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May 26, 1957 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1957-05-26

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FJ~ Ld jigat E&til
Sixty-Seventh Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241

"Rock-A-Bye Baby, In The Tree Top -
Let's Make Believe The Fallout Will Stop"

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'When Opiniam Are Free
Truth WUl Prevail"

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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SUNDAY, MAY 26, 1957 NIGHT EDITOR: ALLAN STILLWAGON
Honors Council, Enrollment Restraint
May Help 'U' Cope with Future

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FOLLOWS CYCLE:
Local Building Boom
Eases Housing Shortage
By JOHN WEICHER
TWO TRENDS could combine to keep student off-campus housing
prices at about present levels: more students and more apartments.
As enrollment increases, more and more students of necessity must
live off-campus. University construction cannot keep pace with rising
student enrollment. Nor can fraternities, sororities, and coperatives
absorb these new students.
At the same time, many more students than previously have decided
that they want to live in apartments or rooms off-campus, rather than
in University housing. Dormitory food is a factor in these decisions, but
a great many students simply do not want to live in group housing.
They want privacy and a chance to study, which they claim the dorm
does not give them,
This influx would automatically tend to cause price increases in
apartments, acting by itself. But-there is another factor in this situa-

FACED WITH inadequate operating funds the
University must decide whether its first
obligation is to maintain its standards or pro-
vide whatever education it can for all quali-
fied state residents.
The problem is not unique. State-supported
higher education in general is now saddled with
the paradox of a society that wants a college.
education for all, but is reluctant to pay for
it. Most states have resolved the paradox by
providing a mediocre college education.
The University has been moderately success-
ful so far in convincing the State that quality
shouldn't be sacrificed. Its has succeeded
in getting enough money to accomodate in-
creased enrollment. But difficulties experi-
enced this year indicate even Michigan resi-
dents will not support quality education if it
pinches the pocketbook.
The University's first obligation is to the
quality of its education. Its obligation to the
State to provide education for all qualified
residents is no greater than the State's obliga-
tion to pay for it.
The first line of defense against dropping
standards, then, is to limit enrollment.

A SECOND line of defense may be the newly-
tormed Honors Council, one of the most signi-
ficant achievements of the Literary College
this year.
Prof. Angell'and his colleagues are entrusted
with the responsibility for encouraging and co-
ordinating programs to aid the better student.
But it is hoped they expand their mission.
The Honors Council will provide a useful for-
um for discussing problems of wider and more
basic scope, such as whether students ought to
spend 15 or more hours a week in class rooms,
or whether it ought to take four or five years
to get a doctorate. Though neither of these
are often questioned, they are unique to Ameri-
can education and good arguments can be
brought against both.
Many changes, other than limiting enroll-
ment, will have to be made in the next decade
if the University is to cope with the predicted
onslaught of students. The Honors Council
is in a good position to recommend these
changes.
-LEE MARKS
City Editor

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Reality of the Times'

WASHINGTON MERRY-GO-ROUND:
Billy Mitchell Case Retired
By DREW PEARSON

FROM THE CAMPUS of the University of
Alabama last week came a sordid story -
a story involving, in the words of a student
newspaper editorial, "problems of freedom, of
campus politics, of an institution caught in the
whirling maze of emotional events, of people
unwilling to face the reality of the times."
The story revolves around a newly formed
campus discussion group, Open Forum, the
charter of which was recently revoked by the
University of Alabama student government.
Open Forum was chartered by the legisla-
ture in February as a means of encouraging
free discussion of outstanding political and so-
cial issues. The Forum chose, however, to treat
the most ticklish social problem in the, South
today - segregation - and thereby lost its
charter.
IHE REVOCATION of Open Forum's char-
ter is, in itself, of no major consequence. The
action does not prohibit members from meeting
on campus; it may even serve to strengthen
the organization.
The vitally important aspect of the matter
lies in its implications and in the incidents
'leading up to the student government action.
On the night of May 9, between 100 and 150
persons gathered at Canterbury Episcopalian
Chapel for a meeting of Open Forum to dis-
cuss "Academic Freedom." In the course of the
meeting, there appeared on Chapel grounds
about 70 sheeted members of the outlawed Ku
Klux Klan.

THE KLANSMEN invaded private property;
they demonstrated; they hurled wild accu-
sations; they threatened economic sanctions if
their will was not obeyed.
They don white robes; they mouth sacre-
ligious prayers, such as "I thank Thee, Heaven-
ly Father, that I am white"; they threaten;
they hurl baseless charges of "Communist!";
they violate the same basic tenets of democra-
cy which they, as Americans, are supposedly
devoted to. And all in the name of blind, des-
perate bigotry.
In all this they were successful at Alabama.
Though KKK is an outlawed organization in
Alabama, and its members were trespassing
on private church property, both the local
and campus police were conspicuous' by their
absence.
IT IS FORTUNATE that'the mind of Ku Klux
Klan is not typical of the mind of the South.
It is unfortunate, however, that the many far-
sighted Southerners who are quietly striving
to overcome the bonds of tradition and preju-
dice, though they may not be in any sense
enthusiastic integrationists, ave so meekly
knuckled under to the bigotry of the Klan.
Integration is inevitable, the KKK notwith-
standing. The process will be greatly facilitated
if the more enlightened, clearer thinking ele-
ments in the South will stand up and make
themselves heard.
Eventually, perhaps, they can lead the bigots
to a reconciliation with reality and ultimately,
realize the American ideal of unifersal free-
dom and equality.
-EDWARD GERULDSEN

THIRTY-SEVEN YEARS after
Gen. Billy Mitchell was court-
martialed for championing air
power, his son faced another mili-
tary tribunal behind closed Penta-
gon doors last week to plead for
his father's honor. William Mitch-
ell, Jr., asked the Air Force Cor-
rections Board to reverse the his-
toric court-martial.
By chance, the air-conditioning
broke down in the hearing room,
the windows were thrown open,
and the proceedings were punc-
tuated by the roar of airplanes
taking off from near-by National
Airport. It was a dramatic sound
effect, emphasizing how right Bil-
ly Mitchell had been.
Chairman George Robinson ask-
ed young Mitchell whether his fa-
ther had ever given the impres-
sion that he wished to discredit
the Army and Navy as the court-
martial charged.
IN A HALTING VOICE, the son
replied: "I am familiar with my
father's writings and publications.
Although I was young when fath-
er died, I recall his conversations
around the house. It is my opin-
ion that my father did not intend
to discredit the services."
The young man was choked with
emotion. He tried to thank the
board for considering his appeal.
"I am completely dumfbunded
" he blurted. "After all these
years, we have finally gotten
where we can present our side of
the story and get my father's
name cleared. I would like to let
the board members know how
deeply I appreciate the extent to
which they have gone into this
and their willingness to take time
to go into the record."
That was young Mitchell's to-
tal testimony. His case was pre-
sented by Steve Leo, spokesman
for the Air Force Association,:
which presented a 35-page brief.

"History has certainly vindi-
cated Mitchell," Leo declared.
".. .We have an autonomous Air
Force today, because Mitchell
charted the course. Airpower to-
day is the cornerstone of our na-
tional policy, as Mitchell pre-
dicted it would be.
* * *
IF MITCHELL were guilty as
charged, it would appear logical
that he deserved to be dismissed
from the Service. Instead, it would
appear that the War Department
wanted Mitchell-not out of uni-
form and circulating his airpower
beliefs among influential civilians
-but in uniform and muzzled.
Significantly, the board had
trouble getting the secret court-
martial transcript from the Ar-
my, which has suppressed it for
the past 37 years. At first, the
Army refused to turn the trans-
cript over to the Air Force. It took
a formal letter from Air Force
Secretary Donald Quarles to get
the 60-volume record exhumed.
The record shows that Billy
Mitchell warned in 1925 that the
Japanese would some day bomb
Pearl Harbor, that airborne armies
would parachute into battle, that
intercontinental bombers would
threaten the American homeland,
that supersonic planes would roam
the stratosphere.
For his audacity in challenging
accepted military ideas, Mitchell
was accused of insubordination
and sentenced to five years with-
out pay, rank, or authority. He
resigned instead, giving up a 27-
year career and all retirement
benefits.
Young Mitchell has waived
claim to any back benefits. All he
wants is his father's name cleared.
* * *
IT'S EASY to talk about budget
cutting, but intelligent cutting
under our complex system must
be an exact science.

Except for a few congressmen
who painstakingly followed the
appropriations hearings, the bud-
get cutters don't really know what
they are doing. And in their wild
swinging, there is grave danger
of chopping off some vital gov-
ernment function.
For example: One congressman
will offer an amendment to re-
duce Navy appropriations. Im-
mediately, two others will rush
in with amendments to reduce the
Army and Air Force by similar
amounts. They argue that it isn't
fair to cut one service without
trimming the other two.
This congressional logic, how-
ever, doesn't happen to be true'
MOST OF OUR vital defense
projects are located in the Air
Force budget. The Air Force is
paying for the Intercontinental
Ballistics Missile; the Strategic Air
Command, which must be ready
to go into action the moment the
first bomb drops; the radar warn-
ing network, which scans the skies
for enemy bombers; the expensive
Sage system, which is part of our
air defense warning system; the
Continental Air Command, which
has fighter squadrons on 24-hour
alert to defend the country.
The Air Force has so many
high-priority programs that it
hardly has enough money left to
pay for its housekeeping. In the
new/ budget, for example, the Air
Force could afford only 18 new
staff cars. The rest of the money
simply had to be spent on higher
priority items.
In contrast, the Army and Navy,
with few high-priority projects,
had enough money to purchase
7,000 staff cars. Thus, congress-
men who want to cut all services
equally can seriously jeopardize
national security.
(Copyright 1957 by Bell Syndicate Inc.)

tion. Construction in Ann Arbor
is also proceeding at a rapid rate,
according to local real estate
agencies.
Developments are being erected
on the outskirts of the city, such
as Forest Plaza and Northwood
Apartments. These developments
tend to attract persons now liv-
ing near campus who have no need
to live there. The rooms and
apartments they vacate will be-
come available for student use,
thus adding to the total number
of apartments available.
This construction is expected by,
at least one local realtor to be
heavy enough to counteract the
student increase completely. The
manager o an agency which rents
1200 apartments a year, 60 per
cent of them to students, feels
that the new buildings will force
rents down in the next two years.
* * *
HE DOES NOT believe this de-
crease will be as pronounced in
the University area as in the rest
of the city.
This agent notes several signs
that rents are even now beginning
to drop. Landlords with apart-
ments to rent have already told
him to dicker with prospective
tenants to get the best possible
prices, but in some cases naming
minimum figures as much as $20
a month below present rates.
This is more the case in outlying
districts than near the center of
the city. Rentals in these areas
are presently being reduced some-
what.
Average prices for rooms in the
Ann Arbor area as a whole run
abqut $65 to $80 per month for
two-room apartments, consisting
of a combination bedroom-living
room and kitchen. (A private bath
must also be included in all city
apartments.) Three-room apart-
ment prices average between $75
and $95. Four room apartments,
which usually include two bed-
rooms, a separate living room and
a kitchen, may run anywhere
from $90 to $150 per month.
« ,
MAXIMUM MONTHLY rent is
generally $160 for any apartment,
one local realtor said. However,
this is only an average, top prices
may be $15 to $20 higher for
choice locations.
Apartments apparently are more
available south of the campus
than north. Prices are also higher
north and west of the campus,
toward the downtown area. A
typical apartment, consisting of
living room, bedroom and kitchen,
with private bath split into a lav-1
atory in one place and shower in
the kitchen, is offered for $120,
with no shortage of takers. This
particular apartment is offered by
a real estate agency.
At the same time, a four-room
apartment located a similar dis-
tance from the campus, but to the
south and east of it, is available at
the same price. This latter apart-
ment, within ten minutes' walk of
the campus, does not attract many
prospective tenants,,the landlord
says.
* * .*
THE SAME general rule also
holds true in regard to apartments

Iocated just west and east of the
campus, although apartments
northeast of the campus are usu-
ally about the same as those to
the west. This is because of their
nearness to the women's resi-
dences, realtors believe.
Housing facilities have never
been completely exhausted in re-
cent years. Even with increasing
enrollments, some apartments, in-
cluding a very few within a block
of the campus, 'remain unoccu-
,pied. The quality. of these, of
course, is generally poor. Rooms
without kitchens or cooking privi-
eges are always available through-
out the city.
This fall, however, and until
the new constrliction in the city
makes itself noticeably felt, the
shortage is likely to become more
acuteand prices may rise even
more. This will probably be the
last year of such rises for a while
-until University enrollment in-
creases once more past the limit
of available University and private
housing. When this happens, the
cycle may be repeated.
This is looking far into the-fu-
ture, by the standards of, a com-
munity which has a nearly-com-
plete turnover every four years.
Within the "lifetime" of this par-
ticular student body, it appears
that prices will make one final
rise this year, before beginning a
cescent which should last through
the next three years.
DAILY
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michi-
gan Daily assumes no editorial re-
sponsibility. Notices should be sent
in TYP'EWRITTEN form to Room
3519 Adninistration Building, be-
fore 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SUNDAY, MAY 26, 1957
VOL. LXVII, NO. 170
General Notices
Commencement Instructions to Fac-
uilty Members: Convene at 4:15 pa.m. iu
the first floor lobby in the Administra-
tion Building. Buses will be provided in
front of the Administration Building
on state street to take you to the Sta-
dium or Yost Field House to loin pro-
cession and to take the place assigned
to you on stage, as directed by Mar-
shals; at the end of the exercises buses
will be ready in driveway east of the
Stadium or at west side of Field House
to bring you back to the campus.
Public Law 550 Veterans: One set of
instructors' signatures showing regu-
lar class attendance for month of May
must be obtained and turned in to
Dean's office on or before June 3. A
second set of signatures certifying to
attendance at final examination (or
completion of course work where no
final examination is required) must be
turned in to Dean's office after last
examination.
The Inter-Cooperative Council is now
accepting applications for room and/or
board this summer. The following co-
op houses will be open: Men - Naka-
mura, 807 S. State; Owen, 1017 Oak-
(Continued on Page 8)

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An Independent Formosa

IT I$ A BIT EARLY, since facts are scarce, to
see the immediate Formosan situation,-clearly
but still, arguing from facts. long known, com-
ment is in order.
Press reports have generally agreed on these
facts: The immediate cause of the riot was the
acquittal of a U.S. soldier by a U.S. military
court for allegedly killing a Chinese peeping-
tom; the anger of the 30.000 rioters was wholly
United States-oriented. The immediate results
of the" riots would seem to be an increased
propaganda campaign from the China main-
land, a heightened disrespect for authority
under martial law conditions on the island and
an overdue reappraisal by the United States of
our China policy.
When the United States considers China
policy, it must necessarily review its policy
toward Formosa since this is the one China
-of the two-with which we deal. In the past,
it seems, when formulating, United States'policy
we have been preoccupied with reasons for not
recognizing the Peiping regime to the exclusion
of considerations for not recognizing Chiang's
Nationalists. Let us hope that State Department
pundits are weighing this question today. Of
what value is Formosa to the United States,
and what can the United States afford to sacri-
fice in other areas to buttress Chiang?
FORMOSA'S italicized asset, says the Ameri-
can military, is its inclusion in the Japan-
Korea-Formosa-Philippines Far Eastern de-
fense perimeter. This argument seems specious
since, it must be admitted, our muscle in the
Far East is the Seventh Fleet and why Formosa
is essential to the operations of the Fleet has
not been convincingly proved. Less realistic
individuals argue that Chiang's Nationalists
are the deterrent to mainland imperialistm, but
practically, whether a faction outnumbered 300
to 1 in population and perhaps 20 to 1 in
military might, can be called a deterrent is
stretching a point.
Secondly, status quo advocates claim For-
mosa is a rallying point for Chinese anti-

by invitation or military imposition, but the
hard facts indicate this to be wishful thinking.
To return by invitation, Mao's regime would
have to crumble, and all reliable information
says this is not in the offing. Besides, if, in the
far future, the Communists lose favor, it by no
means follows inevitably that Chiang will form
the new government of China (if he is alive).
To return militarily is a case which does not
provide enough arguments for comment.
BETTER ARGUMENTS exist for changing
the present status of Formosa-that of an
armed Nationalist camp, supported by treaty
and dollars by the United States. First, four-
fifths of the island's 10,000,000 inhabitants are
not Nationalists in the strict definition but
Formosans who, since 1895, experienced Japan-
ese rule. Thus, although this shouldn't be over-
emphasized, these people don't hare Chiang's
fanaticism for a united, or mucl more, a China
led by the likes of Chiang. Evidence hints that
Chiang hasn't ruled the island with sympathy
for the natives, nor is the island a hotbed of
democracy. It is possible that underlying the
anti-Americanism of the riots could lay a hate
for the Chiang regime, whose stability the
United States insures.
Further, supporting Chiang is a drain on
United States' aid resources-over three billion
since the war. The economics of the island do
not augur well for the future. It is predicted
population will double in a generation, but the
island can increase food production only 20
per cent and resources don't exist to support
an industrial economy. With such circum-
stances, and while so much of the population
is involved in the military, Formosa will con-
tinue to be dependent.
Most seriously, the United States' commit-
ment to defend Formosa is our deepest and
most precarious involvement abroad. Nowhere
in the world is war so likely.
THUS, we suggest a change in the status of
Formosa. We recommend a plebiscite, given

4~

ATOMIC RADIATION HAZARD:
New Information Reveals Extent of Contamination

(Editor's Note: David Kessel, B.S.,
M.S., is a graduate student in bio-
chemistry, currently working at the
University on a research project in
amino acid metabolism.)
By DAVID KESSEL
SUDDENLY EVERYONE has be-
come radiation conscious.
Several national magazines have
just published extensive surveys
of the dangers of nuclear wea-
pons.
There have been few authorita-
tive reports; rumors have multi-
plied, and the usual propaganda
sources have rushed in to fill this
information vacuum with dismay-
ing predictions.
The Japanese government has
v arned people to boil drinking
water as protection against radio-
active contamination. But boiling
will not remove such impurities.
A large television manufactur-
ing company reports that a geiger
counter test shows that their sets
produce no X-rays. But a geiger
counter is at best a poor test for
X-rays.
E N* * e
IF THE JAPANESE government

almost complete ignorance of the
atomic situation. Perhaps the dan-
ger of ceasing nuclear tests is far
greater than any consequences of
the radioactive fall-out produced.
It is difficult to peer under the
AEC blanket of secrecy which
covers its mysterious movements
and inevitable mistakes.
Recently, however, some data
have been published which afford
a rough quantitative appraisal of
the effect to be expected from
atomic testing.
These observations were origin-
ally published in Science, the jour-
nal of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science,
from which they must percolate
to the public by devious means.
It must be remembered that
there are two different dangers
from explosion of atomic bombs.
First is the high energy gamma
radiation which adds to the nor-
mal "background" striking the
earth in the form of so-called cos-
mic rays. This gamma radiation
from the tests is carefully moni-
tored, and has not yet raised the
background level significantly. Of

in indiscriminate use of X-rays is
exposing the poor patient to more
radiation than he would get from
the normal background.
The total background and X-
radiation, then begins to approach
an undesirable level. Apparently
the recent radiation Scare will
have a beneficial effect if it results
only in an understanding of the
consequences of misdirected use of
X-rays.
The second danger from atomic
tests is the intake through food of
radioactive elements produced
from fission and fusion products.
One particular isotope, strontium-
90, is known to be especially harm-
ful.
This element is chemically sim-
ilar to calcium, a normal bone
constituent, and is handled biolo-
gically in much the same manner,
so it tends to accumulate in grow-
ing bone tissue, as calcium nor-
mally does. Here, it produces pene-
trating beta particles, which are
known to be a factor in the inci-
dence of leukemia, a malignant
and fatal blood disease.
Strontium-90 concentration in

W
calculate'd from concentrations
found in infants, not from a mis-
leading overall average.
* * *
THE ESTABLISHMENT of anr
MPC for any radiation source has
been a somewhat uncertain task
at best, and the age-accumulation
correspondence noted above is on-
ly one of the complicating fac-
tors. Something of the safety of
the present MPC for strontium-90
may be realized after considera-
tion of a report from biologist
E. B. Lewis of the California In-
stitute of Technology, also pub-
lished in Science this month.
Lewis concludes:.
1. Ten to 20 per cent of leu-
kemia cases may be attributed to
natural radiation from cosmic rays
and other sources.
2. A constantly maintained lev-
el of one-tenth of the current MPC
of strontium-90 would raise the
yearly leukemia level by five to
10 per cent, or between 150 and
3000 cases per year in the United
States.
The nature of the problem now
becomes clear. If a linear cor-

half-life of about 25 years. This
means that, since it is constant-
ly emitting beta particles, the ele-
ment will be half decomposed in
25 years.
The next step in the process is
conversion to a new element,
yttrium-90, which has a very short
half-life. But yttrium-90 is an
even more powerful beta emitter
than strontium-90. It would seem
that all of nature has conspired
against us in this unpleasant situ-
ation.
S* * *
AS THE MPC values for various
sources of radiation are revised
downward, nuclear weapons test-
ing becomes more and more of a
not too well calculated risk. While
the radioactive contamination at
present is low, it will certainly rise
as more atomic bombs are tested
in the future. If every country
must detonate a series of atomic
bombs to assert its sovereignty, the
levels will rise even more.
There is talk of a world-wide
ban on atomic weapons testing.
Thit appears to be impractical,
but some type of control must

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