'When Opinions Are Free,
Truth Will Prevail"
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, MAY 12, 1956 NIGHT EDITOR: JIM ELSMAN
"When Do We Come Out With A New Model?"
AT THE ORPHEUM:
'THE NIGHT My Number Came Up" combines two time-worn
devices but most generally manages to steer away from the
excesses of either. One is the prediction of dire events through
dreams too life-like to be ignored; the other, somewhat less ancient,
is the use of an airplane flight to form a single line of action.
The dream, briefly, foretells the crash of a plane containing a
specified number of people, the catastrophe to occur in a precisely
A Two Way Active Process
ACADEMIC FREEDOM is a phrase much like
many others in the language. Like Home,
Mother, Truth, Justice and The American Way,
it's a catch word, a stock phrase that sends a
little thrill up our spine, but remains abstract
and almost undefinable. Like The Democratic
Ideal, we have a tendency to defend it strongly
without quite knowing what we mean by it.
What, then, is Academic Freedom?
The word "Freedom" is the real stumbling
block. Back in grade school, we were taught
that our Revolutionary War ancestors fought
and died for it. It was the ostensible cause of
the Civil War. In World War II, we defeated
those who would encroach upon it. If our coun-
try has fought for it so often, we think, it must
be essential to the foundations of our philosophy
of government; it must be imperative for us to
preserve it for ourselves: But if we have fought
so often so that other might have it too, then
we must believe that the term embraces all
humanity and isn't just confined to a portion of
the North American c'ontinent.
FREEDOM, then, belongs to all men. But does
this grade school cliche bring us any closer
to a real definition? Freedom is for all men, but
what is it?
"Well," says The Man In The Street, "free-
dom is being able to do what you want to do."
It's being able to walk down the street without
being stopped by the police without reason. It's
being able to say. what you want. to say, read
what you want to read, and hear what you
want tohear without official repercussions. And
as far as it goes, this definition is a good one,
because it outlines a man's rights.
But many people forget that all rights imply
duties. Hitler used ,his freedom without regard
to its attendant responsibility, and because of,
this, many people lost theirs. Freedom becomes
tyranny when it limits the liberty of others.
RUE FREEDOM allows a man to do what
he wants to do without endangering another
in any way.
Academic Freedom carries this definition to
the confines of any scholastic establishment. It
allows a qualified professor to teach what he is
capable of teaching and what he desires to
teach, as long as he does not trespass on the
freedom of his students and associates. It
allows a student to learn what he desires to
learn, as long as this knowledge is not harmful
to the liberty of others.
W= HSHOULD WE have Academic Freedom?
This question has been plaguing man since
the first determinism-free will controversy. If
one subscribes to the former philosophy, then
actual freedom does not exist, and it is useless
to discuss it.
But if one believes that man is capable of
making his own decisions and his own mistakes,
the question becomes very important indeed.
Then the term implies a learning, growing,
sorting, rejecting process. It enables a student
to hear all sides of an issue and to make his
own decision as to the truth or falsity of a
concept. It enables him to take his place in the
world as a thinking, reasoning being who has
come through an educational mill with definite
ideas and opinions, formed not on prejudice or
propaganda, but on comparison and evaluation.
WHERE LIES the responsibility for Academic
Freeddm in a university community?
Many people will say that it is up to the pro-
fessor to stimulate discussiop and controversy
among his students, to make them form their
opinions. He must use his freedom to teach.
But the responsibility lies equally with the
student. When he comes to a university, he
must assumerthat his spoon-fed high school
days are over, It is up to -him to sort and
evaluate his ideas, make- decisions, and come
up with conclusions at which he has arrived
by himself. He must use his freedom to learn.
Academic Freedom is a two-way process. It is
active rather than passive. It belongs to the
student and the professor, and to make it work,
they must both use it.
Americans Dedicate Hospital
Emotionalism and Trivialities
Prevent Internatio nal Understanding
A GROUP of five Asian representatives trav-
eled from all parts of the East to America
to join with United States leaders in an attempt
to clear up Asian and American misconceptions
of each other.
For the past week, these representatives have
been in Ann Arbor, participating in a Seminar
whose purpose was to recognize some of these
misunderstandings and make an effort to clari-
At the outset of the Seminar, Dr. V.K.R.V.
Rao, director of the School of Economics at
the University of Delhi, summarized the Asian
position when he challenged American concept
of democracy, questioned the treatment of
minorities, pointed to the enormous concen-
tration of power in the hands of a few bus .
nessmen, and inquired into American motiva-
tion for giving foreign aid.
HE AMERICAN misunderstandings were al-
so presented, the most important of which
was: is it possible for countries to be neutral
and still conform to democratic ideals?
A total of thirteen and one-half hours were
spent by the seminar participants in which
time Americans and Asians touched upon such
topics as the role of philanthropic founda-
tions, how high Indian human values are, how
good the United States democratic system is
in terms of big business, industrialism and
Points which could have been presented con-
cisely and yet adequately were expounded upon
at great length by the American participants.
THE SEMINAR'S most dramatic speaker, Dr.
Rao, from India, spoke extensively and
with vehemence-about India. The remaining
Asian representatives, with the possible excep-
DAVE BAAD, Managing Editor
MURRY FRYMER JIM DYGERT
Editorial Director City Editor
DEBRA DURCHSLAG...............Magazine Editor
DAVID KAPLAN .................. Feature Editor
JANE HOWARD.............. .. Associate Editor
LOUISE TYOR .................Associate Editor
PHIL DOUGLIS .. ........ Sports Editor
ALAN EISENBERG ......Associate Sports Editor
JACK HORWITZ........... Associate Sports Editor
MARY HELLTHALER...........Women's Editor
ELAINE EDMONDS..........Associate Women's Editor
JOHN HIRTZEL........... Chief Photographer
DICK ALSTROM ................... Business Manager
BOB ILGENFRITZ ...... Associate Business Manager
KEN ROGAT.................Advertising Manager
tion of Dr. Djohan from Indonesia, seldom
spoke at all.
It wasn't until the final forty-five minutes
that a misunderstanding, the one concerning
neutrality, was really discussed-forty-five
minutes out of thirteen and one-half hours.
True, the panelists did touch upon a few of
the misunderstandings, but only superficially.
Dr. Rao, at the conclusion of the final semi-
nar, made the accusation that the seminar
was a failure because these misunderstandings
were not cleared up "which I have traveled
10,000 miles to do."
ONE MUST agree with Dr. Rao. The semi-
nar was a failure. But not just because
the misunderstandings were not explained.
Dr. Rao should be asked if he travelled 10,000
miles to use these seminars as a sounding
board to dramatically expound upon the vir-
tues of India?
And on the other hand, neither was the
purpose of these seminars one to enable Ameri-
can leaders to nierely extoll the merits of our
democratic system and culture.
THE PURPOSE of the panels, as expressed
by the sponsor, UNESCO, was to identify
sources of misunderstanding and outline ap-
proaches to increased international cooperation
between Asian nations and the United States.
The trivialitiesnwhichuwere discussed at the
Ann Arbor seminar could hardly lead to in-
creased international cooperation. Quite the
contrary, the rash statements that were pro-
ferred by Dr. Rao, coupled with his arrogant
attitude, hardly make him appear as a goodwill
ambassador seeking means for cooperation.
As for the other Asian leaders, their contri-
butions were slight-
Why did they travel 10,000 miles?
New Books at the Library
Wechsberg, Joseph-The Self-Betrayed; N.Y.,
A. Knopf, 1955.
Welker, Robert Henry - Birds and Men;
Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard U., 1955.
Wright, Leon - The Knife; N.Y., Gilbert
Holdredge, Helen-The Woman in Black; N.
Y., G. P. Putnam's, 1955.
Houser, Harriet Hentz-Hentz: Of Things
Not Seen; N.Y., Macmillan, 1955.
Johnson, Electa & Lydia Edes - Yankee's
People and Places; N.Y., W. W. Norton, 1955.
. Kazantzakis, Nikos-Freedom or Death; N.
Y., Simon & Schuster, 1955.
Keepnews, Orrin & Grauer, Bill Jr.-A Pic-
torial History of Jazz; N.Y., Crown, 1955.
IT'S BEEN nine years since sev-
eral million people all over the
U.S.A. from schoolchildren to
businessmen to junior chambers
of commerce to labor unions, sent
the Friendship Train to Western
That was in the dark days of
1947 when France was torn with
riots and a railroad strike; when
Communists struck the agricultur-
al workers of Italy just as the crop
was ready for harvest; when sab-
otage squads were sent from Mos-
cow to wreck French trains; and
when 120 ships -lay tied up at Le
Havre just one day before the
A lot has happened in the nine
years since then. But this week in
France the partial contribution of
the Friendship Train culminated
with the dedication of the French-
American hospital near Saint-Lo.
This, the scene of the most dev-
astating battle of the Normandy
invasion, where Gen.Omar Brad-
ley finally broke through the
German hedgerows, was picked by
Americans tobuild a hospital as
one small contribution toward re-
constructing the terrible damage
* * *
THE HOSPITAL was a long
time in building. Both French
and American money went into
it. The contribution from the
Friendship Train took the form
of insurance money paid when the
Communists set fire to a Paris
warehouse .containing some of the
Clair McCollough, president of
the WGAL radio-TV stations in
Lancaster, Pa., who did such a
good job in making the Friendship
Train a success, patriotically flew
to France as a good-will ambassa-
dor for the dedication.
By DREW PEARSON
LOVELY, lively, Mrs. Myron
Cowan, whose husband did such a
good job as U.S. Ambassador to
the Philippines and Belgium, was
chatting at a cocktail party with
Ned Foote, the ambitious Justice
Department official who aspires
to head up the Antitrust Division.
Mrs. Cowan remarked on the
fact that 80 to 90 per cent of the
press in the United States was
strongly for Eisenhower.
"What about the Washington
Post and Times Herald?" asked
"It supported Eisenhower," re-
minded Mrs. Cowan.
"But what about those Her-=
block cartoons in the Post?" ar-
gued Foote. "They're terrible. He's
a Communist. He ought to be
"Nothing could be further from
the truth," replied Mrs. Cowan.
* * *
"MR. BLOCK has won all sorts
of prizes. It's easy to call someone
a Communist, but Herb Block is
certainly not in that category."
"Why, he even drew a cartoon
of Vice President Nixon," remon-
strated Foote, "coming up from a
"That," said Mrs. Cowan, "is
exactly where he belongs."
* * *
O. B. Williamson, Bellflower,
Calif.-the question asked on
"Youth Wants to Know" of Eric
Johnston, Special Eisenhower Am-
bassador to the Near East, was as
"Mr. Johnston, last week our
guest was Drew Pearson, and he
mentioned that it took you almost
fouf months to see President Ei-
senhower when you got back from
your Near East observation last
year. Why did it take you four
months to see him?"
"Well, I think Mr. Pearson is a
little erroneous on that," John-
ston replied. "The President has.
always seen me at any time that
I wished to see him on 24 hours'
The fact is, however, that
Johnston returned to Washing-
ton from Palestine and Egypt on
Oct. 21, 1955. He did not see Ei-
senhower until Feb. 15, which was
just before Johnston departed for
Japan, These dates are confirmed
in both the N.Y. Times and the
records of the State Department.
I met Mr. Johnston at a recep-
tion one day after his Youth-
Wants-To-Know statement and
reminded him of these dates. He
admitted I was correct and gave
me his private apology. Eisenhow-
er did not see Johnston for four
months because, first, he was ill;
second, he was not then especial-
ly interested in the Near East.
* * *
U. E. BAUGHMAN, Chief of the
Secret Service, Washington, D.C.,
-I am sure you recall that I have
praised the efficient work of the
secret service for approximately
20 years and shall continue to
praise it. Your men do a fine job.
However, I must confess, that your
turning of the case of Murray
Chotiner's client, the National Re-
search Co., over to the FBI and
the Better Business Bureau con-
tinues to strike me as unusual.
I can't help but remember how
many times your own men have
told me how they resented the in-
trusion of the FBI in their work.
(copyright 1956, by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
described area under certain cli-
matic conditions. Given this in-
formation, time is the only real
factor of suspense. When all the
conditions have been fulfilled-
as they are sure to be-the dream
either will or will not be a true
* * *
THE PLANE FLIGHT is from
Hong Kong to Tokyo, and the pas-
sengers, who spend most of their
time aboard, reveal their person-
alities as the pressure of time
grows. The people involved are
a retiring Royal Air Force officer
and his aide, a government Asian
expert and his staff, and, variously,
two ordinary British soldiers or a
shady businessman and his secre-
Michael Redgrave plays the Air
Marshall on his last lap. As with
the majority of the cast, he seems
to have very little in his past worth
bringing up in the film-a wel-
come innovation. Since the ma-
jor question in the story is whe-
ther the passengers believe in, and
are influenced by, the dream-pre-
diction, superstition and mental
stress are the ground upon which
the characters most reveal them-
selves. Redgrave is staunch, one
of the staunchest, and only a lack
of oxygen in the plane brings out
anything less than the most ad-
mirable in him. He is a fine actor
-has been-and works with as
much subtlety as his urbanity al-
-e e e.
IN CONTRAST Alexander Knox
has the distinction of being the
most nervous of the characters. As
an expert ol Far Eastern affairs
he has had a good deal of contact
with the Orient, and what seems
to have struck him most inaisu-
perstition about predestination.
Obviously a natural for death-
dreams. His performance is more
striking than Redgraves, probab-
ly because he has more perform-
ing to do.
The effect of the film is reduced
by a, certain amount of predicta-
bility-rough on a story that re-
lies totally on suspense. Its great-
est aspect is its cleanness, its gen-
eral lack of personal entangle-
ments and lurid histories among
the plane passengers. By the di-
vision of the apparently fatal flight
into two hops a certain amount
of tedium arises, and the length
of the story, as it was the main
source of suspense, finally be-
comes the film's largest irritation.
-T. R. Ar
Letters to the Editor must be signed
and limited to 300words. The Daily
reserves the right to edit or with-
hold any letter.-
To the Editor:
IN A RECENT letter commenting
on a certain Mr. Eisenberg's
opinion of the calibre of students
in the Schools of Engineering and
Business Administration there was
not sufficient identification of
that Mr. Eisenberg. I am writing
simply to indicate that I am in no
way involved wtih that purely un-
dergraduate exchange of opinions.
I would also like to suggest that
The Daily has the responsibility
of offering fuller identification of
the participants in an exchange
of letters in order to avoid an em-
barrassing involvement of persons
with the same surname who are in
no way concerned with the issue.
-Prof. M. J. Eisenberg
Iron Curtain?.. .
To the Editor:
IN REPLY to Paul Dormonts let-
ter on May 5th in which he states
"If there is a Soviet Iron Curtain
today, it is like Swiss cheese in
comparison with our curtain which
more closely resembles the r e a 1
It would seem Mr. Domont is not
aware that the only Russians who
can leave the Soviet Union on
student exchange programs, etc.,
are trusted party members; that
the average Russian has about as
much chance of getting out of the
place as he does of going to Mars.
That, incidentally, is the inher-
ent danger in the student exchange
program. In the October "Politi-
cal Affairs," there was a directive
to party members to get college
students to "defend their right to
demand-student exchanges" (note
the shrewd psychology).
So why do the Communists want
student exchanges? (1) To send
their devout party members to the
U.S. to (a) gather information (b)
THE Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Notices should be sent in
TYPEwRITTEN from to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication. Notices
for the Sunday edition must be in by
2 p.m. Friday.
SATURDAY, MAY 12, 1956
VOL. LXVHI, NO, 69
Applications for Student Teaching in
Elementary Education for the Fall
Semester 1956, can be had In, Room.
1437 University Elementary School.
On Mon., May 14, Dr. Johannes Iver-
sen, Danish ecologist from the Univer-
sity of Copenhagen, Illustrated Univer-
sity Lecture titled "Post-Pleistocene
Forest Development" in the Rackham
Amphitheater at 4:00 p.m. The same
evening, at 8:00 p.m. in Aud. A, Angell
Hall, Dr. Iversen will present a color
movie on "An Experimental Study of
Neolithic Forest Clearance in Denmark."
Open to the public, sponsored by the
Department of Anthropology and the
Department of Geology.
Aeronautical Engineering High Alti-
tude Seminar. F. L. Bartman of the
Upper Atmosphere Research Group 'wl
speak on "Scientific Uses of a Satellit*
Vehicle" Mon., May 14, at 4:00 pm., in
Room 1504 East Engineering Building.
Astronomical Colloquium. Sat., May
12, 2 p.m., the McMath-Hulbert Observ-
atory, Pontiac. Dr. R. Righini of the
Astrophysical Observatory, Arcetri, Italy,
will speak on "An Attempt to Evaluate
the Carbon Isotope Ratio from the
Solar Violet Cyanogen Bands."
Doctoral Examination for Raymond
Natsuo Hiramoto, Bacteriology; thesis:
"In Vitro and In Vivo Localiation
Studies withnAntilymphoblastoma and
Anti-Ehrlich Tumor Antibodies," Sat.,
May 12, 1566 East Medical Bldg., at 8:00
a.m. Chairman, W. J. Nungester.
Doctoral Examination for Richard
Scott Mitchell, Mineralogy; thesis:
"Polytpyism of Cadmium Iodide and
Its Relationship to Screw Dislocations,"
Sat., May 12, 4065 Natural Science Bldg.,
at 10:00 a.m. Chairman, L. S. Ramadell.
Doctoral Examination for Charles
Rowe Vail, Electrical Engineering;
thesis: "An Investigation of Impulse
Voltage Breakdown in Polythylene,"
Mon., May 14, 2501 East Engineering
Building, at 1:00 p.m. Chairman, 8. 8.
Doctoral Examination for Theodore
Ware Hildebrandt, Mathematics; thesis:
"I. Iterative Methods for the Ap-
proximate Solution of Linear Algebraic
Systems. II. Self-Adjointness in One.
Group Multi-Region Diffusion Prob-
lems," Mon., May 14, West Council
Room, Rackham Bldg., at 3:30 p.m.
Chairman, J. W. Carr III.
Doctoral Examination for Fred War-
nerf Neal, Political Science; thesis: "The
Reforms in Yugoslavia, 1948-1954: Tito-
ism in Action," Mon., May 14, 4609
Haven Hall, at 2:30 p.m. Chairman,
J. K. Polock.
Doctoral Examination for Robert
Campbell Davis, Social Psychology;
thesis: "Commitment to Professional
Values Related to the Role Performance
of Research Scientists," Mon., May 14,
7611 Haven Hall, at 2:00 p.m. Chairman,
T. M. Newcomb.
Doctoral Examination for Roland
Frank Salmonson, Business Administra-
tion; thesis: "Auditing Standards, the
Law and Third Parties," Mon., May 14,
5th flor Conference Room, School of
Business Administration, at 3:00 p.m.
ChairmanH E. Miller.
The Following Schools. have listed
vacancies on their teaching staff for
the 1956-1957 school year. They are not
sending representatives to the Bureau
of Appointments for interviews at this
Blissfield, Mich. - Teacher needs:
Brown City, Mich.-Teacher needs:
Commercial; Coaching & Driver Ed.;
Music-Instrumental; Home Economics;
Channing, Mich. - Teacher needs:
Commercial; Basketball Coach.
Charlottesville, Virginia - Teacher
needs: High School Vocal Music/Music
Consultant for Elementary Grades; In-
strumental Music (Band & String In-
Chisholm, Minnesota - Teacher needs:
Vocal Music; Elementary (2nd, 3rd, 5th);
Junior/Senior High Vocal Music; Art;
Speech/Debate/Theater; Business Ed.;
Home Ec.; Junior High English.
Cudahy, Wisconsin - Teacher needs:
High School English/Art; English/
Speech; Speech Correction; English/
Latin and Spanish; Vocal & Instrumen-
tal Music; Home Ec.
Dexter, Mich. - Teacher needs: Ele-
East Moline, Illinois - Teacher needs:
Business >d. (Shorthand/Typing/Office
Grant, Mich. - Teacher needs: Ele-
mentary (% day 4th grade/% day elem.
ANN ARBOR CONGRESSMAN:
Meader On Political Offensive
By JIM ELSMAN
Daily Staff Writer
REPRESENTATIVE George Mea-
der (R-Mich.) fled his Wash-
ington desk and spent last week-
end in Ann Arbor.
The Third District congressman
declined to answer defensively
questions on November issues ("too
early"), but strutted a fine of-
Began Meader, "After three and
one-half years of President Eis-
enhower's administration we are
prepared to take stock of our '52
campaign promises. We were at
war, now we have peace. Truman
had said that we couldn't shave
the budget, but we reduced it by
14 billion dollars.
"WE REMOVED price and wage
controls. There is now greater
stability in the purchasing price
of the dollar. Federal personnel
has been reduced ten per cent.
We have shown an intention of
getting the government out of in-
dustry and commerce where they
should not be so engaged in a free
PnternrisR cvstam /~cnff mn~rinar
a valuable supplement to the for-
eign aid program.
Ann Arbor's U.S. Congressman
sits on the Government Operations
Committee and is now participat-
ing in an investigation into what
kind and how many facts the
executive branch keeps from the
press and Congress. Meader voic-
ed concern over the possibility that
the administration was attaching
'top secret' labels on information
sometimes to cover up incompe-
tence, thus not being accountable
to the Congress.
Then the congressman threw off
his role of speaking about the
hard issues and day-to-day legis-
lation of politics, and assessed the
whole picture of 1956-style gov-
* * *
"CONGRESS HAS lost, compar-
atively, some of its power in re-
cent decades," regretted Meader,
"because it hasn't kept step with
developmentsin the economy. Con-
gress hasn't increased its staff
enough-one member of Congress
can't familiarize himself with all
ramifications n society and nrv-
REP. GEORGE MEADER
ing this session on three pet proj-
ects that concern the Third Dis-
trict, His "Payment in Lien of
Taxes" bill was passed. He is
still occupied with the Willow Run
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