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December 09, 1956 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1956-12-09

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Sixty-Seventh Year

Indians, Pakistanis Discuss Kashmir

"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Education for the Masses:
Whither the Superior Student

Claim UN

IN EXTENDING advance college credit to ex-
ceptional high school students, the Literary
College has taken another step toward recog-
nition of the superior student.
High school students may now take special
advanced courses prepared by University faculty
and high school teachers. If they pass an ex-
amination prepared by the Educational Testing
Service, they may enter college with as much
as 16 hours' credit.
THE PROBLEM of the exceptional student,
be he superior or below average, has long
been the chief bugaboo of American education.
In our democracy, goals are directed toward the
majority, the average, the Golden Mean. Even
in grade school the better-than-average pupil
is mocked by his fellows and soon learns to
either hide his light under the bushel of medi-
ocrity or direct it toward outside activities.
High school courses, geared to the average, bore
him. And, to a great extent, college bores him
too. Instead of finding the intellectual bril-
liance he anticipated, he finds more mediocrity.
Today's college students demand spoon-feeding,
and professors, weighed down by the American
Ideal, education for the masses, are faced with
two alternatives: flunk a great many students

(Ed. note. The following articles were written, at the requ est of the Daily, by groums of Indian and Palistani students.)

(which speaks ill, at least on the surface, of
their teaching ability) or mark on that mathe-
matical deity, the curve. In America 1956,
everyone who has the money and can main-
tain a two-point goes to college. A B.A. is now
the equivalent of a high school Education a
few decades back, and it's almost impossible to
get a job without one.
with American ideals just as long as it
doesn't exclude the really bright student who,
after all, will be the teacher and thinker of
America's tomorrow. He must be challenged,
not spoon-fed; encouraged rather than crushed;
praised instead of ridiculed.
The Literary College is steaming slowly
along toward this goal with honors programs,
tutorial sections and now, advanced college
credit for high school students. But the fact
that selected high school students last year did
better on the ETS examination than a random
college sample should be proof positive that
education geared to the average is not ade-
quate. f
It's time the superior student be allowed to
come into his own.

Poor Vacation Scheduling

THE UNIVERSITY calendar is a vivid ex-
ample of the old truism "You can't pleace
everyone." While most of the complaints are
either dismissed as insignificant in themselves
or deemed minor because they are peculiar to
only one small interest group, this year's Christ-
mas season is stirring no little controversy
among University students.
The complaint is simply that since vacation
starts Dec. 21, students will not be able-to get
pre-Christmas employment.
It isn't so much that students enjoy work-.
ing over the holidays; its more a matter of
necessity. The full-time college man usually
has little or no income nine months of the year,
and three months' earnings during the summer
is .seldom sufficient to last out the long, ex-
pensive campus winter.
AND EVEN if the student doesn't need the
money to directly finance his own educa-
tion, the hundred dollars or so a yuletide job
usually brings has come to be relied on for
Christmas gifts and "mad" money.
The United States Postal Office, which has
given Christmas employment to literally thou-
sands of University students in the past, is not
hiring this year from the Ann Arbor campus
because Michigan students can work only two
The same is true of the many stores and
shops back In the home-towns. Businessmen
simply won't hire a student as a cashier or
clerk for the week between Christmas and New
Year's Day.

The result is students are going to have to
look elsewhere for that, necessary nest egg
Christmas vacation usually offers. And because
in many cases this quirk of the University
schedule is creating a definite hardship, stu-
dents are wondering just how essential it was
that the Administration arranged the Christ-
mas break as they did.
LOOKING AT the issue from an adminis-
trative standpoint, the scheduling of the
Christmas vacation is justified by its consis-
tency with the other holidays, the exam sched-
ule and the break between semesters. Only
radicals will postulate an intentional malicious-
ness on the part of' the Administration for the
hardship such spacing has placed on the stu-
But even though this difficulty was not in-
tended by the schedulers, and even though it
was perhaps deliberated upon and deemed sec-
ondary to other considerations in drawing up
a full-year's program, the student does have
a legitimate complaint.
Christmas employment is not only desirable,
in many cases it is essential to the college stu-
dent. Therefore, the pressure put on the stu-
dent by such a financially useless vacation as
this year's schedule has created, should not be
merely A consideration of the officials draw-
ing up the exam; it should be the FIRST con-

In the year 1947 the historic
struggle of the Indian people
for freedom culminated in the de-
cision of the British to "quit"
India and leave the people to
govern themselves. In the last
few years of British rule com-
munal passions rose so high that
it was thought necessary to par-
tition the Indian Sub-continent
into two sovereign states.
It was hoped that the partition
would mean the end of all this.
But unfortunately this new situa-
tion created new regions of dis-
pute. Outstanding among these
is the Kashmir Question.
India under Britain consisted
of British ruled provinces and
princely states that had acceded
certain of their rights by various
On the British withdrawal these
princely states regained their
original sovereign status. This
left them with an alternatice to
accede to one of the two Domin-
ions or to remain independent.
Geographical, historical, cultural,
economic and other ties left them
little choice except to join one of
the two Dominions. If these states
had to join one of the two do-
minions the next questiontwas to
which of these two dominions
should these states join?
The Indian policy in this mat-
ter was consistently uniform. Ac-
cession to either Dominion must
be based on the wishes of the
people and not on their religious
affiliations. As a secular state
India cannot value their position.
This principle was earlier accepted
when a referendum was held in
the nothwest frontier province
even though 90% of its popula-
tion was Moslem.
In view of this difference of
approach between India and Pak-
istan a dispute arose on the ques-
tion of accession of Kashmir. The
claim of Pakistan that because a
majority of people of Kashmir
are Moslems, she must join Pak-
istan, was one that India could
not accept.
Kashmir, however, was one ex-
ception. This state has a common
boundary with both India and
Pakistan. While the question of
accession was still undecided
"volunteers" from Pakistan in-
stigated and armed by their Gov-
ernment attacked Poonch which
lies along the border of Pakistan.
Unable to cope with large in-
vading forces the ruler of Kash-
mir requested for help from India
and expressed a desire to accede.
In view of the fact that Kashmir
was ruled by an autocratic ruler
while the popular leaders were
in prison the Indian Government
asked the Ruler to declare a gen-
eral amnesty and install a popu-
lar and responsible government.
On the question of accession,
India accepted only a partial ac-
cession. At the moment the pur-
pose of the Indian Government
was to assure that the aggression
was repelled so that the decision
on accession may be taken by a
plebiscite in a civilized manner in
stead of by aggression and in-
In his address to Indian Nation-
al Congress Mr. Nehru expressed
this sentiment when he declared,
"We are quite content to have a
plebiscite in a civilized manner in-
because we are committed to it,
but because we are quite sure of
its results. But the plebiscite must
be a fair one and must not be
held under the conditions which
give encouragement to aggressor
and justify aggression."
It was to achieve this purpose
that the Indian army was air-
lifted into Kashmir. The Indian
army immediately forced a re-
treat of the invaders and could

have achieved a complete expul-
sion of invaders from the state.
At this stage, however. India
decided to bring the matter be-
fore the UN so that this could be
achieved without further blood-
shed. The UN intervention turned
out to be a bitter disappointment
to India. Not only did they fail
in obtaining a withdrawal of in-
vaders from Kashmir territory but
they also failed to name Pakistan
an active collaborator, despite
ample evidence.
For several years India stood
by her commitment to hold a
plebiscite as soon as Kashmir was
cleared of all invaders. India could
not accept a plebiscite while a part
of Kashmir was still occuppied
by invaders because it was felt
that a plebiscite under these con-
ditions would mean giving "en-
couragement to the aggressor and
justifying the aggression."
It was this failure of the UN
that compelled India to accept
the accession of Kashmir as rati-
fied by the Constituent Assembly
elected by the people of that part
ofV KaC,1',r .f..,-., ...Ii. ;v v-. ,a



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TV Needs Good News Coverage

Proposal and Considerations

ON FRIDAY Vice-President Richard Nixon
proposed a U.S. aid program for Britain,
but he gave no details.
In his address to. the American Manufactur-
er's Association, the Vice-President called such
assistance "vital to the cause of freedom."
Certainly it is not difficult to see the reas-
oning behind this proposal, especially if we
think in long range terms-terms which in-
clude Russia's objectives.
To strangle Europe, avoiding a direct clash
with the United States and thus leave America
alone in any final struggle could very well be
the present Soviet plan. And, in order to see
this plan is not fulfilled, it is imperative that
the United States sees that England is not
.economically strangled.
However, while the general idea behind Nix-
on's proposal is certainly valid, the reasoning
behind the unmentioned details needs consid-
For instance, Britain's action in the Middle
East shows that American dollars are not bind-
ing, that we cannot buy trust nor can we ex-
Editorial Staff
Editorial Director Clty Editor
GAIL GOLbSTEIN . ................Personnel Director
ERNEST THEODOSSIN.......... Magazine Editor
JANET REARICK . .......Associate Editorial Director
MARY ANN THOMAS................Features Editor
DAVID GREY - - ................ Sports Editor
RICHARD CRAMER..........-.-.Associate Sports Editor
STEPHEN REPERN ..... . Associate Sports Editor
VIRGINIA ROBERTSON........ .Women's Editor
JANE FOWIER ............Associate Women's Editor
ARLINE LEWIS..........women's Feature Editor
JOHN HIRTZEL............ . Chief Photographer
Business Staff
DAVID SILVER, Business Manager
MILTON GOLDSTEIN.....Associate Business Manager

pect to be consulted on matters which directly
affect England and indirectly influence the
United States.
There may be those who would refuse Eng-
land aid because of her present aggression in
Egypt, and there may be others whose complete
devotion to democracy over communism would
permit them to overlook recent events and
propose aid with no strings attached.
While these views may well represent un-
selfish standards, they exclude the fact that
it is a selfish principle, the principle of self-
preservation, which plays a big part in the
actions of free nations.
Two countries, the United States and Great
Britain, desire to stay free and powerful, and
Britain's action in Egypt has shown that this
desire trancends unwritten bonds with the
United States.
THEREFO4E, in giving aid to Britain,
America would be wise to establish pro-
visions for stronger bonds-economic and mili-
tary-between herself and England. In other
words, the proposed program should involve a
bargain. a bargain which would force Britain
to think of a common preservation of democ-
racy rather than mere self-preservation in
future actions.
Just how this is to be done, of course, is the
problem, a problem for economic, political, and
military strategists.
Nixon's aid proposal could very will be an im-
portant step in the right direction, if this poli-
tician's skelton statement is given the substance
of strategic reasoning.
RARELY. if ever, before have the honor and
the prestige of the United Nations been so
endangered as they are now with respect to
Hungary. The United Nations has stood idly
by and has done nothing to prevent the
slaughter of patriotic Hungarians by Soviet
troops in that country.

Daily Television Writer
Television has proven itself as
capable of being the most ef-
fective medium for communicat-
ing -news to the people. In this
area it far surpasses radio, be-
cause of the addition of the vis-
ual, and far surpasses newsreels
and newspapers because of the
immediateness of transmission.
Yet television has, at -least on
any regular basis, faltered in this
essential element of our com-
munications process.
News presentation has been at
a standstill; television newscast-
ers are human relay systems. John
Daly, Douglas Edwards, David
Brinkley and Chet Hunter are
not in any sense of the word
news analysts. Their function is
only to give prepared introduc-
tions to newsfilm and other mock
newscasters and to cue the com-
mercial announcements.
Most of them are still sitting
behind a desk with books on it
so they can hide the scripts writ-
ten by editors who have done
nothing more than select and
somewhat re-write stories from
the wire services. Behind the desk
is the inevitable map of the world.
NBC recently made a vain attempt
to try to remedy this situation
by putting Hunter and Brinkley
in a modern setting, but it was
to no f avail, for the only diffe-
*rence is that there is no desk.
,,"commentators" are standing and
they have to hold their scripts
in their hands. But this is still
some improvement, a transition
which might bring results.
pride (and has the right to) in
its news, special events and docu-
mentaries. They are presented in
an interesting way, using all of
the technical and physical re-
sources available, and these are
many. But they don't use them
often enough,
The best example of this was
of the political convention cover-
age. Every conceivable piece of
technical equipment that enabled
a more complete instantaneous
coverage of these events was
transported to Chicago and San
Francisco and used. Every new
idea for clearly presenting the
best visual effect was employed.
But these ideas and technical
equipment will not be used in
presenting news until another
convention or similar event a-
rises and necessitates it.
It is only at these special events,
that television attempts to crit-
ically communicate to the public.
It is only at these events that
the televiewers can see some re-
semblance to a news analyst.

sessions were in progress. Tele-
viewers responded quickly to the
McCarthy and Kefauver hearings.
They did not give such acclaim
to the various newspapermen-
meet-politician programs, where
the only objective is which journ-
alist can appear sharpest by ask-
ing irrelevent questions. This is
especially true on programs of
this type where the interrogators
are college students.
If John Daly, Walter Kronkite,
Edward R. Murrow and other com-
petent news analysts would be
given the opportunity to appear
on television in that capacity, in-
stead of just performing their,
present chores, television would'
benefit greatly. And men like H.
V. Kaltenborn should be given
the opportunity to bring back the
news analyzing that flourished in
radio during World War II. There
is never any doubt that factual
reporting is a necessity, but it
would be supplemented if instead
of hopskotching the world for
headlines, television could open
a news show with the familiar
strains of "There's good news to-
WHAT WOULD be wrong with
Edward R. Murrow and Eric Seve-
reid sitting in two plain chairs,
sans scripts, and analyzing the
situation in Hungary, Israel or
Tennessee? It is done on radio, in
the newspapers. And the same

freedom of sqeech prevails on
television. 9 i
Sunday "See It Now" presented
a special program starring Danny
Kaye which was produced for the
benefit of UNICEF. Thursday
"Project XX" presented "The
Jazz Age", a documentary view
of the 1920's narrated by the late
Fred Allen.
"See It Now" has presente
similar documentaries. But they
have been few and far between.
"Project XX" last year had two
excellent documentaries, one tell-
ing of the rise of Communism in
the world and the other dealing
with the rise and fall of Adolph
Hitler. But two shows of this
type a year are much less than
the number which should have
been presented.
* * *
THE QUIZ, variety, comedy,
mystery, and children's programs
all have their rightful place in
American television, as do com-
mercials. Straight factual news
programs are also a necessary.
But if you could add to this list
a more regular schedule of special
event coverage and news analyzing
as seen at the conventions and-
more documentaries of the caliber
of "See It Now" and "Project
XX", television would be more ef-
fectively demonstrating the real
reasons why the Federal Com-
munications System originally
sanctioned it.

The Indo-Pakistan subcontinent
was subdivided into two sov-
ereign nations, India and Pakis-
tan, in 1947 upon the termination
of the , British rule. The creation
of the two states pas the cul-
mination of a long struggle by
that the Hindus and the Moslems
were two different nations and
that their only hope for economic
and social justice, fair treatment,
and the freedom to follow their
religious and cultural beliefs lay
in the creation of a separate
state of their own.
Partition also caused the great-
est migration in history, with a-
bout 8 million Moslems and about
4 million Hindus crossing the bor-
To make things even worse, the
colassal influx of Moslems from In-
dia deranged the entire economic
system. While Pakistan was grap-
pling with these almost isur-
mountable problems, India started 4
her militaristic action in the
princely states of Kashmir, Jun-
agadh, Manavadar, and Hyder-
Under the Independence Act of
India, 1947, every Princely State
was given the right to either ac-
cede to one of the two nations,'
India and Pakistan, or to remain
independent. The Princely States
of Junagadh and Manavadar, hav-
ing Hindu majorities of popula-
tion but Moslem rulers, acceded-
to Pakistan.
India attacked and sacked these
states on the plea that these Hin-
du majority areas should go to
India, even though their Moslem
rulers had joined Pakistan. The
Princely State of Hyderabad, also
with a Hindu majority but a -
Moslem ruler, decided to remain
independent. India attacked and
occupied Hyberabad under the pre-
text of 'police action'. The case
of Hyderabad is pigeon-holed in
the United Nations.
The Princely State of Jammu
,and Kashmir had over 80 per
cent Moslem population, but the
ruler was a Hindu. India sent her
army into Kashmir allegedly on
the request of the Hindu ruler,
who wanted to keep 'peace' in
his state.
Pakistanis position is that the
Maharaja of Kashmir had no
lega authority to accede to India
because he had signed a "stand
still" agreement with the Govern-
ment of Pakistan the day the
British Paramountcy terhinated
over the state. Moreover, if India
can claim Junagadh and Iydera-
bad because they were Hindu ma-
jority states, why shouldn't Kash-
mir, a Moslem majority area, be
at least granted a Plebiscite to
determine her future.
While accepting the Maharaja's
offer of accession in 1947, Lord
Mountbatten, then Governor-Gen-
eral of India, said, "The question
of accession should be settled in
accordance to the wishes of the
people of the state."
While India is committed to
holding a plebiscite in Kashmir,
she has always hindered its im-
plementation. Numerous United
Nations Plans for holding an im-
partial plebiscite in the state were
accepted by Pakistan but were
rejected by India.
India seems determined to con-
tinue the occupation of Kashmir
and has stooped to every means
to this end. Sheikh Abdullah the
most popular Kashmir leader, once
Prime Minister of the state, was
brought before the United Nations
under false promises and was mis-'
led to declare that accession of
Kashmir to India was in the best
interests of the sta te
The chain of events following
his return to Kashmir convinced

him otherwise and when he tried
to make his convictions known,
he was deposed and put in jail-
he is still there. India knows that
a free plebiscitethmeans loss of
Kashmir, and therefore insists
that the plebiscite, if at all, should
be conducted under Indian bayo-
Out of the thirteen-division In-
dian Army, seven divisions are in
Kashmir to help the puppet goV-
ernment of Kashmir to help rule "
the state. That there is a ruthless
suppression of public opinion in
Kashmir has been reported by-
many impartialobservers on the
scene. India tries to evade the
plebiscite committments one way
or another,
In the words of Prime Minister
Nehru, "Since Pakistan has joined
SEATO and thesBaghdad Pact,
the situation has changed so
much that India is not bound by
any promise of plebiscite any
Now, a puppet constituent as-
sembly has been installed in In-
dian-occuppied Kashmir, and it


Mountain Unimpressive

R EALISM, and self - identifica-
tion by the audience are two
of the primary aims of the visual
arts. Hollywood has succeeded,
during the past forty years, in
developing photographic and tech-
nical skills to a point from which
these goals can be realized. The
good director may manipulate the
emotions of his audience in almost
any way he chooses, merely by the
proper use of the camer, of color,
and of sound.
With such -techniques available,
it is always sad to see a director
ignore them. A potentially im-
pressive story, one with all the
necessary ingredients for success,
often fails to absorb or even in-
terest an audience, simply because
it lacks the proper co-ordination
of acting, and technical skills. The
viewer becomes too conscious of
This sort of conscious effort to
impress is especially obvious in
The Mountain, the movie that just
opened at the Michigan. The plot,
although simple, might be good if
it were handled the right way. Un-
fortunately it is not. A preoccupa-
tion with itself prevents this movie

and documents they can from the
bodies. After a prolonged struggle
up the almost perpendicular slope,
they reach the top, and find with-
in the, plane a female survivor.
They are forced to make a choice
between saving her life or keeping
their booty.
Complications arise, however,
when the brothers, who have been
antagonistic from the start, dis-
agree on the proper course of
action. The younger one, intent on
profit, attempts to kill the girl,
and is left by his noble brother to
find the way down the mountain
alone. He falls from a snow bridge,
and the evil he is supposedly
symbolizing is destroyed. Good-
ness, as usual. wins out in the
The acting was bad, but seemed
fairly congruous with the rest of
the production techniques. Spencer
Tracy and Robert Wagner, the two
brothers, seemed more like a poor
father and son combination. Tracy
was too sanctimonious to be be-
lievable and Wagner was merely
The photography was rather
good, but again, the audience is

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