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May 26, 1957 - Image 12

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Michigan Daily, 1957-05-26
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Page Four


Sxindov Mov 2tS 1 957 --i-.~~

Sunday, May 26, 1957



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since their appearance
a while ago, they've been praised,
derided black-marketed and discussed constantly

The Ancient Art Can Be New

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T AAVAI LBL HinR PlainIColos,
L y

A WOMAIT in a mental hospital
was listed as incurable by the
doctors. Her shattered personality
failed to respond to the traditional
methods of psychotherapy em-
ployed during her six years of
Before attempting to operate on
the frontal lobe of her brain-a
last-resort procedure-the doctors
administered a new drug. The
patient became calm, alert, co-
operative. She talked easily, and,
after six months of treatment with
talks and the drug, was able to
leave the hospital and rejoin her
Ten mentally retarded children
were treated with anew drug. A
few months later a test of their
intelligence showed an increase
over scores on a similar test taken
as they began treatment. The
children were able to learn more
rapidly and to do more things by
Fliers at an Air Force base had
difficulty getting to Isleep. They

tended to refly each mission men-
tally at night. They were given a
new drug and were able to relax
so that sleep came naturally.
R ELIEF for the mentally ill wo-
man, the slog children, the
tensed-up airmen came from the
new tranquilizing drugs. The
tranquilizers are helping to re-
lieve a whole range of mental and
emotional upsets.
The remarkable properties of
tranquilizers were accidentally
stumbled upon iy a French wo-
man scientist who was testing a
new synthetic antihistamine com-
pound -- a common ingredient in
cold tablets. She noted that the
compound made users sleepier
than do ordinary antihistamines.
Then she made a more startling
discovery: it could abolish learned
responses in laboratory animals.
Paris psychiatrists, working on
the theory that some human men-
tal disorders are nothing more
than harmful learned responses--
they call them conditioned re-
flexes -- tried the drug on pa-
tients in mental hospitals. They
could hardly believe what they
saw. Patients who hadn't talked
for five to 10 years began to speak.
Children so acutely upset and
badly adjusted that they were
kept in locked rooms became co-
operative and quiet.
This, the medical world soon
realized, was the beginning of a
revolutionary new technique for
treating mental and nervous dis-
ONLY seven short years have
passed since this accidental
discovery was made, but during
those years psychiatrists and
chemists have moved. forward by
leaps and bounds in an area where
for 2,000 years only baby steps
had been' taken. Many similar
compounds recently have been de-
veTped and classified under the
heading of tranquilizers.

patients. Bromides and barbitur-
ates were effective but had one
major and heretofore insur-
mountable drawback: they quieted
mental patients at the expense of
clouding their consciousness. or
even rendering them unconscious.
See Cover Picture
Tranquilizers calm mental pa-
tients, reduce their overactivity,
and allay their anxieties while
the patients remain fully awake
and amenable to psychiatric care.
It is not surprising, therefore,
that cautious doctors called the
tranquilizers "sensational" or
"miraculous" after seeing them in
Researchers who worked at pin-
ning down the tranquilizing agent
in the French antihistamine iso-
lated a bitter-tasting substance
called chlorpromazine (accent on
the second syllable). In 1954
chlorpromazine was reported as a
"dramatic help in mental illness"
Since then millions of people in
the United States have been
treated with this tranquilizer.
ANOTHER tranquilizer for deep-
ly disturbed patients was de-
veloped in 1953 by Ciba Pharma-
ceutical Products, Inc. The sub-
stance - called reserpine-came
from a tropical snakeroot plant
which for centuries had been
used to cure a multitude of ills
in India. Reserpine was originally
designed as -ifremedy for high
blood pressure but was found to
be effective in treating mental
illnesses also.
Both chlorpromazine and reser-
pine produced unfavorable side
effects. There were some reports
of jaundice. -Sometimes nasal
passages became swollen, blood
pressure plunged downward, or
white blood cells, which fight in-
fection, were decreased - a situ-
ation which significantly lowered
a patient's resistance to disease.
In some rare cases the drugs
caused dangerous depression or
manic excitement instead of deep
natural calm.
But doctors had methods of
counteracting all of these harm-
ful side effects and could always
cut down the dosage of the tran-
quilizers as an added precaution.
The results of treatment with
reserpine and chlorpromazine
were indicated only in serious
cases of mental illness - cases
where patients were out of touch
with reality much of the time and
whose minds were tormented-by
obsessions, excessive fears and
THAT could science do for the
housewife who under the
stress of monotonous routine be-
came tense and jittery? How
about the father of the family
who brought home worries from
the office, was jumpy and just
couldn't relax? What relief was
there for a teen-ager whose nerves
were jangled. because of family
problems in his broken home?
They all needed a mild tan-
quilizer - with a minimum of
side effects - which could be
prescribed safely by the family
doctor. Researchers found the an-
swer in meprobamate (accent on
the third syllable), a derivative
of a British muscle-relaxant. Med-
ical authorities termed it an "ideal
tranquilizer." Manufactured un-
der the trade names of Mitown
and Equanil, meprobamate is
Fred Stein gold, making his second
Magazine appearance, is a senior,
majoring in journalism, and a
member of Sigma Delta Chi, pro-
fessional journalism fraternity.
His article ":Big Red" - az eval-
uation of the spirit of South
Quad's famous Gomberg House
-appeared In The Daily1aga-

(Continued from Page 11)
the nature of the building beneath
it. For instance, buildings built
during the Ching dynasty, which
was the "pure" dynasty, adopted
yellow ' for roof tiles. The purple
mosaic roof designated the cover-
ing for the Temple of Heaven. The
blood Princes lived beneath a
green-tile roof.
Chinese 'Screens'...
BESIDES color symbolism in
their tiles, the philosophies of
the Chinese were symbolized in
mosaic "screens". Beautifully
drawn figures and landscapes, a
part of the mural drawn on indi-
vidual tiles and later combined to
make up the whole picture story,
were set in wooden frames. Often
these panels represented a series
of Taoist stories and legends, ac-
companied by inscriptions in
rhyming stanzas, seven characters
in each line. The flowing brush
strokes, might show an attendant
offering a peach, the fruit of im-
mortality, to her master. And oft-
en in the background was the
swaying pine tree, the Taoist sym-
bol of long life
So whether the artist wishes a
vehicle for symbolic representa-
tion of a philosophy, or to design
a "painting for eternity," or to
enhance a wall or floor of a build-
ing, mosaic offers unexcelled op-
portunities. And with our know-
ledge of ceramics today this seems
to me one of.the best media with
the most potential.-For decoration
of individual mosaic tile innumer-
able techniques are at hand; bar-
botine, or slip painting, which is
the process of painting semi-fluid
clay, often colored, on the hard
clay body while the latter is still
in its "green" or raw state; pate
sur pate, very similar to slip dec-
oration except that the relief is
much thicker, like a cameo, and
the design must always be ori-
ginal - usually the ground is of
one color, the relief of another,
and over the whole a transparent
glaze is sprayed; sgraffito, or
scratching through one surface
layer of color to reveal another
body or glaze of a different color;
incision, or merely cutting into
the tile leaving a deep mark or

indented design; painting with
varying colors and covering the
whole with a clear glaze, or vice
versa - putting a clear glaze on
first and applying a painted de-
sign over it, and others either
adopted from the techniques of
the past or newly invented by the
artist himself.
Today's Mosaicist .. .
Or if he likes the mosaic made
up of small tesserae, the pieces
being only one-half or one-quarter
inch large, placed together to make
an intricate picture or design, the
artist can use the glaze technology
of today for getting not only dif-
ferent hues and values of color,
but also different textures. He can
use matt glazes, shiny glazes,
glazes with waxy surfaces or glazes
that glisten with small specks of
irridescent color. He can create
rich blues by adding cobalt to the
glaze, purples from manganese,
yellow -from vanadium or uranium.
He can, by varying the atmosphere
of his kiln where the pieces are
fired, produce turquoise from cop-
per in an oxidation kiln or a beau-
tiful red from the same metal in
reduction, (created by the addition
of carbon to the atmosphere of
th 1., n s n, n r4,,.nn.P a n. rnwtn frnm~

SORTING BOARD--Barry Kroll runs a deck of IBM cards
punched in 80 columns, each corresponding to a particular re-
sponse to one of the questions in the Detroit Area Survey. The
machine will sort on any combinatin of three columns.

(Continued from Page 13)
tress." She is, as prof. Engel says,
"the earth mother, the universal
woman." Revealing his religious
runs the cards and writes up his
conclusions. This paper can be

used as part of his master's re-
Duringthe next summer the
decks will be worked for consis-
tencychecks until all errors are
removed. The finished decks are

tine ring urnac , ) a prows Vrom .::. . . ..:: ...............'. ..........:::::: .. . , ........................ .,.,............................
iron in oxidation, dr a beautiful
green in reduction. Surfaces -and clr s v re s a y o h s
colors as varied as any of those
obtained by ,the use of different
materials in the past can be pro- 2/7"
duced by the ceramicist of the
twentieth century. And with the
development of new mastics or
"binders," even the difficulties en-
countered by the ancients-fastl
drping coments-in which to imbed
the pieces-can be overcome.
So, for the Twentieth Century Pair-offs designed by STEPHANIE
artist with the proper sensitivity.
in the choice of where' to put his Permathal-Ev
work, the design appropriate for
the particular place, the executionSP
of the drawing and the manipula-STOP'
tion of color, the mosaic offers een se
unlimited possibilities. He is not cotton
working with fiat paint, but is suds, s
creating an impressionistnpicture resistar
of exquisite color in substance. The shape,
ceramic mosaic can have aLK
brance and dynamic quality im- LOOK!
possible to create with any other Ivy Le
medium. .. ~TalkI
t front )
: .';":«:.: ? Ranchr
As seer
r~ r. MOCK
Not illh
## ,}>rSLIM S
ess of making a mosaic of small j
Mrs. Hamme. First, the clay is
ond, the clay is cut with a knife
the kiln to be "bisqued" fired.
Then after the glaze Is fired, the
to the sketch or "cartoon" and
+/ :;."r, . t+c:.x erlrv.:!,±.~;-;:':-"Pga-m.-crrr-r.ercv~t~a 7,": .o.a. ::::r :.. tr 2i

is cur
was <
ing fa
the rr
o se
ate st
our f

ceramic tesserae is illustrated by
rolled into an even thickness. Sec
into small tesserae.

THIRD-the pieces are set into
Fourth, the tesserae are glazed.Z
pieces are assembled according
cemented in place.

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