State rust Pay
Sixty-Seven Years of Editorial Freedom.
See page 4
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1957
tle Rock' Violence Undermining
ited States Prestige - President
INGTON (M)-President Dwight D. Eisenhower, telling the
v he sped federal troops to Little Rock, said last night that
there menaced the very safety of the United States and the
s so, he said in a TV-radio broacast from the White House,
loating" Communists abroad are using the school integra-
to misrepresent the United States and undermine its
d influence around the globe.
aly, he called upon Mkansas citizens to help bring an end
rference with legal processes, because: "Mob rule cannot
be allowed to override the deci-
sions of the courts."
Even as he spoke, the first of
the 101st Airborne Division were
entering Little Rock, but the
"If resistance to the federal
court orders ceases at once, the.
further presence of federal troops
will be unnecessary. .,
By THOMAS BLUES
i Aung, Rector of the Uni--
r of Rangoon in Burma, will
at 4 p.m. today in East Con-
e room of Rackham on
na's position in World Af-
The aresident stressed thatthe
troops were not sent to relieve
local authorities of their ;duty to
preserve order, nor to act as school
administrators. Their only pur-
pose, he said, is to prevent further
j interference with a federal judge's
order that Negroes be admitted to
Little Rock's Central High School.
The President, looking deadly
serious, said he chose the White
House for his address to the na-
"I felt that, in speaking from
the house of Lincoln and Jackson
and of Wilson, my words would
more clearly convey both the, sad-.
ness I feel in the action I was
compelled today to take and the
firmness with which I intend to
pursue this course.
He said he knew that an over-
whelming majority of Americans
including those of Little Rock-
are people of goodwill, but that
some few in the Arkansas capital
were bent on obstructing justice.
In this country, President Eisen-
hower said, the basis of individual
rights and freedoms is the cer-
tainty that the executive branch
will insure the carrying out of
federal court decisions with all the
meansat the president's command,
"Unlless the president did so,
anarchy would result," he said.
Once, he said that the running
of the school systems is a matter
for local authorities,. and the fed-
eral government doesn't interfere
Shelved in UN
UNITED NATIONS, NY. (P) --
The General Assembly decided
last night to shelve for another
year the question of seating Red
China in the United Nations.
The action was a rebuff for In-
dia and the Soviet Union which
had led an attempt to get the is-'
sue placed before the 82-nation
Assembly for a full debate.
WASHINGTON (P - The cost
of living topped off a full year of
steady climbing with a Jump of
two tenths of 1 per cent during
This gain, announced yester-
day, was the 12th straight month-
-ly advance and left prices 3.6 per
cent higher than they were a year
The Labor Department's con-
sumer price index now stands at
121 per cent of the 1947-49 level.
The latest jump in the price in-
dex will bring automatic pay
raises of two or three cents an
hour to 157,000 workers whose
wages are tied to the cost of liv-
ing in escalator contracts. '
Most of the workers affected
are in the aircraft industry.
In another report, the Labor
Department said the weekly
spendable earnings of factory
production workers - what they
have left after paying federal
taxes and social security pay-
mients - rose by 33 cents during
the month more than offsetting
the increase in the cost of living
for this particular group. Buying
power for factory workers was
'still below last year's levels, how-
During August the spendable
earnings of a factory worker with
three dependents averaged $75.13
weekly. A worker without depend-
ents averaged $67.73. These earn-
ings were about $2 higher than a
Plans of Student Government
Council and the University to
send an eight-man delegation to
Southeast Asia next summer have
been changed according to Chair-
man Margaret Quick, '57,
Originally the committee had
planned to request $26,000 for an
eight man student-faculty group.
The figure has now been reduced
to $19,000 for six people.
The change was made to im-
prove' chances of securing finan-
cial support from some founda-
tion, Miss Quick said.
Only two letters have been sent
out and of the two, one refusal
has been received from the Asian
Foundation. No response has been
heard from the Youth and Stu-
Plans to send out 20 more re-
quests have Just been completed
and letters will be mailed later in
the week, Miss Quick added.
If a sponsor is found, the pro-
ject will only be the third such
attempt in the country. Only two
other American schools, UCLA
and the University of California
have similar projects.,
Miss Quick said, "The purpose
of the delegation may have to be
changed if we fail to receive ac-
ceptance by a foundation."
NEW YORK P)-The AFL-CIO
Executive Council late last night
found the United Textile Workers
of America under corrupt influence
and gave the union 30 days to
The Council's announcenient
came after a day-long meeting
during which the labor organiza-
tion's top governing body' had
studied a report from the AFI,-
CIO Ethical Practices Committee
condemning financial practices in
the textile union.
The accused textile union is dis-
tinct from the Textile Workers
Union- of America, once in the
CIO. It is one of three unions
under corruption charges by the
Ethical Practices Committee after
disclosures of financial irregulari-
ties by a Senate committeV.,
The other unions, the Teamsters
and Bakery Workers, also are ex-
pected to get clean-up orders from
the Executive Council, which is
meeting in extraordinarysession
to ,pass on the Ethical Practices
The Council said action on the
Teamsters and Bakers would not
come before today.
The ethical Practices Commit-
tee's reports were prompted by
the current investigations of Mid
West Teamster Boss James Hoffa.
On SGC Slate
The fate of. Campus Chest and
its relationship to Galens may be
discussed at the Student Govern-
ment Council meeting at 7:30 to-
night at the Student Activities
Building, according to Janet
Neary, '58, SGC executive vice-
Because of SGC's concern about'
the success of the Campus Chest
drive last year and the conflict
with Galens,medical honorary,
calendaring of both events had
been postponed until further dis-
cussion this year.
Plans for the SGC forum pro-
gram will also be discussed at the
meeting, Miss Neary said. The
committee has been working to
set up a program which would
offer speakers discussing impor-
tant questions in education, poli-'
tics, religion and related areas.
Teamsters and other delegates
WASHINGTON ()-Senate investigators yesterday challenged
the credentials of-James R. Hoffa and 29 other delegates to a Team-
sters Union convention at which Hoffa hopes to win the post of
The challenge came from Robert F. Kennedy, chief counsel of
the Senate Rackets Committee and Sen. Karl Mundt (R-S.D.), a
member of the inquiry group.
They contended the election of Hoff a, Midwest boss of the
m Locals 299 and 337 in Detroit,
Swas not conducted in accordance
with the union's constitution.
"He's not legally a delegate,"
Mundt said of Hoffa, whom the
committee has had under fire for
This brought an angry protest
from George Fitzgerald, Hoff a's
lawyer. Hoffa, described by Chair-
man John McClellan (D-Ark.), as
"one of the most powerful labor
leaders in this nation," had been
invited to attend the hearing but
did not show up.
"I dqn't think Sen. Mundt has
any right to sit here and charac-
terize anything as legal or illegal,"
The issue will be threshed out in
the U.S. District Court here Friday
when Hoffa and other union big-
wigs appear to show cause why a
temporary injunction should not
be issued holding up the election.
The Teamsters are scheduled to
open their convention in Miami
Beach next Monday.
INDIANAPOLIS (A) - Four'
members of Local 350 here filed
suit Tuesday to throw the -Laun-
dry Workers International Union
into receivership and prevent its
possible affiliation with the Team-
Two other suits filed at the
same time in Marion County Cir-
cuit Court asked that trustees be
named for the local union and the
social security department of the
Attorney Nelson Grills, repre-
senting the plaintiffs, said the
suits are based on a section of the
union's constitution providing
that the union must remain in
the AFL. The union is under sus-
pension from the AFL-CIO.
Grills said that the union is
contemplating moving its head-
quarters to Chicago and that it
might affiliate with the Team-
sters if the latter union is expelled
from the AFL-CIO.
SOMAGAHARA, Japan () -
The only American to see William
S. Girard fire at a Japanese wo-
man scrap collector testified yes-
terday that "actually, I don't
think he meant to do it."
He said Girard fired as a joke.
But the testimony of soldier
Victor Nickel, Inkster, Mich., dif-
fered on three points with that of
Girard's. Nickel shared a foxhole
with Girard at the U.S. Army
firing range here Jan. 30 just be-
fore Mrs. Naka Sakai was fatally
wounded by the Ottawa, Ill., sol-
dier. Girard is on trial for man-
This was how Nickel's testi-
mony conflicted with Girard's:
Girard put the rifle grenade
launcher to his shoulder and
aimed at the woman as she bent
over. Girard said he fired from
Nickel's testimony put Girard
about 25 feet closer to the woman
at the moment of the shooting.
The session of the Japanese
court was held at the scene of the
NEWPORT, R. I. (P)-President
Dwight D. Eisenhower yesterday
ordered ground and air units of
the Arkansas National Guard into
federal service to cope with the
violence-ridden Little Rock school
The President's action placed
the 9,900 Guardsmen under Army
control and thereby took them out
of state control.
Ike Not Obeyed
President Eisenhower took his1
dramatic action in an executive
order declaring that his procla-
mation Monday, demanding a
cessation to the obstruction of
Justice, had not been obeyed.
The order authorized and di-
rected Defense Secretary Charles
E. Wilson to order into active
military service of the United
States such Arkansas Guard units
as hesdeemed appropriate to carry
out the purpose of the order.
Sec. Wilson complied shortly
Told To Integrate
Pres. Eisenhower further author-
ized - but did not direct - Sec.
Wilson "to use such of the armed
forces of the United States as he
may deem necessary" to carry out
a federal District Court integra-
Gov. Faubus, until yesterday the
civilian commander of the Guard,
first called up these troops Sept.
2, to-as he said-prevent vio-
lence. His orders also were to pre-
vent Negroes from entering the
school, focal point bf the trouble.
He withdrew them in compli-
ance with a federal court order
whichhe' has appealed.
Action Said Legal
The White House was emphatic
in declaring it had a firm legal
basis in taking its action.
Gov. Faubus Monday questioned
the President's legal authority to
use federal troops in Little Rock
unless requested by the governor.
James C. Hagerty, the Presi-
dent's press secretary, told a news
conference yesterday that "people
quoting the laws on the President's
action do not know what they are
talking about." He did not men-
tion Gov. Faubus.
DAYTON, Ohio (A) - An Air
Force B26, twin-engine bomber,
coming in for an emergency land-
ing at Wright, Patterson Air
Force Base plunged 70 feet into a
suburban h o u s i n g development
yesterday, killing four persons and
injuring at least one.
The plane ripped sections from
two houses and demolished a third.
Air Force officials said the me-
dium-sized bomber developed en-
gine trouble immediately after
takeoff and was returning to the
base. Flying at "10 feet, officials
said, the plane suddenly veered
to miss a high steel tower, but
got its landing gear tangled in a
high tension wire and went plum-
meting toward the development,
on Dayton's southeast side.
Said Robert Cushing, a serv-
ice station operator who
watched the convoy coning
into the city: "T think they
ought to have stayed out. In-
tegration had to come but
they didn't have to shove it
down our throats."
Many state and federal officials
refused comment at this time.
Gov. Orval Faubus said "I feel
like Gen. Douglas MacArthur. I
A Faubus aide, told of the Pres-
ident's action, said, "My God, did
he do that?",
The high school's handsome
stone facade was lighted and the
lights from the jeeps and the'2/2
ton trucks, carrying the para-
troopers, gave the scene an eerie
The Air Force planes carrying
the paratroopers from Ft. Camp-
bell, Ky., landed at midafternoon
at Little Rock Air Force Base.
An officer called the City Hall
and asked for and got, permis-
sion to enter the city and for a
police escort to handle the traffic.-
A number of Negro paratroops
were seen in the trucks.
However, it appeared 'that they
were being assigned to duty away
from the. high school.
A trailer marked "explosives,"
and a weapons carrier came with
Battalion pennons- fluttered.
from short standards attached to
The paratroopers wore battle
Col. William A. Kuehn, com-
mander of the troops at the high
school, conferred with Asst. Po-
lice Chief Gene Smith about troop
arrangements for last niight.
It appeared that the troops
might bed' down on the school's
Wooden barricades that figured
so prominently in Monday's dis-
turbances at the school were
placed on the sidewalk to permit
the paratroopers' vehicles to pass
down the street.
Htin Aung will be on campus
throughout most of this week and
will also be guest lecturer in three
courses beginning today.
His trip to the United States is
supported by the Asian Founda-
'tion, whose purpose is to improve
relations between Asia and this
country. The Foundation set up a
program a few yea-s ago with U
Nu, Premier of Burma, which
would periodically send represent-
, ative Burmese to tour the United
States and speak at various col-
leges and universities. Htin Aung
is the second U Nu lecturer to visit
Htin Aung, who -became the
first Burmese rector of the Uni-
versity of Burma in 1946, has an
extensive educational and military
background. As a scholar in Eng
land, he first qualified as a ba-
rister after completing his law
studies in London.
He then went to Queen's Col-
lege, Cambridge where he earned
his doctoate in anthropology.
Further studies in law took him to
the University of Dublin'where he
gained his second doctor's degree,'
this time in law.
He practiced at this profession
from 1934 to 1936 when he became
the first Burmese professor) at the
University of Rangoon.
Has English Faculty
At that time Burma was under
the rule of Britain andsall the
faculty were English. It was not
until 1948 that Burma ggined in-
dependence and br'oke away from
the British Commonwealth.
With the advent of World War
II, the educator turned soldier
fought the Japanese, invaders in
the British Army and remained to
fight with Burmese resistence
Shocked at Mo
Negro Children Reported Prept
To Enter School Again if Prote
LITTLE ROCK, Ark. M - Helmeted paratroopera
the famed 101st Airborne Division took up stations a
Central High School last night while hundreds of Littli
people looked on.
The troops roled in convoy from Little Rock Air
Base, 'shortly after dark.
The force, said to be 500, split one group going
high school and the other to the National Guard Arm
A National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored
official, Mrs. L. C. Bates, said, "If federaL troops are th
protect the children, the Negro children will go to schi
Men on the street in Little. Rock as well as
off icials were shocked by the action federalizin
Guard and sending in troops.4' z
To- Step I'
WASHINGTON OP) - Amer
presidents have been using tr
to enforce the law and pre
order since the earliest day
In such historic instane
the Whisky Rebellion, i
Brown's raid at Harper's Fi
the bonus. march on Washin
fnd the 1894 Pullman str
presidents ordered troops'*Into
An O, In Arkansas itself, w
President Eisenhower steppe
Tuesday by summoning the
National Guard into federal
'vice, there have been at least t
precedents for summoning
troops to preserve or restore or
There is one major pont of
ference between President Ei
hower's decision yesterday to
Guardsmen and. federal troop
Arkansas and actions of o
presidents in the past. Ordin
the president has sent troop
scenes of riot or threatened
,order on the request of a govei
Few Instances turn up in the
tory books-one is the Pll
strike-in which a president
acted against the expressed
of the governor of a state.
Federal legal authorities
the laws under which Eisenhi
acted date back to 1861.
Provision for use of fec
forces within a given state
made during George Washingi
administration. However, t h
laws originally required a req
by a state's governor or leg:
ture. The laws were change
delete the request feature
See HISTORY, page 2
WASHINGTON (VP) -The
ernment moved yesterday to
out two convictions under
"knowing 'membership" claus
the Smith Act.
The Justice Department sid
Supreme Court decision -in
Jencks case requires reversa
the first two convictions obta
-under the provision of the
which makes it a crime to be
to the Communist party v
knowing the party advocates
lent overthrow of;the govenr
"The men concerned: Juni
Scales, Communist leader in 'J
nessee and the Carolinas
Claude M. Lightfoot, Chicago,
served as executive secretary ol
Illinois Communist party.
The Supreme Court last Ju
directed a new trial for Clii
E. Jencks, former labor union
ficial convicted of filing a
WELCOME MAT OUT:
Daily Tryout Meeting Scheduled Today
The Michigan Daily is one of the
finest college newspapers in the
It has earned many awards for
editorial, and technical excellence.
It can claim the enviable record
of sixty-seven years of editorial
In order to maintain and in-
crease this reputation, The Daily
needs staff members who like to
write, sell advertising, take pic-
tures and meet people. If you fit
any or all of these categories you
have a place at The Daily.
The Daily can offer you excite-
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WITH VARIED REACTION:
Little Rock Observers,
Uphold Need for Order.
By The Associated Press
JOHNSTON CITY, Tex. -- Senate Majority Leader Lyndon
Johnson (D-Tex.) said in a written statement from his home yester-
day he thought "there should be no troops from either side patrol-
ling our school campuses."
Voicing his concern over the Little Rock situation which he
said was filled with dangerous emotional tension and marked by ex-
tremely complex questions, Johnson said:
"I believe the great majority of our people look to the governor
and the President to exercise their responsibility in such a way that
normal governmental processes will be restored and I think there
should be no troops from either side patrolling our school campuses."
* * *