See Page 4
Latest Deadline in the State
VOL. LXVI, No. 118 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, MARCH 23, 1956
Raps U.S. Policy
Dulles Defends Administration
Actions to Congressional Leaders
WASHINGTON (P)-Senator Mike Mansfield (D-Mont) challeng-
ed the Administration yesterday to produce "new and better ways
to meet the Soviet threat" than the foreign aid program presented
by President Dwight D. Eisenhower Monday.
Sen. Mansfield lashed out at this program as sadly lacking in
"positive, constructive suggestions" and "more of the same old medi-
cine," as Secretary of State John Foster Dulles began a rapid round
0 of conferences in defense of Ad-
Judge Fines Sec. Dulles, who returned Wed-
nesday from a 19-day tour of 10
Asiatic countries, will follow up
N egr0s"his eports to Washington officials
B sAmericanpeople at 10:30 p.m. to-
B o e'ott rdawThe Secretary gave congression-
al leaders- of both parties what
Defense to Appeal they later described as a temper-
ately optimistic view of conditions
To Federal Courts in the Far East, combining some
improvements over the past with
MONTGOMERY, Ala. (P)-The prospects of trouble ahead.
first of the Negro bus boycott lead- Administration planning got a
ers, the Rev. Martin Luther King, AbignstfraonerlalnAlfredtM.
Jr., was convicted yesterday. bgbotfo eea lrdM
Defense attorneys immediately Gruenther, commander of NATO
began an appeal that may lead forces in Europe, who said he is
ultimately to the United States "absolutely certain that we shall
Supreme Court. prevent a third world war" if this
King, 27-year-old pastor of the country continues to furnish "dy-
Dexter Avenue Baptist church, was namic leadership," and if x the
fined $500, plus $500 court costs North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
for violation of Alabama's seldom- tion retains its unity.
used antiboycott law for his part Gen. Gruenther appeared before
in the 17-week-old boycott against the House Foreign Affairs Com-
segregated city buses. mittee, which is now considering
Jail Sentences Imposed Pres. Eisenhower's $4,900,000,000
The fine and costs were con- foreign aid program for the 12
verted into a jail sentence since months starting July .
he chose to appeal rather than
pay the money. He was sentenced He was followed at an afternoon
to a total of 386. closed-door session by Sec. Dulles,
The sentence was suspended, who reported privately to the Na-
however, after Negro defense law- tional Security Council after brief-
yers served notice of appeal. They ing 22 congressional leaders at a
have said they will take the appeal White House meeting with Pres.
to the Supreme Court if the state Eisenhower.
appellate courts uphold the con- Senate and House leaders whoj
viction. sat in on the White House brief-I
Circuit Judge Eugene Carter, ing generally agreed that DullesI
presiding over the trial in the ab- had presented what House Repub-
sence of a Jury,, could have fined lican Leader Joseph Martin (R-
ging $1,000 and added a six-month Mass) described as a "mildly op-
Jail sentence under the state law. timistic" report.
Minister Used Influences "Of course, there are still some
But he said he decided on a tobests"ep Mri ad
lesser penalty because it was trouble spots," Rep. Martin said.
shown in testimony that the min- "But on the whole things appear
ister used his influence through-to be 4a little bit better than they
ut the mass bus protest to urge have been."
hls people to refrain from violence. Senate Democratic Leader Lyn-
Circuit Solicitor William F. don B. Johnson of Teras said, "It
rhetford said immediately after was a very optimistic report on
the verdict that the state had the secretary's recent trip and'ad-
agreed to postpone the trials of89 ventures abroad."
Of U.S. Plan Seen
UNITED NATIONS, N. Y. (p)-
The Security Council meets Mon-
day on the Palestine crisis with
Russia expected, at least tentative-
ly, to approve a new American-
It would send Secretary General
Dag Hammarskjold on a Middle
East peace mission, possibly on
The Soviet dielegation remained
officially silent on the stand it
will take in the Council but Soviet
sources said unoficially they saw
nothing wrong with the idea at the
The delegation is awaiting in-
structions from Moscow.
Diplomatic moves relating to
the Middle East'also were reported
in Western capitals.
In Washington, it was disclosed
French Foreign Minister Christian
Pineau has invited Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles and
British Foreign Secretary Selwyn
Lloyd to meet him within a few
weeks for a discussion of the Mid-
dle East situation. There was no
Lodge Offers Plan
United States Chief Delegate
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., put up
the Palestine resolutionafter long
talks with Britain and France. It
was worded carefully in an effort
to obtain Russian agreement so
the Council action could be unani-
The resolution asks Hammarsk-
jold to undertake "as a matter of
urgent concern" a survey of en-
forcement and compliance with the
Israeli-Arab armistice agreements
and with Council resolutions call-
ing for maintenance of peace.
It suggests Hammarskjold ar-
range measures to reduce tension
-such as withdrawal of forces
from the armistice lines, full free-
dom of movement for United Na-
tions observers and establishment
of local arrangements to prevent
incidents and detect violations of
the armistice agreements.
Plan To Reds'
LONDON (-The United States
proposed to Russia yesterday that
they bothpare down their armed
forces to "2 million men.
Harold E. Stassen laid the plan
before the United Nations dis-
armament subcommittee. He em-
phasized that there was one con-
dition: East-West agreement on'
an effective inspection system.
Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei
A. Gromyko, Russia's delegate,
made no comment immediately.1
The land, sea and air forces oft
the United States now total about1
2,900,000. The West has figured
Russia's armed strength at four
It was the second measure putt
forward by the United States in
two days in the world disarma-E
Wednesday Stassen, Presidenti
Dwight D. Eisenhower's personal
adviser on disarmament, proposedi
that upward of 60,000 square miles
of United States and Soviet ter-
ritory be opened to arms inspec-
tion by the five subcommittee1
for its judgment was "not neces-C
Set up to review Academic Free-
dom and Tenure in the Quest for
National Security, the committee
recommended AAUP censure for
Recommended for Censure
The five are: University of Cali-
fornia, Ohio State University,
Rutgers, Temple University and
Jefferson Medical College.
The censure proposals will be
By LEE MARKS 0
Dismissal of two professors and censure of a third by the Uni-
versity Administration in May, 1954, drew criticism yesterday from
a special committee of the American Association of University Pro-
The Committee Report, however, credited the administration
with according due process in its proceedings and claimed the basis.
REVIEWS 1954 CONTROVERSY:
AAUP Group Criticizes Dismissals
placed before the annual meeting
of the AAUP on April 6 and are
not effective until approved by
The Committee highly com-
mended, for their support of fac-
ulty members when they were
under accusation, six other schools..
Commended by Committee
The schools recommended for
commendation are: University of
Chicago, Cornell, Harvard, John
Hopkins University, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology and Sarah
The University was among ten
schools whose actions were re-
viewed by the Committee but for
whom no recommendations were
Recommendations were directed
against "administrations" rather
than against the institutions them-
Fifth Amendment Cases
The cases reviewed hinged pri-
marily on invocation of the
fifth amendment by faculty mem-
bers questioned by congressional
committees and on refusal to sign
The Committee was appointed
by the AAUP last fall.
Vice-President and Dean, of
Faculties Marvin L. Niehuss said
the University disagreed with the
report on several points but "their
summary of our proceedings is
There was no reaction or com-
ment from local members of the
Prof. Helen Peak of the psy-
chology department, chairman of
the local branch, said the report
would be reviewed at an executive
Refused To Testify
On May 10, 1954 H. Chandler
Davis of the mathematics depart-
ment, Prof. Mark Nickerson of the
pharmacology department and
Prof. Clement Market of the zool-
ogy department refused to testify
before the Clardy Un-American
Following suspension and hear-
ings Davis and Nickerson were dis-
missed. Prof. Markert was cen-
sured but retained.
Most serious criticism of the
University by the Committee re-
sulted from failure to grant Davis
and Nickerson severance pay and
formal censure of Markert.
The report held that "invoca-
tion of the Fifth Amendment by
a faculty member . . . cannot be
in itself a sufficient ground for
It also held that refusal to sign
loyalty oaths was not sufficient
grounds for dismissal and refer-
red to loyalty oath laws as "per-
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third
in a series of five articles on the
proposed revision of the teacher's
certification code, up for hearings
before the State Board of Education.)
By ADELAIDE WILEY
Observers claim the proposed
teacher's certification code, if
passed, will cause a worse shortage
of teachers than now exists.,
No other state certification code
requires 30 hours of professional
education. The highest to date is
24 hours in 6 states-the lowest is
12 in 4 states. Overall average in
the country is 18 hours, according
to statistics in the Manual on
With this in mind, and consider-
ing that 1,900 teachers were drawn
from outlying states last year,
some are asking if Michigan will
not jeopardize its teacher supply
by upping education requirements.
Michigan's populationis increas-
ing steadily. More and more teach-
ers will be needed, and the state
cannot afford to lose the influx
of out-of-state teachers, few of
whom would be able to meet the
Cut 14 Hours
From the Music school's side of
the controversy, Prof. Britton said
the most optimistic view he could
take of the proposed code is that
it might cut out only 14 hours of
applied music-actual instruction
in singing and performing-from
the existing 58 hours.
Speaking out against the "gen-
eral education" requirements in
the new code, Prof. Britton said
it would "turn the high school into
a grade school, and the college
into a high school."
"An elementary teacher is sup-
posed to know about a variety of
subjects: arithmetic, history, pen-
manship. But to project this kind
See PROF., Page 6
Professors View Upset
As 3low to Stevenson
By DAVE TARR
Senator Estes Kefauver's (D-Tenn) surprising upset victory
over Adlai Stevenson in the Minnesota presidential primary has
clouded the Democratic political picture.
Two University Political Science professors said yesterday the
result of the vote has "been a blow" to Stevenson's chances for
nomination on the Democratic ticket.
Prof. "Samuel J. Eldersveld said, however, the "blow was not a
other boycott defendants pending
The 90 Negroes were indicted by
a grand jury Feb. 21.
Law, Reli ion
Vital to Culture
The law is the most important
single factor, except religion it-
self, in shaping our culture Rev.
David C. Bayne, said last night
in a talk to the Michigan Crib Pre-
As an example of this potent
influence of the law and the courts
Father Bayne pointed out that
nine men on the Supreme Court
"are turning the South upside
down right now" in regard to the
problem of segregation.
The Jesuit Priest and Dean of
the University of Detroit Law
School noted that, just as the law
has an influence on society, the
law school shapes the law.
You are moulded into the pat-
tern your professor wishes except
for the fact that decisions are left
up to you he said.
Today, the world at large is
cut down the middle with the
powers of evil on the one hand
versus jeudo-christian culture on
the other he said. "We must op-
pose the neat little isms, such as
pragmatism, of the other culture,"
hRev. Fr. Bayne cited the issue
of artificial insemination as one
such moral issue that will be in-
fluenced by the courts in the fut-
ure. It is a question on the thres-
hold and there is a big debate on
it in most states including Michi-
gan he said.
"As pre-legal-students you must
line up on one side or the other,"
he said. "I am trying to solicit von
"It's just one of those things
that happens to all of us," ex-
plained Union assistant man-
ager Hayes Meyers.
It was an "error in judge-
ment" that led a Union attend-
ant to turn off the television set
Just before the academy awards
were announced yesterday.
Union policy is to close the
building at midnight except on
weekends. "The fellow Just
didn't realize the awards only
happen once a year," he added.
To Talk in Toledo .
Prof. William Haber of the eco-
nomics department will be the
featured speaker tonight at the
Labor-Management Institute in
decisive one" and pointed out th
the 1952 primaries but did not re-
ceive the nomination.
"The vote was a set back for
Stevenson and he will need to
improve his position to obtain the
nomination," was the opinion ex-
pressed by Prof. John P. White
of the Political Science Depart-
White observed that should
Stevenson continue to give a poor
showing in the primaries the Dem-
ocratic leaders mught start look-
ing beyond Kefauver for a candi-
date, possible to Sen. Stuart Sym-
ington of Missouri or Michigan's
Governor G. Mennen Williams.
Several reasons for the surpris-
ing results were advanced. Prof.
Eldersveld said the farm prob-
lems, with Kefauver promising 100
per cent of parity to Stevenson's
90 per cent, the more personal
campaign conducted by Kefauver
and the weak vote-getting middle
of the road position of Stevenson
were probably all factors in result.
He added, "The political mach-
ine of Sen. Humphrey just
couldn't deliever in this case."
Humphrey had ordered the mach-
ine into all-out action for Stev-
Three main answers to the ques-
tion "why did Kefauver win?"
were given by Prof. White. First-
"he .had considerable appeal for
the farm vote," second "the ek-
tremely vigorous campaigning of
Kefauver," and third "the nature
of the Minnesota primary system."
iat Kefauver did well in many of
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON -- President
Dwight D. Eisenhower will hold a
hush-hush White House confer-
ence today with a group to top
defense officials, the chief of the
Central Intelligence Agency and
the under-secretary of state.
Press secretary James C. Hagerty
announced plans for the session
Thursday. He declined to say why
the meeting is being held.
* * *
WASHINGTON -- Democratic
leaders in Congress decided yester-
day to go all out for higher price
supports in the farm bill despite
hints of a presidential veto.
They appeared to be encouraged
by the big Democratic vote piled
up in Tuesday's presidential pri-
mary vote in Minnesota. The farm
issue is red hot there, though there
is an argument between Republi-
cans and Democrats as to how
much the issue influenced the vot-
After a talk with House 'Speaker
Sam Rayburn (D-Tex.), Senate
Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson
of Texas announced the Democrats
will insist on boosting the price
level at which the government now
supports basic crops.
* * *
WASHINGTON -- Higher rail-
road passenger fares yesterday
appeared likely for the country
A five per cent advance was in
early prospect for the entire West
and the Eastern states north of
the Ohio and Potomac river.
The Eastern and Western rail-
roads notified the Interstate Com-
merce Commission they propose to
hike their basic passenger rates
effective May 1, employing a short-
cup public notice procedure. There
was no word from the Southern
WASHINGTON --Sen. William
Jenner (R-Ind.) denied yesterday
that he has tentatively agreed to
let Atty. Gen. Herbert Brownell
pick a new judge for the United
States Court of Appeals at Chicago.
Sen. Jenner was asked to com-
ment on a published report that he
and Sen. Homer Capehart (R-Ind.)
would let Brownell make the selec-
tion from a list of eight candidates
PROF. CHARLES HYNEMAN
A case for stnong legislative con-
trol of governmental bureaus was
given to the Political Science
Roundtable last night.
Prof. Charles S.Hyneman, of the
political science department at
Northwestern University, defend-
ed the views presented in his book
"Bureaucracy in a Democracy"
published six years ago.
He said, "Only congress (law-
making authority) can determine
what devices should be used to
enact such control. Congress must
be its own judge on the extent of
theuse of such devices."
Importance of building up in
administrative personnel a state
of mind in regard to what the
population wants was stressed by
In laying out a yardstick to
test the legislative character qf
the bodies that would control
bureaucracy, Prof. Hyneman said
there must be an "awareness and
attentiveness" toward the inter-
ests of a wide segment of the pop-
However, I just don't know how
to set up a scale to determine the
range of this 'awareness and at-
The probability of people ex-
isting with these qualities was
minimized by the Professor. "Men
get into assemblies and then de-
velop this awareness,"t he said,
"but, I can not say what kind of
an elective system would be re-
quired to find those with the po-
TUNIS, Tunisia (lP)-About 3,000
Tunisian nationalists rioted here
yesterday to emphasize demands
for a quick, complete independ-
French security forces broke up
the demonstration with fire hoses
and tear gas after a 45-miute
Other thousands of- Tunisians
cheered the moderate nationalist
leader, Habib Bourgiba, on his re-
turn from Paris with a French
pledge of autonomy in which some
ties between France and Tunisia
will be retained.
They gave Bourgiba ovations at
the airport and at the palace of the
Bey of Tunis, Sidi Mohammed al
Amin, to whom he reported.
Months of tension in ; French
North Africa-Tunisia, Algeria and
Morocco-were reflected in these
varied expressions of feeling.
The rioters were followers of
Salah ben Youssef, an exiled ex-
tremist who formerly was secre-
tary general of Bourgiba's Neo-
Destour Independence party. The
two men, once good friends, split
last; fall. Ben Youssef contended
Bourgiba's policy of negotiating
with the French for concessions
bit by bit was too slow.
Ben Youssef's group flew flags
of the rebels of neighboring Al-
geria in a march to the Neo-Des-
The Tunisian settlement, reach-
ed Tuesday, resembles.that which
the French government negotiated
last fall with French Morocco --
independence in a framework of
interdependence with France.
PARIS, Friday (JP)-The French
National Assembly early today
gave the government special
powers to make sweeping political
and administrative changes in
French territories overseas.
The vote was 477-99.
This measure does not apply to
North Africa, where d r a s t i c
changes already are being made
in the midst of crises in Tunisia,
Morocco and Algeria.
It applies to French-ruled areas
of West Africa, Central Africa and
the big island of Madagascar..
The Assembly gave its over-
whelming approval to Premier Guy
Mollet's proposal to permit the
Cabinet to reshuffle the political
organization in these latter areas.
BOTH FILTER AND NON-FILTER:
Cigarette Girl Induces Students to Right' Weed
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third in a series of
articles on students who earn extra money on unique jobs.)
By ERNEST THEODOSSIN
Mary-Julia Baker is an example of the latest college phenomenon,
the cigarette girl.
Miss Baker can often be seen dispensing free cigarettes, both filter
and non-filter, to anyone who will take them.
There ark no strings attached to accepting Miss Baker's gifts,
We asked the young lady if her job was to entice students to the
weed. "Well, let's say," she replied, "to entice them to the 'right'
"We try not only to get people to smoke, but to smoke the right
cigarette," she added, pointing out by "right" she meant her company's
Miss Baker gets $25 a month for distributing cigarettes. She takes
them to classes and any place where large groups of people gather.
Some cigarette dispensers extoll the virtues of their gifts with eccentric