THE MICHIGAN DAILY
CHAPEL-The University Hospital Chapel is a gift of the Matthaei Foundation. Patients
ous denominations use it for meditation and prayer. Some attend services in beds, wheel
By ANITA FELDMAN
"The spelling book replaced the
sword in fighting the war against
the South," Professor Edgar B:
Wesley of the University of Min-
nesota School of Education and
visiting professor at the University
of Michigan said yesterday.
"During the reconstruction per-
iod after the Civil War, the Negro
enthusiasm for education was so
overwhelming that they craved.
for a spelling book as much as they
did for bread," he explained.
However, this does not indicate
that the freedmen desired any kind
of an educational system. On the
contrary, "it was not only the'
whites who opposed integrated
schools; but also the newly eman-
cipated Negro slaves showed no
particular enthusiasm for them,"
Negro Schools Established
The Augusta Chronicle expressed
the general opinion of all South-
erners at this time when it wrote,
"No schools arehbetter than mixed
For years it had been illegal to
teach the Negroes to read, but
during the reconstruction period,
a system of schools for Negroes
was set up.
Seventy-nine aid societies, a
Freedman's Bureau, and a Pea-
body Fund were established by
Americans who understood the
problems faced by the 4,000,000
Southern legislators, while re-
constructing their constitutios,
made provisions for establishing
state boards of education, for set-
ting up schools, either segregated
or integrated, and for giving each
Southerner full responsibility for
paying taxes to support them.
Mobs Destroy Buildings
Nevertheless, the reconstruction
efforts were not unopposed. Thirty
buildings used as schools for the
freedman were destroyed by
Southern mobs who were opposed
to 'paying the taxes for these
The aid bureaus petitioned for
help from the federal government
in setting up a system of education
for the freedmen. "No help came
until 1954, ninety years later, when
all the freedmen were dead and
only their ancestors remained,"
Prof. Wesley remarked. "Then the
people in Washington looked over
the tops of their spectacles and
demanded that all Negro citizens
be let into the white schools.
In Meet Today
The sixty-eighth annual North-
ern Oratorical League contest will
be held at 8 p.m. today in Aud. A,
Angell Hall, according to Prof.
B:-uce L. Nary of the speech de-
. Speakers participating in the
* contest will be from the State
University of Iowa, the University
e of Minnesota, Northwestern Uni-
rversity, Western Reserve Univer-
sity and the University of Wiscon-
SLouis Susman, '59,- will repre-
sent the University with a speech
- entitled "For the Defense."
FULBRIGHT SCHOLAR - Anton Porhansl, on cajnpus for the
National Association of Foreign Student Advisers Conference, talks
with Austrian student Hildegard Pfanner, Grad., who is studying
at the University under the Fulbright program.
Porhansl Explains Austrian
Sehool Sstem Program
By JANICE GEASLER
Austrian students dream of;
graduation throughout their school;
years and all are afraid they will
not make it, said Anton Porhansl,
executive secretary of the United
States Education Commission in
Austria which is in charge of the
Fulbright program there.
Children in Austria have to
attend school from the time they
are six until they are 14, he re-
marked. All study at the elemen-
tary schools until they are ten.
At this time they may transfer
to a state-supported, eight-year
college-preparatory high school
or a four-year public junior high
school from which they enter a
profession or continue their edu-
cation in a vocational or business
Those who go on to a college-
preparatory school must choose
from three different types, he said.
They may attend a Latin-Greek
school; an institute of technology,
which emphasizes mathematics,
physics, and chemistry; or a gen-
eral high school which follows a
middle road between the other two.
Typical requirements in a col-
lege-prep school, Porhansl com-
mented, include eight years of
Latin, six of Greek, eight of Math,
eight of German, eight of history,
eight of geography, six of physics
.and four of chemistry.
There are also subjects such as
art appreciation, music and short-
In order to graduate from the
college-preparatory school and be
eligible for the universities, he
remarked, the student must pass
stiff written and oral exams. The
oral exams are given before the
class in a very ceremonious way,
"It is very embarassing to the
students to fail them," he added.
Austrian universities are divided
into a law school, a medical school,
a school of Catholic theology, a
school of Protestant theology and
a humanities school, he said,
DIAL NO 2-2513
Shocker of All Time
SO RtY1NG G t
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Suspense Story at
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"H E LL'S
FIVE H OURS"
TONIGHT at 7:00 and 9:00
with Glenn Ford, Anne Frances,
Saturday at 7:00 and 9:00
Sunday at 8:00
with Steve Allen, Donna Reed, Harry James
International Students Association
THE INTERNATIONAL BALL
THE WORLD OF GARDENS
featuring THE RHYTHM KINGS
. FLOOR SHOW
Saturday, May 3
9 P.M.- A.M.
You will find a
complete selecton of
May Festival recordings