does not need to
be supplemented" by a national policy and pro-
gram of guidance and aid as to when, where,
how far and how fast, integration should pro-
ceed in different school districts, and at the
various levels of the elementary school, the
high school, the college, and the professional
"The wisest policy is to proceed by stages,
beginning as soon as possible with integration
in the universities, in the graduate schools of
law, medicine, education, engineering, theolo-
gy-and where it can be done without causing
social convulsions in the bigger colleges. The
object of this would be to train a new genera-
tion of white and colored men and women who
will be the leaders in their communities."
This was written a year ago. It was written
in the conviction that the worst place to begin
integration is in co-educational schools for
teen-agers, and that the best place to begin in-
tegration is .at the level of higher education. I
do not believe that it is now wise, or indeed
possible, to combine for adolescent school
children co-education with integration. It is
wise and it is possible to open up higher educa-
It is, I think, significant that at the level of
higher education Arkansas is a leader in in-
tegration among the Southern states.
JERICHO, Jordan-Just outside
this ancient city whose walls
crumpled when Joshua blew seven
times on seven trumpets is one of
the great festering trouble-spots
of the Near East.
The city of Jericho is without
walls today. It sprawls out at the
northern tip of the Dead Sea, 1,-
300 feet below sea level, where the
Jordan River pours its fresh water
into a body of water that is so
salty fish cannot live. For miles.
around, the shore is pure salt
It's hot alongside the Dead Sea,
stifling hot. But between Jericho
and the sea is a camp of 35,000
refugees, fled from Israel during
the Arab attack of 1948. They now
clamor to go back. And their
clamor, plus that of other refu-
gees, constitutes the most up-
setting political force in this upset
part of the world.
* * *
THESE are the poor refugees;
not the doctors, lawyers, and pro-
fessional men who have contri-
buted greatly to the Arab states.
I drove out from Jericho to the
camp. It is constructed of mud
brick houses similar to those I
helped build for Montenegrin
refugees made homeless by the
Austrian Army after World War I.
They are good houses, still stand-
ing in Yugoslavia, and those near
Jericho are good houses too.
The chief difference is that
these refugees don't work. The
American Friends Service Com-
mittee in Yugoslavia operated on
the rule: "No work, no eat." We
provided work. But the Arab refu-
gees in Jordan either can't get
work, are not supplied work, or
don't want to work. In Lebanon
they are not permitted by law
An exception is Musa Alami.
Near Jericho, he drilled a well,
struck water, started a truck
farm. He raised chickens, installed
a refrigeration plant, planted ba-
nanas, and soon operated a thriv-
ing business, hauling his produce
to American oil company em-
ployees in Saudi Arabia.
But one day last Spring, when
Jordan was seething against the
West, the refugees at Jericho de-
cided to take out their vengeance
on one of their own number.
Storming down the road to Musa
Alami's farm, yelling "Get the
traitor!" they destroyed his re-
frigeration plants and wrung the
necks of 35,000 chickens.
Musa had employed at times as
many as 1,200 refugees. However,
he made the fatal mistake of ac-.
cepting the permanency of his
residence in Jordan. He had sent
down new roots in his adopted
country, had given up the idea of
returning to Israel. This is what
made him a traitor.
* * *
DURING the nine years the ref-
ugees have been sitting in heat.
and idleness at the head of the
Dead Sea, they have built up a
burning, passionate hate. They
hate Israel and they hate Britain
and the United States, which have
befriended Israel. Fanatic Arab
leaders have used this as a wea-
pon. Moderate Arab leaders have
bowed to it because they are pris-
oners. Bitterness has become too
strong. It was one reason the
British and Glubb Pasha were
kicked out of Jordan and why
Jordan spent three days this year
celebrating the anniversary of his
exit. It's also why Jordan, while
accepting American arms, will not
accept an American military mis-
sion to help them use those arms.
Moderate Arab leaders will tell
you privately that if the refugees
were given a chance to go back
to Israel, only a handful would go
back. They claim, however, that
, Israel must make the gesture of
inviting them back, in order to
"save face" for the refugees.
The United Nations, meanwhile,
has been doing a superhuman job
of sitting on this explosive lid.
Without the meagre $27 a year
the United Nations Refugee Re-
lief Association spends to keep
the refugees alive, they would
have precipitated war by march-
ing across the border into Israel
The UN staff is among the best
in this part of the world. But they
know they face superhuman poli-
tical obstacles until the basic
problem is solved.
There are millions of refugees
in other parts of the world-from
Communist Indo-China to free
Indo-China, from India and Pa -
istan, from Germany, Poland, and
Egypt to Israel, from Hungary all
over the world. In nost cases, the
refugees do not return to their
former homes. They are resettled.
But in the Arab countries, they
have been permitted to ferment
in camps for nine years as a wea-
pon of political hate.
* * *
THE RIVER Jordan as it flows
into the Dead Sea is only 50 feet
wide. But in terms of progress, it
is 500 years wide.
When the P r o p h e t Joshua
crossed the Jordan in the days
when the walls of Jericho were
still standing, he was endowed
with the divine power to make
the Jordan stand still.
I could not help but think as I
crossed the Jordan that if the 35,-
000 refugees sitting in the heat
of Jericho had worked at it, they
too could have made the River
Jordan stand still. In nine years
they could have built a great ir-
rigation project which would have
turned the barren wastes around
them into green fields. Instead,
they have sat in bitterness and
filth while the fresh waters of
the Jordan continue flowing into
the brine of the Dead Sea.
(opyright 1957 by Bell Syndicate Inc.)
effective through use of instru-
ments of force and violence as well
as the more subtle coercion of eco-
nomic and social sanctions. These
Negroes are constrained by South-
But, as Mr. Drake has pointed
out, force is evil. How can the
force be removed? How can these
Negroes be freed so that they can
do the things they want to do?
*4 * *
WE COULD try to persuade those
who apply the instruments of coer-
cion to stop their pernicious prac-
tice. But if we fail-and there is
little reason to be found in human
history to suppose that we will not
fail-then the evil element of force
will continue to brood over South-
Alternatively, we can meet force
with force in the hope that, though
no fully satisfactory solution can
be achieved in this way, the amount
of force will be diminished.
The application of force has al-
ways been an essential condition
of individual freedom. The Presi-
dent has applied force in order to
liberate certain individuals who
happen to be Negro.
One may argue that the force
applied is worse than the force
restrained. This is a debatable
question. But to argue that use of
Federal troops is wrong because it
is an "imposition of force from
without" is to forget that the
troops are there to prevent the
imposition of force from within.
Faulkner ignores this sinWle
point in his writings. Mr. Drake
echoes the master's error.
-Arnold S. Kaufman
Instructor in philosophy
Tsk Tsk .
To the Editor:
IT SEEMS TO ME the young
"ladies" of the University have
a lot to learn about good manners
before their education is complete.
I notice generally and consis-
tently that the girls on campus
expect the male population to dis-
play courtesy, but rarely have I
seen any inspiring behavior on
Much of my time on campus is
spent in a building where there is
an antiquated elevator, self-oper-
ated. Whenever there is a young
man in the crowd, the girls wait
impatiently until he threads his
way through the crowd to open
the door, and again until he has
delivered them to their floor and
let them out.
* * *
THEN THEY pass by with heads
held high in the air without a
backward glance much less a word
of thanks. Of course, their excuse
may be they're in a hurry to get to
classes or their coffee dates or
whatever their destinations. But I
can't help thinking the poor guy
must be just as anxious to get
I've seen girls going through
doors and letting them slam in the
faces of the people behind. How
rude can you get?
It just incenses me because I'm
a girl, too, and I don't like having
people left with the impression
that we're all selfish, thoughtless
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
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Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
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publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
THURSDAY. OCTOBER 3, 195
VOL. LXVIII, NO. 13
University Directory. All additions
and corrections for listings already
sent in must be reported by Mon., Oct.
7. For further information, call Flor-
ence Boyd, Ext. 2152.
Blue Cross Group Hospitalization,
Medical and Surgical Service Programs
for staff members will be open from
Oct. 7 through Oct. 18, 1957, for new
applications and changes in contracts
now in effect. Staff members who wieh
to include surgical and medical serv-
ices should make such changes in the
Personnel Office, Room 1020, Admin-
istration Building. New applications
and changes will be effective Dec. 5,
with the first, payment deduction on
Nov. 30. After Oct. 18, no new applica-
tions or changes can be accepted until
On Friday afternoon the Office of
Religious Affairs will have a special
guest from B'nai B'rith Hillel Founda-
tion at its coffee hour, to speak on the
significance of the present high holi-
day season - Rosh Hashanah and Yom
Kippur. Lane Hall, 4:15 p.m., Oct. 4.
The following student sponsored so-
cial events are approved for the com-
Oct. 4: Delta Theta Phi, Kappa Alpha
Psi, Phi Delta Phi, Wenley House.
Oct. 5: Acacia Fraternity, Alpha Chi
Sigma, Alpha Delta Phi, Alpha Epsilon
Pi, Alpha Kappa Kappa, Alpha Lamb-
da, Alpha Sigma Phi, Alpha Tau Ome-
ga, Beta Theta Pi, Chi Phi, Delta Ci
Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Sigma Phi,
Delta Tau Delta, Delta Theta Phi, Del-
ta Upsilon, Evans Scholars, . Hawaii
Club, Huber House, Nu Sigma Nu, Phi
Alpha Kappa, Phi Chi, Phi Delta Phi,
Phi Delta Theta, Phi Gamma Delta, Phi
Kappa Psi, Phi Kappa Sigma, Phi Kap-
pa Tau, Phi Rho Sigma, Psi Omega
Psi Upsilon, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sig-
ma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Alpha Mu,
Sigma Chi Sigma Phi, Sigma Phi Epsi-
lon, Theta Xi Triangle Fraternity,
Trigon Fraternity, Zeta Beta Tau.
Oct. 6: Delta Theta Phi, Phi Delta Phi.
Applications for Summer Faculty Re-
search Fellowships: Deadline for receipt
of applications. for Summer Faculty
Research Fellowships has been ex-
tended to Fri., Oct. 4. Faculty mem-
bers who wish to apply for these fel-
lowships should file their applications
before 4:00 p.m. on that date in the
office of the Graduate School.
Applications for Grants from the
Faculty Research Funds: Deadline for
receipt of applications for grants from
the Faculty Research Funds has been
extended to Fri., Oct. 4. Faculty mem-
bers' who wish to apply for grants
should file their applications before
4:00 p.m. on that date in the office
of the Graduate School.
The General Electric Educational and
Charitable Fund is offering 34 fellow-
ships for the academic year 1958-59.
Fields will include Physical Sciences,
Engineering, Industrial Management,
Liberal Arts, Business Administration,
and Graduate Law. Applications will
become available in November. Persons
who are interested should come to the
Office of the Graduate School before
Nov. 1 for information on taking the
recmmended Graduate Record Exami-
nation on Nov. 16.
The Social Science Research Coun-
cil has announced various fellowships
and grants to be offered for 1958-59.
Research Training Fellowships in all
social science fields, predoctoral and
postdoctoral, for more advanced re-
search training; Faculty Research Fel-
lowships, providing half-time support
for research for three-year terms, open
to college and university social science
teachers normally not over 35 years of
age and Grants-In-Aid of research, to
assist scholars of established compe-
tence in completing their own research
projects in any social science field.
There are special grants for projects
in the following fields: American Gov-
ernmental Affairs, American Govern-
mental Processes, State Politics, Na-
tional Defense Problems, Field Studies
of Political Groups in Foreign Areas,
INear and Middle East, and Slavic and
East European Studies. The council
is also offering travel grants to the
following International conferences:
Pacific Science Congress, International
Congress of Americanists, Internation-
al Conference of Agricultural Econo-
mists, and the Congress of the Inter-
nal Political Science Association, 1958.
Applications for fellowships, exclusive
of travel grants, will be due on Jan.
6, 1958. Further information may be ob-
tained in the Office of the Graduate
School. Application blanks may be ob-
tained from the Social Research Coun-
cil, 230 Park Avenue, New York 17, N.Y.
When requesting application forms it
is Important to state age, place of per-
manent residence, academic status,
present position or activity and voca-
tional aims; and to indicate briefly the
nature of the training or research for
which support is sought.
University Lecture, auspicps of the
History Department. "The British Pre-
UNITY FROM DIVERSITY:
Report on International Student Conference
(Editor's Note: The following ar-
ticle is the first of a two-part series
written by former Daily Editor Da-
vid Baad, who attended the Seventh
International Student Conference
as a staff member of its Coordinat-
By DAVID BAAD
IBADAN, NIGERIA-Unity from
diversity, the long-standing slo-
gan of the 61-participant Interna-
tional Student Conference, be-
came, for once, reality at the
Seventh International S t u d e n t
Conference completed here Sep-
Students from five continents
united for near unanimous votes
on two of the most explosive issues
ever to face the Conference -- the
"students as such" clause in the
ISC principles and the Algerian
The result was that the funda-
mental principle which has guided
the Conference since its inception
in 1950, "problems discussed by the
Conference must concern students
as sc h rws effimed mm.
outright attempt to remove the
"students as such" clause from the
ISC principles. Its motion for dele-
tion prompted a four hour debate
in Commission session but the re-
sult was defeat on a roll call vote,
31-19. When the whole set of Con-
ference principles was brought to
the Seventh ISC plenary, it was
passed 51 to 0 with six absten-
tions, but none relating to the
"students as such" clause.
But the Algerian question re-
presented a more subtle undermin-
ing of the clause. The final resolu-
tion on Algeria almost became a
purely political rather than stu-
dent stand, thereby superceding
the ISC principles without chang-
ing them on paper.
During the final plenary session
a motion was passed at one point,
33-17, to include a clause in the
Algerian resolution, "expressing
the hope that the United Nations
would use all its authority to sup-
port the equitable and quick settle-
final resolution because it would
contravene cherished ISC prin-
ciples protected by them for seven
Many European National Unions
of Students actually have clauses
in their own constitutions which
would prohibit them from partici-
pating in the ISC if it took poli-
Finally at precisely 3:45 a.m.,
September 21, New Zealand's Peter
Boag proposed to amend the above
paragraph to read, "ISC expresses,
the hope that an equitable and
quick solution to the Algerian
problem will be found on recogni-
tion of national independence, the
pre-requisite for free and demo-
cratic education in Algeria."
. There was nearly two minutes
of silence while the Algerian dele-
gate debated with himself the
question: partial but majority sup-
port for a "political", motion or
unanimous support for an educa-
tion based motion.
cational affairs. It could become
an open forum for irresponsible
emotionalism on issues covering
the whole political gamut.
Charter participants in the ISC
also remember that 21 National
Unions from Europe and North
America founded the Conference
in 1950 following bitter dissatisfac-
tion with the politicism of the
International Union of Students
with headquarters in Prague.
The IUS, which still resolves on
everything from the H-bomb to
Suez, had become in their words,
"a political mouthpiece for a par-
ticular ideology." Students needed,
they thought a framework for
practical cooperation in the field
of education, and it is the struggle
to maintain this framework that
occupied delegates here in Nigeria.
THE CONFERENCE does n o t
avoid questions where political
considerations are closely inter-
woven with the proper functioning
of educational institutions in a