EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
TWO VIEWS ON THE MIDDLE EAST:
Israeli, Egyptian Tell National Stands
"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1956 NIGHT EDITOR: PETER ECKSTEIN
World War III
Depends on the Kremlin
WORLD WAR III is more imminent now than
at anytime since 1945. This is an incom-
prehensively awesome fact when one remembers
that not long ago the Senate Armed Services
Committee estimated that upwards of 70,000,000
Americans could vanish in a Soviet air raid.
A number of events are contributing to
mounting tension and creating a diplomatic sit-
uation from which the Big Powers can hardly
extricate themselves and save face and power
at the same time.
RUSSIA is continuing a massacre of over
30,000 Hungarians. She is reportedly sneak-
ing jet fighters into Syria and Saudi Arabia.
She may soon send "volunteers" to the Middle
East. She is infuriated that British power has
re-established the Suez after its demise under a
Soviet-armed Nasser. Needless to say, these
moves have been a slap in the face to the cause
of peace and to United Nation's moral opinion.
United States tolerance and trust of Soviet
policy is at low ebb. We strongly rebuked Bul-
ganin's bid for a US-USSR military coalition
in the Middle East, telling the Soviet not to
trespass there. Our policy became increasingly
firm Friday when Ambassador Lodge warned
Russia of their callous murdering in Hungary
and said we would reappraise our present non-
interference policy "if the desired results are
Further, our Strategic Air Command has been
alerted. Some personnel leaves have been can-
celled. Our Mediterranean fleet is on the move.
Also, Democratic congressmen pledged their
support to Administration policies in what Sen-
ate Democratic leader Lyndon Johnson called,
"a very serious situation." The United States,
at this time, is still working in cooperation with
international public opinion in the UN.
How tolerant we can, be of increasing Russian
aggressiveness and how patient we can be with
the inherent shortcomings of the UN, are ques-
tions that the Administration is debating today.
EACH Russian move (also British and French)
on the world scene today has created a
crisis in itself. Seen collectively, along with
United States' counter-moves, they portend a
war and perhaps the extinction of the human
race. If Russia hasn't already decided upon a
policy of war with the West, the crisis which
she has instigated may drag her inextricably
into that decision.
We ask Russia to reflect on this. Whether
valid or not this nation values freedom above
life itself. We will fight and die that our sur-
vivors may live and be free. Whether we will
fight for the freedom loving peoples of Hungary
or in other lands away from our shores, is yet
to be answered.
Whether we answer this question or not de-
pends on how far the Kremlin pushes us.
--JAMES ELSMAN, JR.'
SGC Elections Supplement
P TODAY'S DAILY, there are two pages filled
with a great many faces and even more
This is the SGC Election Supplement. It was
designed to help you pick students to repre-
sent you for the next year.
SOC is coming of age. It is tackling prob-
lems in cooperation with University authorities,
problems which are large and complicated in
scope. Its trial period ends in the spring, so it
faces several months which may very well de-
termine whether or not the Regents will ap-
prove it permanently.
Now is not the time for the perennial student
government deadwood. Perhaps now, more than
any other time in its short history, SGC needs
thinking, doing people; leaders who are aware
of more than the bicycle problem; students of
integrity and ability.
OF THE FOURTEEN candidates, many do
not fill those requirements. Some do. It is up
to the student to decide. The five questions
The Daily asked candidates touch on issues
of grave importance to the Council right now.
What a candidate thinks about a certain
issue is very often not nearly so important as
how he thinks about it. If his reasoning is clear
and logical, if he shows an awareness of major
campus problems, and an ability to tackle them
without fear, odds are that he will be a good
Council member. On the other hand, if his
thinking is fuzzy and hidebound, if he is afraid
to state an opinion that might not find favor
in all quarters, if he hedges and displays his
ignorance of campus affairs, he will be a drag
on a body that can afford no drags.
AS YOU read the supplement, as we hope
you will, look for these things. Also look for
previous experience in government-it can be
an invaluable aid.
When you vote, as you should, cast your
ballot for the people you think will be the most
competent and fore-sighted Council members.
They are not necessarily those endorsed by
your house president or best friends.
And as you vote, remember that your ballot
will determine the future of student govern-
ment on the University campus.
Overuse of Huge Flag
Could Lessen Respect
THE MARCHING BAND owns what is re-
puted to be the largest American flag in
the world. It is unquestionably proud of it.
The flag was displayed in the Army game
and again yesterday, with bandsmen flapping
energetically to make it "proudly wave" and
"The Battle Hymn of the Republic" in the
Propagandists, politicians and writers have
noted that a reference to the flag has strong
emotional context, and apparently the band has
discovered it too.
Armistice day is a solemn occasion, and per-
haps the group was justified in using "Old
However, when Abraham Lincoln, Taps and
the strength of ROTC are added, the sincerity
of such a program might be questioned.
Our flag can too easily be used as a theatrical
device to heighten dramatic interest. This may
well have a cheapening effect, and it should
be used sparingly.
By ARIEL NAOR
RECENT HAPPENINGS in the
Middle East, and in particular
Israel's security measures in the
Sinai Peninsula, have been widely
interpreted as isolated events. It
is our belief that what has hap-
pened must be viewed in the con-
text of events in this area over the
last eight years, namely as a legi-
timate exercise on the part of
Israel of the right of self-defense.
In May 1948, with the termina-
tion of the British mandate in
Palestine, the partition resolution
of the United Nations, and the
proclamation of the state of Israel,
the armies of seven Arab states
invaded the newly established na-
tion. Their proclaimed intention
was to "throw the Jews into the
Many of the Arab inhabitants
of Palestine encouraged by the
Arab invaders left their homes
"temporarily" to escape the un-
pleasantness of a war which they
thought would soon come to a
victorious conclusion. Nothing has
been done by the Arab countries
to help their refugees and they
are, to this day, a liability for the
Those who chose to stay in Is-
rael are now enjoying a higher
standard of living-economically
and politically-than the over-
whelming majority of their bre-
thren in Arab countries. It may
interest the reader to know that
Israel is the first state to have
granted the voting rights to Arab
The Arab nations, as is well
known, did not succeed in their
avowed intention of destroying
Israel. With United Nations inter-
vention a 'cease-fire' was declared
as a first step towards the securing
of permanent peace between Israel
and the Arab states. Unfortu-
nately, the armistice was agreed
to by the Arabs only as a breath-
ing space to enable them to build
up stronger forces for this renewal
of "holy war.
IN FACT, the state of war never
really ended. Throughout eight
years, Israel has been subjected to
constant and unremitting Arab
attack. Since Nasser's coup there
have taken place against Israel
435 cases of armed incursion, near-
ly 2,000 cases of armed robbery and
theft, 1,300 of armed clashes with
Egyptian armed forces, 172 cases
of sabotage perpetrated by Egyp-
tian military units and Fedayeen
As a result of these activities,
465 Israeli people have been killed
and wounded. These figures refer
primarily to violations of the
cease-fire perpetrated by the
Egyptian fedayeen (commandos).
"Weep, O Israel, as much as
you like! The Arabs of Egypt
are on their way to Tel-Aviv.
Grit your teeth and prepare
yourselves for extermination
..Your end is close and your
agony will be hard. We cry
vengeance and v e n g e a n c e
means the death of Israel".
Cairo Radio, August 31, 1955.
Arab belligerency was not con-
fined to land operations; the Suez
Canal, supposedly an international
waterway, was closed to Israeli
shipping inadefiance of United
Throughout the whole period
under discussion, the Israel gov-
ernment constantly pressed for the
establishment of a permanent
peace. Not only were their pleas
answered by intensified Arab bor-
der attacks, but vast amounts of
superior modern communist arms
were delivered to Egypt.
UNDER THE conditions stated
here, Israel had absolutely no al-
ternative than to do what she did
last week. If Israel has sometimes
found it difficult to persuade even
her friends in the international
community to understand the mo..
tives for her action, this is because
nobody in the world community
is in Israel's position. How many
other nations have had hundreds
of its citizens killed over these
years byrthe armedraction of ar-
mies across the frontier? How
many nations have had their ships
seized and their cargos confiscated
in international waterways? How
many nations find the pursuit of
their daily tasks to be a matter
of daily and perpetual hazard?
In how many countries does every
single citizen going about his
duties feel the icy wind of his own
It might perhaps require an un-
usual measure of humility and
imagination for others to answer
'the questions as to how they would
have acted in Israel's place.
"Things Are Still A Little Up In The A ir Here -"
CttG vw WAS4A JC~*' Posy .
AT THE STATE:
Another Film With A Message
"BETWEEN HEAVEN and Hell"
is essentially the story of the
reform of a Southern-type aristo-
crat by that great equalizer and
But it somehow misses the ranks
of the great War Films, mostly
because too much attention is
payed to the delivering of a Mes-
sage, namely that share-croppers
are people, too.
Robert Wagner is the aristocrat.
Before the war, he liked to drive
around with his wife, Terry Moore,
both sporting fake Southern ac-
cents, and cuss out the share-
croppers on his plantation for not
working all day and night.
Terry is unhappy. She is an
idealist. She is cute. She can't
Comes war. The National Guard
is called out. Robert Wagner goes
cff to war. And he gets in trouble
because he goes to pieces under
Stationed on a Pacific Island,
Bob wins a Silver Star for heroism,
but then slugs a lieutenant who
clutches and shoots some of Wag-
ner's share-cropper friends.
So Bob is sent off to join an
outfit run by Mad Broderick
Crawford, a captain who is "sick".
Crawford is a real character.
He has one big obsession: "No
sniper's gonna get me." And of
course, he is wrong.
The above information is all
related by a series of flash-backs.
Wagner now moves into the fu-
ture; fights side by side with the
snare - croppers, eventually gets
shot and sent home to initiate
sweeping social reforms.
In spite of the hopeless opening,
this film does indeed have many
exciting moments, and the war-
type suspense is managed quite
well. Aside from the usual South-
ern stereotypes, many of the char-
acters haye considerable depth;
and Crawford, at least, is wide
Perhaps it is best to walk into
this one fifteen minutes late. You
will miss previews of an Elvis
Presley film coming for Thanks-
giving which should be a real
turkey. Also a travalog through
Italy for little girl, mother, and
cinemascope camera and five
hundred violins. The scenery is
so striking that the insipid nara-
tor and background music make
you wish you had a hearing aid
to turn off.
By SALAH EL-ZARKA
A complete review of the Middle
East situation in a limited
space is difficult. However, I shall
try to explain the Arab-Israeli
dispute and its relationship to the
present explosive situation in the
Suez Canal area.
Until the end of World War II,
the Arabs and Jews lived peace-
fully in Palestine. Then England
was forced to end her mandate
there. The Arab inhabitants pro-
posed the cooperative formation
of a Jewish and Arab federal state
according to the existing percent-
age of Arabs and Jews then living
The Jews, encouraged by the
world Zionist organization and by
the Balfour Declaration of 1917.
which promised them a homeland
in Palestine, refused this proposal.
The dispute went to the United
Nations in 1947, although it was
not within the power of the United
Nations to create a state (their
only power: to recommend a pleb-
A partition plan was developed
which divided Palestine into two
states: an Arab state and Israel.
Did this really solve the prob-
lem of the world's Jewish refu-
gees? Actually, it did not. Instead,
a new dilemna was created. Over
one million Arab refugees found
themselves homeless, nationless.
* * *
SINCE THEN, the Israeli gov.
ernment has been preaching peace.
We may well ask if they are really
sincere. Their desire for peace
was clearly shown last year when
Eden announced in the British
Parliament that he intended to
put the United Nations' Resolu-
tion of 1947 into effect to end the
Arab-Israeli conflict. The Arab
states accepted Eden's proposal;
the Israeli government refused.
Further, Israel severely attacked
Eden's efforts to reach a solution.
Since the establishment of the
State of Israel, the United Na-
tions has repeatedly condemned
Israel for a series of major aggres-
sions. By these, Israel attempted
to create terror and instability
among the neighboring Arab na-
tions, and to force a peace settle-
ment on their own terms. To
counteract these aggressions by
Israeli military forces, Egypt and
the Arab refugeesdorganized a
national guard called 'Fedayeen.'
Israel used this defensive move
as a pretext for its recent invasion
In reality the cause of this Is-
raeli invasion of Egypt goes far
beyond the apparent excuse of re-
moving the Fedayeen centers. The
real cause was control of the Suez
Canal. Following Egypt's nation-
alization of the Canal, England,
aided and abetted by France (who
sought to protect her shaky Al-
gerian interests), was looking for
any excuse to seize the Canal-
by force, if necessary. In fact,
on September 9, 1956, Reynolds .
News Agency announced "a secret
plan wasreached to use force to
crush Nasser as soon as a pretext
can be devised." This pretext has
been clearly shown to be the Is-
raeli invasion of Egypt.
* * *
THE HISTORY of the British
occupation of the Middle East
offers numerous similar conspira-
cies. Britain has always tried to
have bases or agents to depend
upon in time of troubles. These
strategic points were necessary so
that she could jump to crush any
nationalistic uprising that in any
way threatenend her security.
During the 1937 Arab revolution
British forces based at the Suez
Canal moved to crush it. In 1940,
the British armies again moved
from Transjordan to stop the
Iraqi uprising. When the Vichy
government attempted to isolate
Syria and Lebanon from the Allies
during World War II, British
forces fromPalestine moved to
prevent that threat. Finally, when
Nasser nationalized the Suez Ca-
nal, the only apparent reason that
prevented England from taking a
positive action against him was
the lack of enough forces around
the Suez Canal area.
England then recognized the
vacuum in which she was left
and looked around for a tool
which with she could regain her
imperialistic position. This tool
was finally revealed to be Israel.
I am in no position to predict
what Israel would have gained had
England and France succeeded
in destroying Egypt or Nasser, the
main symbol of a sovereign Egypt;
but all the events of the past few
weeks have begun to crystalize.
They clearly reveal a beneficial
TALKING ON TELEVISION:
CBS Got Bhest Results With. Results
Promises of Nonpartisanship
POST-ELECTION promises and predictions
of a closely knit cooperative Congress,
transcending partisanship and party lines, bear
a glare of glittering generalities.
Both Democratic and Republican leaders are
agreeing that the Democratic-controlled 85th
Congress will follow a policy of compromise
and moderation with the Eisenhower Admini-
stration. Typical of the recent "we're-old-
friends-again-after-the-fight" comments is
that of Senator Hubert Humphrey, Democrat
of Minnesota, stating "you have to maintain
a working relationship with the Administra-
At the same time he asserted that the Demo-
crats must take the lead by passing their own
civil rights program to survive as an inde-
pendent national party.
W IDELY CONFLICTING political convictions
and petty partisan goals simply can not
be blended into harmonious consensus through
the declaration of high hopes, whether they
be superficial or sincere.
Past experience has shown this to be true.
Repeatedly, whenever the nation has faced the
situation of politically-split Administration and
Congress, members of both factions have pre-
dicted modestly their plans for more unified
and cooperative federal policy. But it entails
more than hoping and promising to carry
this policy for two or more years without
recurrent blocks of opposition.
THE FACT that the Democrats were able to
gain control of Congress but not the White
House is certainly indicative that they are not
in complete favor with the majority of the
Such benevolent statements as that of Sena-
tor Lyndon' B. Johnson, Democrat of Texas,
By LARRY EINHORN
Daily Television Writer
T WAS ALL CBS last Tuesday
night and early Wednesday
morning. CBS-TV, assisted by
UNIVAC and Betty Furness, gave
the most accurate and clear cov-
rage of the 1956 elections.
NBC and ABC were plagued with
poor visual effects which hindered
attempts to give the home viewer
an easy perspective of all of the
key contests. They were not as
easy to follow, for they did not
have the clear individual panels
showing the states, Eisenhower
and Stevenson totals, pictures of
the candidates for Senator, Con-
gressman and Governor, and com-
plete up-to-the-minute r e s u 1 t s
seen on CBS.
The credit for the expert CBS
coverage goes to all of the com-
mentators and the technicians who
devised the special effects such as
showing the popular and electoral
totals, maps indicating how the
states were going, comparison of
results at respective times of the
night in 1952 and other pertinent
information in a split-screen pro-
cess similar to the one used during
the conventions to create the im-
pression that the commentators
were looking over the convention
floor and the one used by "Person
to Person" which creates the im-
pression that Edward-R. Murrow.
is looking into the window of his
guest. And special credit should go
to Sig Mickelson, CBS Vice-Presi-
dent in charge of news and public
affairs, who co-ordinated the en-
* * *
IT COST the Democrats ap-
proximately $1,800,000 in television
it will not be Ernie Kovacs, now
seen two nights a week on "To-
night." NBC will probably use a
rotating star system and try to
get some of the comics it has under
long-term contracts to fill the gap.
This list is headed by no other
than Milton Berle.
It would be kinda' nice if NBC
would mull over the idea of giving
the show to Tonight's own Steve
Lawrence, who has proven himself
as a versatile performer, in the
fields of both singing and comedy.
And, of course, Eydie Gorme would
have to be the female singer on the
* * *
TOMORROW NIGHT NBC will
.present an original musical
based on "Jack and the Bean-
stalk" on "Producer's Showcase."
The colorcast will star Celeste
Holm, Cyril Ritchard (the Cap-
tain Hook of television's "Peter
Pan"), pretty perky Peggy King,
Arnold Stang, Billy Gilbert and
Joel Grey in the title role.
A sneak preview of the show
(presumably a dress rehersal)
will be seen on tongiht's "Steve
Allen Show." Allen will also have
Anita Ekberg, Anthony Steele and
Georgia Gibbs as his guests. Ed
Sullivan will headline Phil Silvers,
Bing Crosby, Julie Andrews, and
Satchmo tonight, as his ammu-
nition in the cold war. It was Sulli-
van, you may recall, who a few
weeks back spent a considerable
length of time praising a certain
college marching band, not real-
izing at the time that the band
was "sponsored" by his sponsor's
* * *
HAL MARCH will try to further
his sinain - anoiny ,mhim- i
a flock of other stars this program
will mark the dramatic debut of
Conrad Hilton, the man who
actually owns the hotel in which
The trials and tribulations of
John Cameron Swayze on tele-
vision over the past few years have
been very interesting. Swayze has
had the "News Caravan" on NBC
for a good many years. He has sat
at his desk and introduced news
film, hopskotched the world for
headlines, and given away thous-
ands of gift cartons of cigarettes
to our fighting men everywhere
for what seems to have been every
week for almost as long as net-
work television has been a reality.
His program has always appeared
to be quitehpopular and it would
seem that he would be the likely
choice for the job of handling
NBC's special news events.
. * * *
BUT HE WAS nowhere near the
political conventions. He didn't
even give one single election re-
sult on NBC's election coverage
last week, in which many commen-
tators were employed.
He has wanted to get out of the
"News Caravan" show for quite
some time, but NBC insists on
leaving him there for they can-
not sell the show without him.
So in order to get away from it
all Swayze has accepted some very
unusual jobs for a news commen-
tator. Last season he introduced
a dramatic show. This year he has
been seen on commercials for a
watch manufacturer. He served
as host on a paid political program
AND ON LAST week he appear-
GAIL GOLDSTEIN..................Personnel Director
ERNEST THEODOSSIN..............Magazine Editor
JANET REARICK..........Associate Editorial Director
MARY ANN THOMAS................ Features Editor
DAVID GREY.......................... Sports Editor
RICHARD CRAMER..........Associate Sports Editor
STEPHEN HEILPERN........Associate Sports Editor
VIRGINIA ROBERTSON.............Women's Editor
JANE FOWLER ............Associate Womeh's Editor
ARLINE LEWIS..............Women's Feature Editor
JOHN HIRTZEL .................. Chief Photographer
DAVID SILVER, Business Manager