Unity Among Services Key to Defense
Twilight of the Minor Leagues
(Continued from Page 9)
shore in three different oceans, the
AN OFFICIAL Naval Institutej
publication declares that the
1500-mile range of the Fleet Bal-
listic missile will bring virtually
every spot on earth within range
of naval attack. Targets in the
very heart of Soviet Russia could
be destroyed by ships lying far off-
The relative invulnerability of
ships, as compared with more per-
manent land installations,, was
noted by Captain Mothersill. "The
faster missiles go, the harder they
are to control, and, in any event,
it is extremely difficult to hit ships,
*S E L L G
. IVY LEAGUE
which are deployed over a large'
area and are surrounded by many
miles of water," he explained.
"Without some form of terminal
guidance in the vicinity of the
ship, it is nearly impossible to drop
a missile on a ship," Captain
Mothersill - continued.
When asked how our submarine
fleet compares with the Russian's,
the Captain explained that "the
United States is not interested in
having as many submarines as the
Soviets. The Russians now have
475 subs and are outbuilding us
by a six-to-one ration," he esti-
WHAT we have developed are
. super-subs' or anti-submar-
ine submarines, and 'hunter-killer
groups,' consisting of a team of
helicopters and/or fixed-wing air-'
craft and cruisers. The aircraft
seek out the enemy submarines
and direct the cruisers to the spot.
The captain of the cruiser has
this interlocked team directly un-
der his guidance," Captain
He added that "it would be
much too expensive to maintain
a submarine fleet the size of the
Despite current reports of inter-
service rivalry between the three'
branches of the military, there is
evidence of a cooperation that is
closer than ever befare.
Statements by the three cificers,
as well as official Pentagon sources,
MISSILE SUB-The artist's drawing depicts the Navy's fleet
ballistic missile submarine. Authorized this year, it will launch
the Polaris, an intermediate range ballistic missile, wihcut
Televising Qof Some, Major ,League. Baseball.
Threatens To Kill the Little Fellows'
SAM'S STOR E
122 East Washington
SAM J. BENJAMIN, '27 Lit.,Owner
indicate that the services will'
closely co-ordinate their activities
in the event of war, although each
will maintain its identity and per-
fori the job for which it is speci-
The Air Force Chief of Staff,
Thomas D. White, has pointed out
"that airpower capabilities do not
invalidate the requirement for land
and seapower - airpower comple-
ments these forces. Each has an'
assigned mission and the talent
and equipment necessary to carry
out this mission."
COLONEL Belsma's statement of
the Air Force's conception of
the missile as an unmanned bomb-
er appears, at first, to be a con-
tradiction of the Army's position
that missiles are the modern-day
artillery. However, the actuality,
the services are not in conflict.
Each will'have different types of
Short-range missiles, which will
primarily be used by the Army as
artillery pieces to furnish ground
support for troops, will replace the
aircraft which .formerly supplied
this close-in support.
"The Air Force formerly fur-
nished this support but the .Army
will soon be capable of- doing this
for itself," Colonel Belsma said.
"The longer-range missiles will
continue to be under the Air
Force," he added. "Our mission of
striking deep behind enemy lines
is facilitated by long-range mis-
siles," he said.
Jupiter, which is a long-
missile developed by the
is under operational control
A FURTHER evidence of co-op-
eration between the Air Force,
Army and Navy is the continental
defense system. A large number of
key cities and strategic installa-
tions are guarded -by batteries of
anti-aircraft guns and/or missiles.
These sites- are composed, in the
main, by batteries of the Army's
short-range missile, Nike.
The warning portion of the de-
fense system, consisting of the
spotting and identification of the
enemy aircraft, is the joint re-
sponsibility of the three services,
with the Navy covering the exten-
sions of the system over the,
Air Force interceptors are sent
up immediately upon observance
of enemy or unidentifiable craft.
When the aircraft come within
range of the missile sites, the Nike
The entire anti-aircraft com-
mand in the United States it under
an Army three-star general. How-
ever, Continental Air Defense
Command (CADC) is under the
jurisdiction of an Air Force four-
star general, who reports directly
to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Nelson A. Rockefeller reported
in a TV address. that there are
eight similar co-operative projects,
now in operation in our world-
wide military establishments.
By DALE CANTOR
ACCORDING to Greek legend,
Apollo gave the gift of proph-
ecy to Cassandra as a token of his
love for her. Then in a lover's
quarrel, he ordained that no one
ever should believe what she said.
So the poor girl kept calling the
turn with uncanny preciseness and
none paid her heed.
Back in 1953, Sen. Edwin C.
Johnson, a Colorado Democrat';
threw out a prophecy at the Base-
ball Writers' dinner. Also presi-
dent of the Western League, Sen.
Johnson accused the big leagues
of eating their young. "By satur-'
ating minor league territory with
televised major league games; the
big fellows are killing off the little
fellows" -- namely, the minor
Cassandra spoke the truth. Was
anyone paying heed?
SEN. JOHNSON'S words of warn-
ing " did not get an attentive
reception. His audience came for
fun and frolic, not for bitter, un-
pleasant accusations. But. Sen.
Johnson's distasteful premonitions
are backed by stinging facts which
show that the national game is
The record shows that, in 1952,
there were 326 minor league teams.
By 1957 the total had dropped to
197. In the most prosperous five-
year period in this country's his-
tory, a total of 129 clubs vanished.
Fans in 129 towns could no longer
enjoy organized baseball played by
their home teams.
Among the independent minor-
league clubs, with no strings at-
tached to the majors, a staggering
104 of an existing 129 teams folded.
IN THE same period, there was a
loss of only 25-from 183 to 158
--among minor league clubs con-
trolled by the majors. Each year,
a bigger and bigger share of the
minor league teams-the surviving
ones-comes under big league rule.
In 1952, the major league clubs
owned or controlled 56 per cent of
the small league teams. By the end
of 1956, the percentage had sky-
rocketed to 80.
It all adds up to one thing:
polls to prescribe a remedy.
WARNINGS to curb the majors
radio-TV invasion came thici
and fast. Just about everyone it
baseball seemed to agree that TN
was at the base of the problem
So what happened? This past win
ter six major league clubs agree
to expand their TV operation b3
nationally televising Sunda3
And Sunday is the one day o
the week when the minor league
have been able to fill their bal
parks and keep their losses bear
able. When people in small town
can watch a major league game or
television, most of them won'
bother to pay to see minor leagu
EMPTY STADIUMS-Vacant seats have become commonplace in
many minor league towns since major league baseball telecasting
has been expanded. The situation threatens to become worse.
television sets to the ball parks
have been called in like relie
pitchers at a slugfest.
Noting a great decline in at_
tendance at Eastern Leagues
tendance at Eastern League games
Gov. Thomas E. Dewey, of Ne
York, in 1954, urged people -to
attend more minor league games
Gov. Dewey said, "The, gravity of
the program is apparent when i
can threaten such a strong league
as the Eastern."
In an effort to obtain a fresl
view of the problem Commissione:
Frick went .o the fans with the
problem and asked them through
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baseball is being seriously hurt-
maybe even ruined-by the big
leagues. The victims are the minor
leagues, the source of talent neces-
sary for the majors' own survival.
Ford Frick, baseball commissioner,
once said, "Destroy the minors and
you destroy the majors." And this
brings us back to Sen. Johnson's
LIKE THE Senator said, the
minors probably are being de-
stroyed by the invasion of major
league telecasts as well as broad-
casts. Turnstile count for the
minors has shrunk alarmingly in
In 1948, the first year of exten-
sive telecasting, minor league at-
tendance was nearly 41 million.
Last year, 15,496,000 customers
went to the minor league parks.
Further, the number of leagues
have shrunkfrom 59 to 24.
Fortunately, the Senator's words
did not go entirely unheeded.
Apollo failed to tell two influen-
tial gentlemen to doubt the mod-
ern-day Cassandra. The day fol-
lowing Sen. Johnson's speech the
morning newspapers carried Sen.
Johnson's accusation and the eve-
ning journals carried a reply by
Messrs. George M. Weiss (general
manager of the New York Yan-
kees) and Franke Lane (general
manager of the Chicago White
Sox). The pair launched a cam-
paign to determine if televising of
major league baseball had affected
the minor leagues and if so to find
SINCE 1953 premiums and pana-
ceas to lure baseball fans from
to LOOK and FEEL
Foundations and Bras
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