THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1955
- 111111I111111HT1111 T HE1 I1W111TC11111I111111111IIG11114N1 D A ILY1111111111111111111111111111 S
United Nations Ends First Decade;
By GAIL GOLDSTEIN
Actions of the United Nations
have centered arouna many types
of world problems in its first
Taking, for example, the prob-
lem of atoms for peace, the UN
studied the possibility of promot-
ing development and guaranteeing
use of atomic power for peaceful
pursuits and benefit of all man-
Realizing the urgency of this
issue, the General Assembly un-
animously endorsed creation of an
international atomic energy agen-
cy of natoins interested in sharing
the development of atomic power
for peaceful use. In August, 1951
an international conference con-
vened in Geneva.
Methods for controlling the in-
creasingly destructive weapons of
mass annihilation and reducing
the general level of all armaments
were investigated when the im-
passe in disarmament negotiations'
was overcome in 1954. At that time
Russia agreed to a broader basis
of discussion including interna-
tional supervision of weapons.
Following World War IL, the
UN had a vast problem to cope
with in the realm of-refugees. Sev-
eral hundred thousand homeless
beside 870,000 Palestine refugees
had to be considered.
The International Refuge Or-
ganization was created in 1948 and
was superseded in 1951 by the
High Commissioner for Refugees.
A separate agency was created in
1948 to aid the Palestine refugees.
In 1955 the General Assembly pro-
vided for setting up a new volun-
tary fund to promote a permanent
solution to refugee problems.
As a result of the efforts of the
UN, almost two million persons
have been repatriated or resettled
to date. The United Nations man-
date over Palestine was extended
five years, until 1960.
Continuing with their efforts to
help the world population, the
UN became involved with how to
increase the respect for human
rights. Action was taken in issu-
ing the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and planning a
convention.on Genocido (destruc-
tion of religious, national, racial
or ethnic group). Almost 50 gov-
ernments have ratified the Con-
vention, not including the United
States. A convention on the Poli-
tical Rights of Women was adopt-
ed December 1952.
As a result of the concern for
human rights a convention on
Freedom of Infornation is in the
draft stage as are two covenants;
one on civil and political rights
and one on Economics, social and
cultural rights. The covenants are
to come before the Assembly's
In an attempt to combat the
Applications of 21 countries for
membership on UN are awaiting
recommendations from the Secur-
ity Council. Beginning with 51
countries, nine were added in-
cluding Afghanistan, Burma, Ice-
land, Indonesia, Israel, Pakistan,
Sweden, Thailand and Yemen.
A Special Committee on Admis-
sion of New Members to explore
means of facilitating admissions
was set up in 1953.
The General Assembly adopted
a Uniting for Peace resolution of-
fered by the United States in 1950,
in an attempt to decide how to
handle threats to peace when the
Security Council fails to agree.
This resolution provided in part
that the General Assembly can
act, by two-thirds vote, when a
veto deadlocks the Security Coun-
Specific Countries Aided
The body has also delt with
problems of specific countries such
as Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Pal-
estine, Korea and others generally
with a satisfactory result.
In the case of the Korean prob-
lem, for the first time in history
troops were used by an interna-
tional organization for collective
military action against aggression.
Sixteen nations sent troops and
46 gave economic, medical or other
An armistice agreement was
signed in July, 1953, after two
years of negotiation. Prisoners
were exchanged and extensive re-
lief and rehabilitation programs
began. The United Nations firmly
established the principle of non-
forcible repatriation of prisoners.
The United Nations has also
worked extensively in the fields of
international law, establishing the
International Court of Justice as
the judicial organ of the body,
trade and tariff barriers, trust and
self-governing territories and
programs for raising living stand-
ards in underdeveloped areas.
PERMANENT HEADQUARTERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS
IN NEW YORK
"virus" of war which thrives on
ignorance, hunger, disease and
poverty, the UN is working in
partnership with the Economic
and Social Council of the UN and
10 Specialized Agencies set up to
deal with international economic,
social and cultural problems.
These agencies include: UNESCO
(education, science, culture); FAO
(agriculture); WHO (health); ILO
(labor); International (capital);
International Monetary F u n d
(currency problems); ICAO (avia-
tion); UPU (postal); ITU (tele-
communication); WMO (meteor-
ology); and IRO (refugees).
The problem of how to help
two-thirds of the world's 900 mil-
lion children who need food, medi-
cal aid, clothing and shelter has
resulted in the General Assembly's
establishment of the United Na-
tions International Children's
Emergency Fund. In 1955 UNICEF
will have mass health and feed-
ing programs in some 90 countries
to aid approximately 32 million
children and mothers. These in-
clude work to control and stamp
out tuberculosis, malaria, yaws,
trachoma and other diseases.
How other nations can join the
UN is another problem. An issue
has arisen in the deadlock on new
members since 1950. The United
Nations Charter states: "Member-
ship in the United Nations is open
to all peaceloving states which ac-
cept the obligations contained in
the present charter, and in the
judgement of the Organization,
are able to and willing to carry
out these obligations."
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is
a speech given by Prof. Robert C.
Angell of the sociology department
at a 10th anniversary celebration of
the Plymouth Orchestra and the
United Nations. The speech was de-
livered during a concert intermis-
sion Oct. 16 in Plymouth, Mich.)
"We have become so used to
things that formerly were thought
impossible -- machines flying
through the air, sounds and pic-
tures traveling instantaneously
without wires, bombs that can de-
stroy whole cities-that modern
man is astonished at nothing.
We accept the incredible as
No better example of this at-
titude could be found than our
celebration today. None of you I
am sure thought of your coming
here as anything remarkable. Here
we are, gathered in a local com-
munity far from the seat of na-
tional power, celebrating the birth
of a world-wide organization in
which our nation participates.
If the United Nations is going
to save the world from ever more
disastrous wars, then it should re-
present not merely governments
speaking to governments, but peo-
ple speaking to people. Below the
scaffolding of purely political dis-
cussions and agreements there
needs to be constructed a firm
foundation of understanding and
friendship among common people
around the world.
It is in this connection that the
work of the Specialized Agencies
of the United Nations is so vital.
There are now ten of these, all
doing important work.
We have managed to get an
overwhelming majority of Ameri-
cans back of the United Nations.
Now we need to have them vitally
involved in the constructive pro-
grams that are going forward.As
yet there is little machinery to
make this possible.
The United States National
Commission for UNESCO is the
Now that the United Nations
has survived its first decade and
shows signs of ever greater
strength, we Americans should
show our confidence in its promise
by using it.
We have come a long way in
the last decade. The United Na-
tions has made important contri-
butions to peace in Kashmir and
Palestine. It condemned the ag-
gression again South Korea and
organized a successful collective
effort to oppose it. Disarmament
talks, spurred by the imaginative
proposals of President Dwight D.
Eisenhower at Geneva, offer prom-
ise for the first time.
United Nations Day (October
24) in this tenth anniversary year
is therefore an occasion for thank-
fulness. It is also an opportunity
to rededicate ourselves to the pur-
poses of the United Nations and
to increase our support of it.
By PETE ECKSTEIN
A "moderate success" in the se-
curity field is Prof. N. Marbury
Efimenco's appraisal of the Unit-
ed Nations' first ten years.
The results of its work in the
social and economic fields "will
not be evident for about a cen-
tury. If the world holds together
in the next hundred years, we can
say this area has been successful,"
the political scientist commented.
He cited refugee programs, work
with children, fundamental edu-
cation activities of UNESCO, and
economic development and recon-
struction work of the Internation-
al bank as part of a "vast field
of specialized activities."
Not Enough Emphasis
These "do not receive emphas-
is in the press, radio and televis-
ion," Prof. Efimenco added, but
they are really more effective than
"stop-gap arrangements" in pre-
Prof. Daniel Wit of the political
science department listed the UN's
three most important accomplish-
ments as providing "a formal
meeting ground" for the cold war
opponents, the opportunity for
lesser powers to "vocalize their as-
pirations before world opinion,"
and "contributions to social pro-
gress in underdeveloped areas."
He described security measures
as the "least impressive aspect" of
"It was not devised to operate
with maximum efficiency in the
security field without big power
basic agreement," he continued.
"Given the cold war, we can't con-
demn the UN for weakness in the
field of security."
Both professors agreed there is
little immediate prospect for char-
ter revision soon. "For the most
part, the character of the United
just about what the great powers
want it to be," Prof. Wit said.
"In the long run", he added,
however, "some significant im-
provements in the UN machinery
might come with a reduction of
"My impression is that the
whole matter of charter revision
is being carefully sidestepped."
As to the organization's future,
Prof. Efimenco held it significant
for the UN's prestige that "despite
rivalry and cold war diplomacy,"
neither Russia nor the United
States has "seriously considered
resigning from the UN."
He said, however, that the ab-
sence of Red China from the or-
ganization was a "serious= omis-
sion," comparing it in importance
to the United States' absence from
the League of Nations.
Expressing "cautious optimism"
about the UN's future Prof. Efi-
menco said the prospects for the
League looked bright on its tenth
anniversary, despite its decline
over the next decade.
"It's impossible to predict just
what the future of the UN will be."
Prof. Wit agreed to try any-
way. "I think the possibilities of
the UN assuming greater import-
ance exist. I don't visualize its im-
Low Point Reached
L nThe low point has already been
reached," he said, "when the in-
tensity of the cold war in the last
few years" greatly hurt UN in-
fluence and prestige.
"With a reduction in tension,
the UN's role is becoming more
"There is increasing obviousness
that neither East nor West wants PACKARD
any military showdown. They In-
stead want institutional means of
Prof. Wit cited the UN's hand- LAUNDRY
ling of the Geneva Atoms-for-
Peace conference and an apparent. 71S Packard (Near State)
desire on both sides for a UN-af-NO 2-4241 -
filiated atomic energy authority .pe E .nig A. l P. kn
as examples of the organization's
growing role in world affairs.
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,world-Wide Celebrations Planned
Tomorrow is "UN D-Day," a
world-wide holiday celebrating the.
tenth anniversary of the United
People all over the world will be
observing the holiday. But no fes-
tivities or meetings are planned
for the local scene.
Endorsed in UN
Endorsed on Nov. 17, 1954, in
the UN, the holiday will feature a'
decennial program aimed at creat-
ing better public understanding of
the UN so that it may gain the
stength and support for its work
from all the world's nations.
The American Association for'
the United Nations is presenting a
UN Birthday Parade of Children,
a UN "Governmental Invitation to
Youth" and a UN Commemorative
Plans are now completed to
photograph the Children's Parade
in color, with release of the films
' For the "Governmental Invita-
tion to Youth" project, govern-
ment officials from all levels will
invite children into their offices
on UN D-Day, to share in the
making of decisions which affect
those and other children.
Most of the UN countries are is-
suing special UN Decennial
Stamps. Designs have been chos-
en from creative work of school
children in art and design class-
The AAUN has established local
offices throughout the nation and
in several foreign cities for plan-
ning distribution of materials.
Conferences will take place for
chapters anti cooperating organi-
zations. The high point of these
conferences will be a special meet-
ing on Wednesday and Thursday
in Washington, D. C.
"The holiday will be an attack
on ignorance, hostility, isolation-
ism and other future problems,"
George Randall, '29, public rela-
tions council for the American As-
sociation for the United Nations
"It will be serving the future,"
he added, "rather than celebrat-
ing the past."
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