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January 09, 1957 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1957-01-09

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Sixty-Seventh Year

1956-No Comparison to Giants of '55


"When Opinions Are Free
Trutb Will Prevail"

"We're Hoping to Become Americans


Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all ru prints.

Good Non-Fiction
'Under' -Recognized


Eisenhower Doctrine
Needs Modification

T MAY BE evident to those persons who follow closely the world
of books that the year 1956 was not an especially strong one for
American fiction. As a matter of fact, one of the biggest events of the
year past was the publication of a second novel by a non-Americarf,
a still young French Miss, Francoise Quoirez (alias Sagan). The book,
a young French girl's worldly wanderings in and out of a phenomenon
called love,'was titled A Certain Smile; and Mile. Sagan has reason to
keep smilling for the baalnce of the years, for at latest count, the sec-
ond novel was a sure bet to outstrip the astronomical sales of her first
adventure, Bonjour Tristesse.
There were, to be sure, a few titles of fiction that created a stir
for a while, but there weren't the giants on the scene who left us--

IT IS ENCOURAGING to have the Adminis-
tration at last make a statement of what
American policy in the Middle East is to be.
But, in some respects, the Eisenhower Doctrine
is as unsatisfactory as the Dulles Fog.
The statement conlcerning aggression is a
strong one-if Russia attempts to move in, we
will also do so. However, it seems at the
moment very unlikely that Russia is interested
in direct aggression in the Middle East-her
influence there is already strong and to resort
to direct means would be to face the fires of
nationalism. Since the Arab states are already
anti-West, Russia has little to worry about.
Indirect means will suit her purposes best at
present. And we have few effective means of
combating indirect aggression.
ONE OF THEM is the economic aid proposal
included in Ike's plan. But it seems doubtful
that we can persuade the Arab states that
American motives are entirely altruistic. They
have already charged us with interference and
imperialistic desires. Our stated committments
are to Israel. How willing, under those condi-
tions, would Egypt and Syria be to accept our
And, by the same token, do we wish to sup-
port Nasser's political ambitions and a group of
countries who will distrust us as long as we
are friendly to Israel?

Surprisingly enough, the Eisenhower Doctrine
does what Britain and France did when they
moved into Egypt-it ignores the UN. The plan
states that any U.S. action will be subject to
the Security Council, but itsdessence is one of
dealings between the United States and the
Middle East.
Basically, it indicates that the United States
is branching out on its own, after wagging a
finger under the noses of Britain and France
for doing the same thing.
To be sure, the UN condemnation of Russia
in Hungary was little more than a statement
of principle with nothing to back it up. But
the UN will never gain the prestige it needs to
make such declarations effective if member
nations ignore it at their own convenience.
In the past, the United States has been one
of the UN's greatest supporters. It seems fool-
ish, even inconsistent, to abandon it periodi-
cally in times of crisis. Instead, it is in times
of crisis that the UN most needs our support
and approbation.
INDICATIONS ARE that Congress, after some
debate, will eventually give its approval to
this first concrete statement of the United
States' Mid-East policy.
But first, modification along the very practi-
cal lines of the acceptability of our aid and the
role of the United Nations is in order.

Attlee Scholarly But Untimely

019r7 -t4 cJ+.aj jM6TC-J A ftsr c-

THOSE WHO CLAIM to have been "disap-
pointed" in Earl Attlee's Monday evening
address might be exercising a somewhat hasty
judgement. The ex-Prime Minister's review
of Britain's "evolution from Empire to Com-
monwealth" was incisive, scholarly, and de-
livered in a very enjoyable manner.
Most, fortunately, could leave without the
uneasy feeling that the same lecture might
be delivered the next night to a near-by high
school group. Many recent speakers have un-
fortunately fallen far below the intellectual
level reached in the daily classroom.
But it was apparent to many who heard Earl
Attlee that the material which he presented in
no way represented the great potential which
he brought to the stage. Those who joked
about an advertisement's proud announcement
of "that timely topic, The World Scene" soon
became confused, for the address was note-
worthy in its absence of timeliness.
At his afternoon press conference, Earl Attlee
made it very clear that he had no intention of
criticizing his government in any way. This

negated the possibility of his examining Britishj
moves into the Suez, or perhaps of his analyzing
certain aspects of the shaken British economic
It is hard to imagine, however, that large
areas of the current Suez, .the Russian, the
United Nations, the Hungarian, the Chinese,
or literally hundreds of other problems did not
remain as logical topics for discussion.
IN A VERY REAL WAY, Earl Attlee is turning
away from a responsibility which he has to
the American people. His is one of the great
minds of recent world history, one which has
declared that American assumption of world
cares is necessary to bring about order.
Without guidance, not only from our own
leaders, but from those of other nations, we
will not be adequately equipped for the job.
Eleven more speeches remain on the Attlee
itinerary. It is hoped that they address them-
selves to more immediate and challenging
problems than the one reviewed last Monday


Congress Must Back Ie

Had Your Polio Shot?

DECENT TRENDS discovered in the study of
a polio should be very interesting to the
University student. While polio previously had
been identified as the disease to be feared
almost exclusively in the infantile years, medi-
cal studies of the past decade prove polio is
attacking more older persons every year.
According to Dr. David G. Dickinson, director
of the poliomyelitis ward of the University
Hospital, with each succeeding year more and
more young adults get polio.
Under the present health service program
any student can receive the polio innoculation
for 65 cents. One would not think such a
nominal fee (which covers the cost of the
material used only) would be so prohibitive as
to prevent a young adult from getting almost
infallible protection against polio.
SO FAR only 2700 of a student population
numbering nearly eight times that amount
have taken advantage of the protection offered
by University Health Service against polio.
Although the number of inoculations is greater

than last fall, far too many University students
are without immunization.
"Inexcusable negligence" for their own phy-
sical well-being was the tag placed by Dr.
Dickinson on students failure to take advan-
tage of inoculation.
Dr. Dickinson also has cited the facts that
when college-age students do contract paralytic
polio is is usually more severe than in young-
sters and that cases of extreme paralysis are
even more prevalent in young adults than the
lower age groups.
ONE WOULD THINK the "aware" college
student needs no more stimulation to get
polio immunization than cognizance of the
facts. Though these facts have been made
known to students. 19,000 "neglectors" must
still be waiting for further proof.
A trip to the University Hospital polio ward
-to see in stark realism the paralyzed boys and
girls who comprise the cold, uninspiring statis-
tics of unimmunized persons who contracted
polio might change a few minds.

IT WOULD be disastrous in the
extreme if the Congress did not
support the President in voting
the new Eisenhower Doctrine for
the Near East. Here are certain
events, some of them little known
to the public, which back up this
Shortly.after the election, this
writer reported that on November
5, one day before the election, a
hurried White House meeting was
called to consider the Kremlin's
note to E n g l a n d and France
threatening attack if they did not
quit fighting in Suez.
Herbert Hoover, Acting Secre-
tary of State, was deathly afraid
Russia would precipitate war. He
reported various moves made by
"This sent the jitters through
American leaders," I reported on
November 12 "Urgent mes-
sages were rushed to Prime Minis-
ter Eden and Premier Mollet warn-
ing that the fate of Western civi-
lization might rest upon their
agreement to an immediate cease
fire in Suez.
tive. Mollethwasn't worried by the
Russian threat. He branded it a
big bluff . . . Eden immediately
decided to call off the Egyptian
These events, reported exclus-
ively in this column November 12,
were officially substantiated on
December 12 when U. S. Ambassa-
dor Douglas Dillon in France
stated that neither the United
States nor the United Nations, but
rather Soviet threats had brought
about the French-British cease
This is one backstage incident
that makes Congressional support
for the proposed Eisenhower Doc-
trine so necessary. For both Euro-
pean and the Near East govern-
ments are convinced the Eisen-
hower Administration can be out-
bluffed by Moscow, that it won't
intervene in the near east unless
it has an official OK from Con-
THE VIEW IS so widely and
Stock Market
NEW YORK, (P) - Rails im-
proved but industrials sagged
again in today's irregular stock
Key issues posted gains or losses
ranging from fractions to around
a point.
Volume of 2,230,000 shares de-
clined from yesterday's 2,500,000
but there were bursts of selling
when prices were pared.
Leading steels, oils and air-
crafts took losses. But there were

scornfully held that Prime Mini-
ster Eden, discussing the proposed
Eisenhower Doctrine with a diplo-
mat last week, remarked that the
President would not use American
forces unless "the Red Army was
marching up Pennsylvania Ave-
Other incidents have contributed
to this belief. Here are some of
Indochina-Speaking before the
Governors' Conference in Seattle
in 1953, the President stressed the
importance of Indochina, warned
that the United States might be
constrained to act. Later at the
American Legion Convention, John
Foster Dulles threatened "massive
retaliation" in a speech obviously
aimed at Red aggression against
'Indochina. Later in April 1954,
Vice President Nixon, addressing
the American Society of News-
paper Editors, stated that the
United States would use troops to
block Communism in Indochina.
While Eisenhower officials kept
making speeches, Communist lead-
ers kept on advancing. Apparently
they knew U. S. forces would not
be used. Indochina today is more
than half Communist.
In June 1955, one month before
the Summit Conference in Gene-
va, Ambassador Henry Byroade re-
ported from Cairo that Colonel
Nasser planned to buy Russian-
Czech arms.
Yet nothing was done at the
Geneva Conference one month lat-
er to stop an arms transaction
which was certain to upset, and
did upset, the peace of the Near
East. It was stated by Eisenhower
officials in explanation that the
Kremlin chiefs had informed Ike
at Geneva that the arms deal was

purely a commercial transaction.
Apparently Ike took their word.
Two years later, enough arms
were found in the Sinai Desert by
the Israeli Army to have equipped
several divisions of the Red Army.
Obviously sent there to be used by
Russian volunteers when the time
was ripe.
Executive warnings vs. Congres-
sional warnings-one of the chief
reasons Eisenhower went to Con-
gress with a special request to give
him power which he admits he al-
ready has, is the ineffectiveness of
recent U. S. warnings.
e, * *
abroad have been reporting that
Eisenhower Administration warn-
ings don't mean much 'anymore.
Nobody particularly believes them.
On the other hand, the warning
supported by Congress in regard
to Formosa has meant something.
The President -himself detailed
some of the Near East warnings in
his message to Congress. Some had
been made by Truman, some by
him. Truman had participated
with Britain and France in the
Tripartite Declaration of 1950
against changing the borders of
the Near East. Eisenhower had
warned April 9, 1956 against any
Near East aggression. Again as
recently as November 29, 1956 re
warned against any threat to Iraq,
Turkey, Iran, or Pakistan.
Simultaneously, he had bowed
to Russian threats on November
5, and all during the election cam-
paign he had repeatedly an-
nounced that United States was
not going to get involved in the
Near East. These repeated state-
ments were believed not only by
the American electorate but by the
chanceries of Europe, Asia, and
(copyrigt 1957 by bell Syndicate, Inc.)

in '55-books like Marjorie Morn-
ingsta-r and Andersonville.
William Bringley's navy version
of No Time For Sergeants, a loose-
ly tied together series of short
stories called Don't Go Near the
Water, climbed to the top of the
lists for a while and is still, in
fact, selling well. But its long-
range appeal seems limited as
would seem the cast with most of
the other fiction that rose on th
sales lists. In the latter part of
the year, a first novel by a New
England housewife had 'em talk-
ing and buying.
Grace Metalious' no-holds-bar-
red account of small-town New
Hampshire life caught everybody's
imagination in a year devoid up
to then of sensation, and Peyton
Place, as of- this date, stands at
the top of the bestseller list. Mrs.
Metalious' book is, admittedly, a
first novel to take note of, but the
wildfire sales must be explained
by wildfire history-a small blaze
that gets blown out of control by
a lot of-wind.
In other fields of literature, there
were many 1956 entries which went
without much recognition. The
novelists carry all the big guns. In
the theater, in non-fiction, in crit-
icism, and in that parasitical
genre, the anthology, this reviewer
read and enjoyed several works
that seem deserving of more at-
tention than has been given them
in their brief moments of glory.
Listed here, then, are four titles
which get this reviewer's Badge
of Recognition, within their cate-
gories, for each being the best of
their type that he read in the year
that ended on December 31st last.
* * *
Edited by John Chapman
Random House
This is a very handy, very nicely
organized review of what was best
on Broadway during 1956. John
Chapman, Drama Critic of the
New York Daily News, has written
a short essay on the season in ret-
rospect to open the volume, and
has had a hand in the selection of
the twelve "Golden Dozen" plays
which appear in reading version
as the main body of the work. For
people who like statistics, he back
of the book's crammed with them.
Some of the memorable dramas of
'56 which are included in this com-
pact edition are The Diary of
Anne Frank, The Chalk Garden,
A View From the Bridge, and Ti-
get At The Gates.
* * *
Selected by Thomas B. Costain
and John Beecroft
The theme of this collection,
which was the December choice
of the Literary Guild, is a rather
subjective one, ruled over, by the
two editors whose criterion in
making selections for this two-
volume work was simply this: a
story or novel, in order to be in-
cluded, had to have made on either
or both of the editors an impres-
sion which, for some reason, failed
to wear off with the years. The
standard would seem an odd one,
a sort of hit-or-miss planthat
could turn out quite a jumble of
print. But these two men (Cos-
tain the novelist, and Beecroft the
editor and anthologist) know their
literature, and know what makes
a good story. In most cases the

reader will realize that what is
striking about a particular story
or novel is that it was the first
to do something new, or the first
to do something old in a new
It. turns out to be quite a fasci-
nating collection, well worth
sampling, with a virtual guarantee
of satisfaction. The two volumes
include six complete novels and
thirty-three stories. Among them:
(novels) McKinlay Kantor's The
Voice of Bugle Ann, Nathan's Por-
trait of Jennie, Wilder's The
Bridge of San Luis Rey; and
(short fiction) Chesterton's "The
Blue Cross," Kipling's "Mowgli's
B r o t h e r s," Hawthorne's "The
Great Stone Face," and Steven-
son's "The Sire de Maletroit's
* * *
by Bruce Catton
This is the acount, newly-given
in the inspired prose of Bruce
Catton, of the story of the Union
side of the Civil War. It follows
by two years Catton's A Stillness
at Appomattox which won for the
author the Pulitzer Prize in 1954.
It is difficult to imagine a non-
fiction title of the past year which
could surpass this narrative in in-
terest and intensity. A paragraph
from an early section of the book
should suffice to convey the power
and scholarship that is Catton's
when he turns to revive with words
the period of our greatest nation-
al crisis.
At the point in question, the
author has been discussing a cer-
tain type of sword, "shorter than
cavalry sabers" -which were a sort
of surplus from a pre-war gov-
ernment order. They were putup
for public sale and. "had been
bought by a harebrained secret
society in Ohio which called it-
self the Grand Eagles and which
fuzzily imagined that one day it
would attack and conquer Can-
ada. The society's plans came to
nothing, and when a cranky, hard-
mouthed farmer - turned - sheep -
trader came through the state
muttering that the way to keep
slavery out of Kansas was to go
out there and 'meddle directly
with the peculiar instution,' the
swords were turned over to him.
They were made of good steel, and
the society which had had such
grand plans for them had had
ornamental eagles etched on the
Now follow Catton:
"Tonight the swords would be
used, for the lanky Ohio farmer
who proposed to meddle with the
peculiar institution lived with
strange fever-haunted dreams and
felt an overpowering compulsion
to act on them.He was a rover, a
ne'er-do-well, wholly ineffectual
in everything he did save that he
had the knack of drawing an en-
tire nation after him on the road
to unreasoning violence. He climb-
ed the wooded ravines in the dark-
ness this night, seven men at his
heels-and the naked metal of the
swords glimmered faintly in the
starlight. The man and his follow-
ers were free-state settlers from
the town of Osawatomie. The grim
farmer in the lead was named.
John Brown."
* * *
by David Daiches
This would seem to be an in-
valuable book for anyone who
claims to have an opinion on it-
erature. The first section consists

of a very extensive examination, of
the essential problem of "What
is literature?" Daiches goes back
into the history of literary forms
and accounts for the varied phil-
osophical attitudes with which the
great critics responded to this
question. He begins with Plato and
comes forward confidently to
Coleridge. In the second section,
Daiches discusses distinct kinds of
criticism, as applied to concrete
works. And in the concluding sec-
tion-the most creative and un-
questionably the most controver-



A Fairy Tale About Kansas

(To be accompanied by the ballet music,
"Peter and the Wolf," by Serge Prokovieff.)
"ONCE UPON A TIME there was a little
school in Kansas named the University
of Kansas. At this school there was a journal-
ism departnient headed by a big, bad Dean,
Burton Marvin, a student newspaper called The
Daily Kansan, some student editors, and a
Chancellor Murphy. There w'ere also a lot of
other people but they were mostly students
and professors and didn't have much to say
about things.
"For a long, long time The Daily Kansan had
operated under an editorial policy called 'politi-
cal neutrality.' This meant they couldn't take
stands on political issues.
"Then one day the student editors decided
it was sort of silly to write editorials that
couldn't say anything so they voted to do away
with the policy and act like other newspapers.
"The student editors were very happy be-

accidently stomping on a little girl named Free-
dom. But it was an accident.
"Fingering his long mustache and drawing
the black cloak tight, he told student editors:
"'It is absolutely esesntial that The Kansan,
as a laboratory for students and as a publica-
tion representing the University in the eyes of
students and Kansas citizens of varying politi-
cal leanings, remain neutral in all political
situations on or off the campus.'
"The student editors, most unhappy, told the
Dean it was within the normal jurisdiction of
their control board to set editorial policy.
"Ha, ha! Dean Marvin pointed his finger,
gnashed his teeth and claimed:
"'Such a rule of operation, essential in a
public institution, cannot be subject to the
whim of one generation of students."
"AT THIS POINT Freedom, who was. still
getting stepped on, decided she didn't like
the Dean and so she left the little school.

Universal Restlessness of Youth


rHE continuing student unrest
in Hungary points up one of
the phenomena of this atomic age.
The young people of Hungary
made that country's revolution
against the Russians.
Young people forced the Soviet
retreat in Poland.
The youth of the U.S.S.R. had
much to do with bringing about
relaxations in an iron dictator-
But youth everywhere is stir-
ring. The puzzled restlessness one
finds in Asia is a youthful mani-
East and West share some of

the time they were able to reason
but total indoctrination proved a
failure. j
In Poland, young people led the
"bread and freedom" uprising
which led to changes in the gov-
Even in Yugoslavia, quiet on
the surface, one feels a youthful
restlessness. Youngsters there say
they are tired of being pressed in-
to a common mold, weary of
taboos and prohibitions, fed up
with perpetual propaganda, and
eager to find out for themselves
what is going on in the world.
* * *
IN THE Soviet Union. 40 years

youth ferment. The Soviet Union
educated its youth in order to in-
dustrialize the country. No matter
how lopsided 'the education, Mos-
cow could not prevent youngsters
from thinking.
' * * '
EDUCATION played a large
part in the ferment in other areas,
too. Many young men in India's
growing educated class feel frus-
trated at the lack of outlets. They
compete for low-paying white col-
lar jobs because they .feel other
jobs do not fit in with their train-
In Indonesia, the- taste of free-
dom from colonialism often turns
ditter in Voung men's mouths at

'A I

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