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May 18, 1958 - Image 4

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f

Sixty-Eighth Year
. - I EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"When Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Miss les:

The

Newt

Ulut

SUNDAY, MAY 18, 1958

NIGHT EDITOR: LANE VANDER SLICE

A New Look at War:
A New Choice for Man

ARMED FORCES DAY traditionally provides
an opportunity for the civilians to see im-
pressive displays of the nation's defenses and
for the military brass to review their command.
The air shows, parades, and shipboard tours
that marked yesterday's observance of the an-
nual event must unaercore even to the least
politically minded, the uniformly depressing
realities of an unpeaceful era. Undoubtedly, to
some, the realities are exciting. Rumbling tanks
and roaring jets have their own noisy way of
emphasizihg power and man's ability to develop
it. Missiles and satellites, in their harnessing
of man's scientific resources, capture his im-
agination.
But in reviewing the displays of armed might
there is also a need to look at the real power
behind the trappings of war.
IT IS FEAR. It is the numbing realization that
cities can be consumed in a mushrooming
cloud, leavingradioactive rubble as a memorial
to man's folly. And it is the hope that fear of
holocaust recognizes no idealogical or national
boundaries. Once, the sword was an instrument
of national policy, used to reach goals unat-
tainable through diplomacy. Today, fear keeps
the sword sheathed. Diplomacy seems every-
thing.
Yet there is another, contradictory power
propelling the instruments of war. "Peace at
any price" has become a discredited slogan
since Hitler showed that Chamberlain's um-
brella and briefcase offered Europe little pro-
tection at Munich. World War II painfully il-
lustrated the cost of appeasement. Since that
time, uprisings in Hungary and Poland, al-
though perhaps futile in every other way,
warned of the pressures that can accumulate
against oppression.
But perhaps in an earlier era with less
mechanization and fewer tanks, those rebelling
in Eastern Europe might have succeeded in
the violent overthrow of an oppressive govern-
ment. Realistically, the reaction of the Poles
and Hungarians may be hopelessly "old fash-
coned" in the space age. World War II, when
a nation's long range striking force still had
propellers, has been called the last great tri-
umph of determined men and motives.
HE AMERICAN revolution might have been
among the first. But, it was recently sug-
Lebanon: Sign f
ANTI-AMERICAN riots in Lebanon have
shown once again the failure of the United
States' foreign policy in Africa and Asia. These
demonstrations can't be blamed solely on Arab
nationalism or organized communist plots to
overthrow the pro-western government. They
stem from the greatest fault in America's deal-
ings with foreign nations. We don't recognize
their need for self respect.
Nations dealing with the United States are
not treated as equal sovereign states; they are
treated like little children being watched over
by a big brother. In their eyes Russia offers
them "equal standing" in the Soviet blc while
the United States offers them only an oppor-
tunity to ride along on Uncle Sam's coattails.
The United States does not loan these coun-
tries money so that they can make improve-
ments and then pay us back; we tend to give
it to them. If they take American money, they
lose respect in their own eyes and in the eyes
of their neighbors, for in giving them gifts, we
take their pride, and as shown in South Ameri-
ca, international resentment has been rising

gested by historian Arthur Toynbee that Pat-
rick Henry's cry "Give me liberty or give me
death," no longer applies to our age. We can
no longer make decisions only for ourselves.
Any attempts to fight for our choice might
make the decision the last one ever made by
man.
The depressing attitude is inescapable. The
effect of science's achievements has been a
concentration of power. Nuclear bombs, at
least the smaller ones, are rated as equivelent
to so many pounds of TNT. And as the Rus-
sians proved a year and a half ago, the tanks
of a few can crush the rebellion of many.
Man lives in the shadow of his science and
his missiles.
A NEW CONCEPT has been introduced into
international relations. Some call it peace
through power. Only by balancing the Russians
with our weapons and the fear of retaliation
can America hope for peace.
Fear of total war thus would allow only limit-
ed war. The conflicts of the future would take
place only on small battlefronts: Korea, Indo-
China, the Mid-East.
They would be the type of war of the future.
Both sides will be so afraid to go all-out in
war that they'll limit their arsenals to con-
ventional weapons.
If hope can be stretched to the breaking
point, this new concept offers some "hope" for
the future. Yet war in any costume is hell and
dead is dead is dead.
DISARMAMENT has been attacked as ideal-
istic and unrealistic. Pourin 1'n and
thought and money into weapons of destruc-
tion is no more realistic. Steps to increase the
fear, to boost each nation's power to scare its
enemies somehow fail even to touch the grounds
of peace.
The activity on both sides has to be directed
towards understanding. Perhaps the motiva-
tions for this triumph are not yet sufficiently
strong. But perhaps here lies the real, hope for
peace . . . not that fear of missile war will
permit "only" limited war, but that realization
of the folly of both lead man to only one
choice: Harmony or Hell.
-MICHAEL KRAFT
or Re-Evaluation
and American prestige has been dropping for
too long.
Perhaps the best method of improving re-
gard for America is to make more contact with
the people in troubled areas of the world rath-
er than dealing with their governments exclu-
sively. An example of how this can be seen in
the cultural exchange program between the
United States and the Soviet Union. To a great
many people's surprise, the Russians and
Americans have liked each other. While the So-
viet Union may retain a certain amount of
barriers between itself and the West, there is
no excuse for the United States not making
friends in Lebanon which has a pro-western
government.
The same applies to India, Pakistan, the
Philippines, and all the other ilaces where
our foreign policy and support seems to be
wearing thin. America can't make friends
merely by throwing money around. It must
make friends on a personal basis. The failure
to do this is reason enough for re-evaluation
of American foreign policy. A
-THOMAS KABAKER

By LANE VANDERSLICE
Daily Staff Writer
FOR SALE: ballistics missiles
concept. Can be used for de-
stroying enemy cities, armies and
naval bases. Needs work, is expen-
sive, but presents opportunity that
cannot be passed up.
And the Army, Air Force, and
Navy have not ignored the "oppor-
tunity." Nor have they passed up
airplanes or nuclear bombs, two
other discoveries which have come
into their own .as weapons in the
past twenty years.
They haven't because they can't
afford to. As Gen. Maxwell Taylor
said in justifying the Army's de-
velopment of a 1,500 mile missile,
"The primary function of the Air
Force is to destroy enemy air
power and for the Navy to destroy
enemy naval power . .. if you ac-
cept the fact that the army exists
to destroy hostile armies, then any
mission which willrdestroy hostile
ground forces should be available
to the Army."
* * s
THE RESULT of this is a waste
of resources and loss of time in
the race with Russia, no matter
how many rationalizations are
offered to explain the duplication
involved when three services build
missiles separately.
There are other effects too. Each
of the services tends to emphasize
the more glamorous part of its
mission in the competition for
budget dollars. Thus the Navy
stresses missile firing submarines
and plays down development of
anti-submarine techniques.
A service suffers when it is not
assigned a weapons system it often
needs. The Army has failed to
develop a tactical striking force
partly because it has been decided
that the necessary planes should
remain with the Air Force.
Another major difficulty is for-
mulation of an adequate strategic
doctrine. The Chiefs of Staff are
concerned with administrative
matters and often are directly in-
volved in the inter-service squab-
bles.
But along with willingness to
adopt the new weapons, there has
been a reluctance among military
men to change the structure of the
armed forces and adapt the serv-
ices to the weapons, as evident the
fight over President Eisenhower's
military reorganization plan.
What the impact of the new
weapons will be is not at all clear.
Most experts are agreed that the
Russian lead in missiles will not

mean much if we do not allow it
to lengthen and make determined
efforts to quickly catch up. It is
not much of an immediate threat,
because missiles are still several
years away from being accurate
enough or numerous enougl to
replace conventional bombers.
For the Russian missiles to be
decisive, they must be numerous
enough to destroy so completely
the United States retaliatory force
that the Russians will escape a
significant amount of punishment.
And since a good proportion of
United States bombers are con-
tinually in the air, the Russians
must at the same time develop an
effective anti-bomber missile if

they wish to fight off an atomic
war without destruction them-
selves.
The aggressor will have some
what of an advantage as long as
"lead time"-the time it takes to
prepare a missile for launching-
continues to take several hours for
fueling.
But missiles may eventually
prove to be a great force for peace
-uneasy as it may be. Missiles can
be dispersed more easily than any
other retaliatory force and enough
may not ever be destroyed to make
a Russian attack worthwhile.
Missiles can also prevent ac-
cidental unleashing of an atomic
war, because missiles, unlike air-

planes, can be held back until the
cause of destruction is definitely
determined.
Missiles, for all practical pur-
poses, can't be stopped once they
are started, but when there are
enough of them, and th'ey are
dispersed and protected, the Unit-
ed States can afford-indeed must
--wait until the source of the ag-
gression has been definitely deter-
mined.
Then the United States will be
so completely able to destroy the
Russians at any time it chooses
that it will be able to gain the
advantage of retaliating only when
it is sure that the cause was
deliberate Russian action.

,.
r

Missiles Revitalize Navy's Position

TO SAVE MONEY:
Air Force Experiment

Military Reorganization Impractical

By The Associated Press
ALAMAGORDO, N.M. - The
Air Force has a seven miles long
instrument that should warm the
hearts of dollar-conscious tax-
payers.
This experimental laboratory
gadget - which looks like a rail-
road track - provides a way to
test missiles under free flight
conditions and at the same time
hold them in harness to prevent
bad damage or complete loss.
Counting attached buildings, a
large drainage canal and other
connected facilities, the gadget
costs about a million dollars a
mile. But, says Col. Donald H.
Vlcek, chief of the Track Division
at the Air Force Missile Devel-
opment Center:
"Think of the money that can
be saved by firing missile com-
ponents down the track to see if
they operate correctly. When mis-
sile systems are fired down it, they
can be recovered and examined
and rebuilt if necessary.
The track is desjgned so that a
2,000-pound sled can reach a
speed of Mach 4 - four times the
speed of sound - and be brought
to a stop. The vehicles that use
it slide on metal slippers instead
of using wheels.
"With this rocket sled track,"
Col. Vlcek says, "you can go to
the far end and find out why a
DAILY
!OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan for which the
Michigan Daily assumes no editor-
ial responsibility. Notices shouldbe
before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SUNDAY, MAY 18, 1958
VOL. LXVIII, NO. 165
General Notices
University Hospital Open House:
"Medical Care - Yesterday and Today."
Sun., May 18, 2:00-4:30 p.m., Outpa-

missile failed. You don't have to
dig it out of the ground and won-
der."
Vlcek says the 35,000-foot, $4,-
800,000 track will be completed in
mid-year.
The rails are set on concrete
curbings with a shallow concrete
ditch between them and two nar-
row strips of black-top paving on
each side.
Along the track "eyes" clock
the speed of a passing sled and
register it in central data collec-
tion building halfway down the
track - the "brains" of the whole
layout. In addition, much other
data about the object being test-
ed is telemetered to this building.
The route also is lined with cam-
era mounts, so an entire sled fir-
ing can be photographed.
This track, because of the level
desert terrain, can be extended to
about 21 miles. It is a pretty fair
sized trip for a rocket can be made
on the surface of the ground.

By DOUGLAS VIELMETTI
Daily Staff Writer
DEVELOPMENT of the guided
missile, stimulated by success-
ful research and Soviet missile
progress, has proved the key to the
new vitality of the United States
Navy.
Only a few years ago, Congres-
sional and military circles dis-'
cussed curtailing Naval strength
because of new trends in air power.
But with the development of the
guided missile, the Navy has gain-
ed new stature as a mobile offen-
sive and defensive striking force.
Russia's current emphasis on
submarine construction has no
doubt helped to boost America's
interest in a submarine-launched
guided missile. Although below
surface launchings had posed
many problems for research en-
gineers, difficulties with launch-
ing devices and ship stability on
the open sea havenow been over-
come.
* * *
NUCLEAR SUBMARINES such
as the-Nautalus provide spectacu-
lar versitility for launching the .
missiles. Amazing feats of travel,
such as the North America to
Europe trip without surfacing,
and the excursions under the polar
ice cap shows its range as virtually
unlimited.
The missile to be launched from
the atomic submarine fleet is the
new Polaris, of the Intermediate
Range Ballistic Missle group. This
close relative of the Inter-Con-
tinental Ballistic Missile ranges
about 1,500 miles.
The Navy states that, "Polaris'
tactical mission will be to beat
down fixed base air arid missile
defenses, and pave the way for
carrier strikes aimed at destroy-
ing primary targets."

Other missiles in the Navy's
arsenal include the surface-to-air,
air - to - air, and air - to - surface
types.
The Navy is currently equipping
several destroyers and cruisers
withsurface-to-air missiles.The
Terrier, and its smaller version,
the Tartar, are both of the medium
range catagory, and guided by an
electronic beam. Exact range of
these missiles is still classified
information. Although adaptable
t6 most destroyers and cruisers, a
special type destroyer, exclusively
built for Tartar launching, is now
under construction.
* * *
THE NAVY'S most unique mis-
sile is the air-to-air Sidewinder.
Developed by the Navy, and also
used by the Air Force, the tiny
heat-sensitive missile seeks out the
target plane, follows the jet ex-
haust up the exhaust tube, and
explodes. Escape from the Side-
winder is virtually impossible,
making it a powerful tool of the
Navy's air arm.
Radar beams guide the Navy's
other air-to-air missile, the all-
weather Sparrow I. Considered far
more complex than Sidewinder,
experts do not feel it more effec-
tive.
The missiles are launched from
the Navy's newest jet planes, based
on the super-carriers.
Latest development in the
Navy's air-to-surface arsenal is
the Bullpup, designed for use on
carrier-based Navy aircraft and
shore-based Marine aircraft. It
carries 540 pounds of missile might
in an 11 foot shell. These highly
accurate missiles are designed for
use against such small targets as
pillboxes, tanks, truck convoys,
and bridges.
A fifth class of missile, those

which are aimed at defense against
enemy missiles, are currently being
developed by the Navy's research
team. This high level military de-
fense power will put a new light
oi the effectiveness of the missile,
and call for new research demands.
The accuracy and versitility of
the Navy's missile family stands
out as a vital part of our defense
network.
The Navy is here to stay.
STATE:
'Holida'
Laughable
THE PLOT OF "Paris Holiday
was somewhat less than me-
diocre, but it proved an interesting
background' for the antics of the
newest comedy team, Fernandel
and Bob Hope.
Fernandel's comical facial ex-
pressions and overt capers served
a good contrast for Hope's dead-
pan jokes and his occasional subtle
humor. The comedy team was
good, but the movie itself was
grade B.
Hope, portraying Bob Hunter, a
famous American comedian, jour-
neys to France, on the quest of a
script and a part in a play. On the
boat to Le Havre, Hope runs into
Fernandel, who plays himself, and
they more or less team up. Neither
understands the other's language,
so Hope procures the assistance
of pretty Ann McCall (Martha
Hyer), a member of the American
Embassy in France. Together, they
accomplish few translations and
many transactions.
Voluptuous Anita Ekberg wig-
gles her way in and out of Hope's
stateroom on thenboat, acting as
some sort of undercover spy for
an organization attempting to
overthrow the economic system of
France. She was after a manu-
script, that Hope didn't have, .
and that's not all.
Not only was Miss Ekberg a
failure as an "undercover" agent
for her group, but also as an
actress. But, she did provide ample
and pretty background for Hope
and Fernandel.
THE QUARTET finally reaches
Le Havre, where it is soon ap-
parent Hope's life is in danger.
He narrowly escapes death several
times and finally ends up in an
insane asylum, thanks to the "un-
dercover" work of Miss Ekberg.
Fernandel atteempts to rescue
him by alternately posing as a
rather homely maid, a rather im-
pious priest and finally a rather
amateur helicopter pilot, the latter
of which finally worked.
Naturally, in the end, the dan-
gerous gang was captured, Miss
Ekberg saw the error of her ways,
Hope found his true love and the
comedy team was awarded the
French medals of honor.
Martha Hyer serves as a less
shapely backdrop, but her per-
formance was at least adequate.
The movie is worth seeing, how-

t
.V

#

.4

1

AS 'LIMITED WARRIOR'
Foot Soldier Fights in Space Age

1*

PRESIDENT Dwight D. Eisenhower. plan to
revamp the armed services into a single
service is unrealistic. Although there is a
sound basis in logic for placing all three services
under a single head, unfrotunately there is
validity in the assertion of many military
leaders that the new plan would lead to
politicing and increased rivalry.
The United States no longer requires an
Army, a Navy, and an Air Force. Rather it
needs an "Armed Force" which would incor-
porate all of the characteristics of these three
into a single, unified, and coordinated fighting
team.
As the situation now stands, the ludicrous
position of the forces is to develop weapons
that can only be used by another branch. The
Air Force is, at present, completely responsible
for launching of long-range ballistic missiles,
although the Army and Navy are working in
the development stages.
IN MODERN COMBAT, nuclear or otherwise,
the objective will be attained only through a
co-ordinated effort of all of the branches ...
ground, air, and water. These branches should
be merely sections of an Armed Force rather
than three branches of a rather disunited
effort.
Inter-service rivalry has been condemned by

tion is whether it exists to an extent that
impairs the effectiveness of the military.
It appears obvious that the effectiveness is
impaired. Co-operation on projects must be
wholehearted and enthusiastic. This objective
has little chance to be obtained when some
developments may be for the "competition."
The Air Force Association, a private group
composed of 60,000 members, most of whom
are former air force men, has supported a
single military service, under a single chief
of staff, for two years. The association has
denounced President Eisenhower's plan, how-
ever, as being a road to politicing in the mili-
tary.
It has been pointed out by others also, that
the human element has been ignored in foster-
ing a plan that would place responsibility for
three highly diverse organizations in one in-
dividual. As a military observer commented,
there are no men in any of the services today,
or indeed, in the world, who have a sufficiently
broad view of the problems of all three services
to properly administer the needs of them.
And, even most important, is the inherent
distrust that any of the services would have
for a chief of staff from either of the other
branches. None of them want to submit them-
selves to the whims and fancies of an officer
from another branch, especially when i comes

;.

By BARTON HUTHWAITE
Daily Staff Writer
THE INFANTRYMAN, once the
backbone of the American
fighting force, is waging a battle
against extinction.
Present indications are he may
win.
Pentagon officials are now de-
bating whether the United States
must assume that any conflict
with the Soviet Union would re-
sult in a general nuclear war or
a limited war.
Brig. Gen.dSidney F. Giff in,
vice commandant of the Air War
College, stated the issue in an
article for the latest publication of
Air University Quarterly Review,
the professional journal of the
Air Force.
"A nuclear stalemate is coming
to exist because, as nuclear weap-
ons in a struggle for survival will
ravage both sides, the awfulness
of the mutual threat will postpone
or eliminate a final test of
strength," he said.
"Meanwhile, the real danger
may lie in piecemeal defeat
through infiltration and throug'h

Strategic Air Command, com-
mented, "The concept of the nu-
clear stalemate seems to have a
derogatory connotation which is
not justified."
In light of Russia's suspension
of nuclear tests and violent Com-
munist agitation in some of the
world's uncommitted nations, the
Army seems to be strengthening
its case.
But the infantryman's battle for
survival is not confined to high-
level discussions of the Soviet's
world conquest aims.
While the Air Force concen-
trates in perfecting inter - con-

Meanwhile, Army researchers
are bolstering arguments for a
stronger infantry fighting force.
A miniature atomic weapon,
smaller than a volley ball, is being
developed for use in the battle
field. It would give an infantry
crew a striking power equivalent
to thousands of' tons of TNT.
But inter - service rivalry has
blocked further work on the weap-
on. The Air Force, with its ad-
vocacy of the big-bomb concept,
argues plutonium supplies must go
into the production of bigger
weapons and the tactical and de-

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