'I'Alib AtIctil6AN DAIJL it
W EDNLSDAY, MAY 4, 1955
PAGE FOUR ~Vk.DNii~SDA1~, MA~ 4, I95~
THE CASE OF DR. PETERS:
Supreme Court Decision
Holds Fate of Loyalty System
A SUPREME COURT decision, scheduled to
be handed down this month, could possibly
destroy the entire loyalty system as it now
sands, whereby reports submitted by the FBI
to loyalty boards serve as a basic part of the
Many times these documents are the only
The case is that of Dr. John P. Peters, a
former part-time government consultant on
federal aid for medical research. During the
Truman Administration he was cleared before
a loyalty board during a routine hearing. How-
ever, the case was brought up again in 1953.
The Loyalty Review Board held a hearing at
which all testimony was said to have been
favorable to Dr. Peters. Nevertheless, the Board
ruled that there was "reasonable doubt" as to
his loyalty, and he was dismissed from his post
as government consultant.
The Board based its stand on supplementary
loyalty reports, prepared by sources whose iden-
tities remained undisclosed. In other words, Dr.
Peters was dismissed, or as the government
terms it, "his employment was terminated," be-
cause persons he and the Board, never saw
wrote reports condemning him.
One of the prime guarantees to all Americans
in all courts of law is the- right of due process
of the law. This is guaranteed in the Bill of
Rights. One aspect of due process is that which
is known as confrontation of witnesses-the
defendant has the undeniable right to be con-
WHEN SOMEONE mentions the words "var-
sity sports" to you, you immediately think
of such games as football and baseball. But
there is one sport which, at least as far as the
University is concerned, has been sadly ne-
glected-the time-worn game of soccer.
Soccer has been played in countries through-
out the world for many years, and in Europe
and the East it has built up quite a reputation
and much popularity, equivalent to football's
American position. But somehow soccer never
really caught on at Michigan. It's time that it
was given a little more push.
There are many concrete reasons why soccer
should be given varsity recognition, especially
in a top university such as our own.
First of all, the game is played on an in-
ternational level. Americans, being proficient
in all other sports, would do well to initiate
soccer and begin developing teams to enter in
the Annual Olympics Games. The United States
is one of the few countries not represented in
SECONDLY, GIVING soccer varsity recogni-
tion would provide intercollegiate compe-
tition for a larger number of men. More op-
portunity should be provided for them to com-
pete on this level.
The enrollment at the University is rapidly
increasing, and the athletic department needs
to follow the trend and expand its program to
include more activities. More sports are needed
to provide competition-giving soccer varsity
recognition would go a long way toward filling
Soccer teams cost comparatively little to
equip. The expense of supplying one team would
about equal the present cost of outfitting one
football player. There is now in existence at
the University a soccer club, which just re-
cently purchased new uniforms and equipment
for its 15-man team. All this was accomplished
SOCCER USUALLY draws to competition
those students who would not otherwise
profess an active interest in sports. The game's
popularity is increasing by leaps and bounds,
and players would never have to worry about
not drawing a good-sized crowd of spectators.
Several teams have already been organized
in the East, and recently a Midwest Soccer Lea-
gue was formed of such teams as Indiana,
Illinois and Ohio State. The team at OSU has
already received varsity status.
Michigan's athletic department prides itself
on keeping up with the latest developments.
Well, here is one field in which they've failed,
and in which they will continue to receive a
failure status until rectification is made.
Edited and managed by students of the University of
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Telephone NO 23241
fronted with the persons testifying both for
and against him.
YET THIS RIGHT was denied Dr. Peters, the
government explaining that the proceedings
were administrative, not judicial matters. In
other words, the government has taken the au-
thority to brush aside rights which have been
guaranteed for more than 160 years. Procedure
to which all courts of law must adhere may be
disregarded by government "tribunals." The
government has also contended that being con-
fronted by witnesses will jeopardize national
security by forcing the identification of secret
'agents and thereby discouraging "casual in-
formants" from talking to FBI agents.
But in so doing, the government fails to real-
ize that civil rights are also being jeopardized.
Another point comes up in this case-that
is, the attitude of the two Administrations to-
ward security cases. Whereas, in the Truman
Administration the attitude of the law court
prevailed, just the opposite position has been
taken by the present Administration.
In the former case, the loyalty suspect was,
to a large extent, considered innocent until
proven a security risk by the loyalty board. At
present, the negative attitude prevails. Appear-
ance before a loyalty board is a virtual condem-
nation in itself.
DR. PETERS and his attorneys have taken
the case through the court system. It has
been argued before the 'Supreme Court, and a
decision should be issued by May 31. If the court
rules in favor of the government, continuation
of present methods will be considered sanc-
tioned. However, if the court should rule in
favor of Dr. Peters, a question will be raised
concerning the entire method by which con-
frontation by witnesses is refused and con-.em-
nation by unidentified sources prevails at loy-
Adds to Education
WHEN EUGENE ORMANDY raises his baton
W in Hill Auditorium next Thursday, it will
be his 19th consecutive appearance at the May
Festival, sponsored by the University Musical
The even will also mark the climax of the
Society's yearly concerts. The New York Phil-
harmonic's appearance May 22 technically falls
'after the end of the season.
Few universities can boast of having an or-
ganization that each year brings the best in
the music world to campus. The programs are
an education in themselves and also offer an
opportunity for students to listen to world-
famous musicians at comparatively low prices.
Not only are the concerts aimed at fame and
quality of the musicians, but they are suited to
almost every taste. Perhaps the jazz fan may
feel left out, but those who like choral groups,
symphonies, instrumentalists or vocalists cer-
tainly have their tastes adequately satisfied.
As an integral part of University life, the
Society's offerings fill another facet in the
broad plan of education.
"Oh, This Takes More Time"
f 4 Z
LET TERS TOu THE EDITR
To the Editor:
THE LITTLE PIECE of emotion-
al flagwaving by William
Brumm in Tuesday's Daily (April
26) seems to me to be both un-
fortunate and unrealistic, not
only as regards the practical con-
sideration( i.e., the defense of
Quemoy and Matsu) but also the
spirit in which it was written. To
propose that we enter an unneces-
sary war at this time, or at any
time, on the grounds of restoring
"the honor, the glory and the
cotrage of our country" is, in the
twentieth century, ridiculous.
Although some people may
doubt it (notably Mr. Brumm),
America is still a land of people
who, if they are "courageous," are,
nevertheless, more rational and
realistic than he seems to pre-
sume. The assumption that war
is inevitable is not supported by
the facts, and to lose hope now
for peace through diplomacy and
arbitration, no matter how long
it may take, is the sheerest pes-
This attempt to describe the
world situation today in the out-
moded emotional phrases of an
absolute nineteenth century mor-
ality is dangerously over-simpli-
fied, and can have disastrous con-
sequences. The experience of two
world wars, it seems to me, should
have taught us that there is no
longer an absolute right and
wrong to war: it is all wrong. No
soldier is willing any longer to get
a bullet in his gut for the "honor
and glory" of it. If he fights, as
we may eventually have to in the
Far East, it's because there is no
alternative to averting a worse
wrong. But to raise our voices now
in the emotional hatred of war
propaganda; to resort to name
calling; and to believe that we
Americans have the exclusive use
of a direct pipeline to God, is to
remove all chance of a settlement
Our American tradition of free-
dom and demoncracy is a noble
ideal; nevertheless, it is an ideal,
and therefore a goal, not a thing
we have fully realized. All life con-
tains both good and evil and we
can only hope to have lasting
peace if we realize this'and stop
calling out in our barbaric, mili-
taristic voices "honor," "glory,"
-R. M. Thompson
* * *
DU Thanks ...
To the Editor:
(UR CHAPTER of Delta Upsilon
just completed being host to
the 11 chapters in our province in
an interprovincial basketball tour-
nament. This could not have been
a success without the able as-
sistance of some officials and or-
ganizations on campus.
The group included William
Zerman, Earl Riskey and his staff
and various sororities including
Alpha Xi Delta, Delta Delta Delta,
Chi Omega, Alpha Gamma Delta
and Alice Lloyd, Betsy Barbour,
Victor Vaughan, Mosher and Pres-
cott women residences. We would
like to publicly thank these in-
dividuals and organizations for
their cooperation and assistance.
-Members of Delta Upsilon
A meeting for new reviewers
and cartoonists will be held at
4:30 p.m. today in the Student
Publications building confer-
The following have been se-
Thomas Bernaky, Culver Ei-
senbeis, Bruce Jacobson, Myron
Marder, David Newman, and
Further meetings for pros-
pective reviewers will be held
in the fall.
WASHINGTON-Unsung hero of
mothe Salknsaga is the Rhesus
monkey of India, a flabby-jowled
little fellow with a short tail. A
friend of the people who monkey
)round in medical laboratories, he's
helped more than once to crack a.
tough research problem.
Without the raucous Rhesus, in
fact, there might be no Salk vac-
Actually it was Harvard's Dr.
John F. Enders who in 1951 paved
the way for the Salk vaccine's de-
velopment by discovering that po-
lio virus could be grown in a cul-
ture composed chiefly of chopped-
up monkey's kidneys. Later it was
found that the Indian Rhesus was
the most suitable applicant for the
TODAY, DR. ENDERS is little
remembered in the midst of all the
publicity for Dr. Salk. Nor has
anyone proposed an award to the
Rhesus for his important role in
the conquest of dread polio. -
To inoculate all Americans up
to 21 years of age will require
about 60,000 monkeys. The going
rate is about $30 per monkey. In
other words the 60,000 will cost
some $1,800,000-a lot of monkey
business in any man's language.
IT HASN'T been announced yet,
but the Army Engineers will bur-
row under Greenland's mighty ice-
cap this summer and, if successful,
run subway trains beneath the
packed snow and ice just as sub-
ways now run under New York
This spectacular project, known
as Operation Icecube, is awaiting
final approval by the Danish au-
thorities who govern Greenland. A
voluiteer construction crew of six
officers and 172 men, commanded
by Lt. 0o. Elmer Clark, is stand-
ing by to begin the dangerous tun-
neling through the solid, million-
--year-old ice. Their work will be
supervised by 60 scientists, all Arc-
Using the latest snow-tunneling
equipment, they will bore 100 feet
below the ice to build this unique,
deep-freeze subway. Purpose is to
link scattered Arctic outposts by
fast electric trains that will streak
under the icecap with troops and
, , ,s
CHOU EN-LAI'S latest olive
branch may be Communist cam-
ouflage to hide war moves along
the Chinese coast. Intelligence re-
ports warn that a Red assault is
imminent against two Nationalist-
held coastal islands-not Quemoy
and Matsu, but two whose names
haven't broken into the headlines.
They are Wuchiu and Pinghai,
two small Nationalist outposts ly-
ing mid-way between Quemoy and
Matsu. Their capture would cut
one side of the Quemoy-Matsu-
Formosa triangle and provide bas-
es for harassing Nationalist sup-
Wuchiu is defended by 1,800
tough Nationalist troops; the Ping-
hai garrison is even smaller. Ano-
ther 400 guerrillas use the islands
as bases for raids against the
mainland. Yet they would be no
match for a junk-borne invasion
army of 35,000 Reds, known to be
massing for the assault.
(Copyright 1955, by the Bell Syndicate)
(Continued from Page 2)
English; Physics - Chemistry; Elem.;
Romulus, Michigan -- Teacher Needs:
H.S. Latin-English; Speech-English;
Commercial; English; Jr. High Eng-
lish-Social Studies; Arithmetic; Science;
Girl's Physical Education; Guidance
Counselor; Early and Later Elementary.
St. Louis, Michigan-Teacher Needs:
H. English-Speech; Girl's Physical Ed-
ucation (Jr. & Sr. High) with Hygiene
or if necessary Jr. High English.
Wed.. May 4
Bakersfield California (Bakersfield
City School District)-Teacher Needs:
Early and Later Elementary; Jr. High-
Erie, Michigan (Mason Consolidated
School)-Teacher Needs: Jr. High Sci-
ence; 6th Grade; Third Grade; First
Grade; Home Economics; Recreation Di-
Port Huron, Michigan -- Teacher
Needs: Early and Later Elementary;
Speech (H.S);Math (Jr. High); Art
(Jr. High); Physical Education (man);
Vocal Music (Jr. High).
St. Clair Shores, Michigan-Teacher
Needs: Early and Later Elementary.
Thurs., May 5
St. Clair, Michigan-Teacher Needs:
Early Elementary; Home Economics;
Girls Physical Education (H.S.) and
teach Elementary boys and girls 3rd-
6th; Jr, High Mathematics-Science;
Art (H.S. & Elementary).
Corunna, Michigan-Teacher Needs:
First, Fourth, Fifth; Sixth; vocal Mu-
sic; H.S. English.
Fortappointments or additional in-
formation contact the Bureau of Ap-
pointments, 3528 Administration Bldg.,
NO 3-1511, Ext. 489.
The Bureau of Appointments Will
Hold It's Weekly Summer Placement
Meeting May 4 in Room 3G of the
Michigan Union from 1:00-4:45 p.m.
At this time all available summer job
opportunities listed with the Summer
Placement Division will be presented.
FOR SUMMER PLACEMENT-
The Chemstrand Corp., Chemical Tex-
tile Fibers requests applications from
candidates who have completed at least
their Junior year, majoring in chem-
istry, chemical eng., mechanical eng.,
textile eng. and physics for their sum-
mer student trainee program. Students
will be assigned to one of the follow-
ing locations: the Research & Develop-
ment Dept., Decatur, Alabama; Nylon
Plant, Pensacola, Florida; or the Acri-
Ian Plant, Decatur, Ala. If interested
contact Mr. A. D. Preston, Technical
Personnel Manager, The Chemstrand
Corp., Decatur, Alabama immediately as
all the openings will be decided on
before the first of June.
American Viscose Corp., Pa. requests
applications for summer work from stu-
dents majoring in statistics who have
completed their Junior or Senior year.
The job will be in their Industrial Eng.
Dept. handling special assignments re-
quiring statistical analysis. Contact Mr.
K. D. Midgley, Personnel Recruitment
& College Relations Dept., Amer. vis-
cose Corp., 1617 Pennsylvania Blvd.,
Phil. 3, Pa.
Camp Pinemere, Minocqua, Wis. needs
a competent young woman (at least
23) to head their Arts & Crafts Dept.
There is a complete outline of the work
of the Dept. and the counselor would
be assisted in planning her program.
Season, June 26-Aug. 23. Salary, $300.00,
plus room & board. (If they can find
a women with good teaching experience,
the salary will be commensurate with
her experience, training and person-
ability.) Contact Mildred E. Jones, Camp
Pinemere, Minocqua, Wis
INTERVIEWING REQUESTS FOR
Russell Kelly Office Service, Detroit,
Mich. will interview women who are
Interested in summer employment in
Detroit area offices. Mr. Adderly will
interview on May 4 from 2:00-5:00 p.m.
In Room 30 of the Mich. Union.
Marshall Field Enterprises, represent-
ed by Mr. Robert Gibson, will interview
college men & women for suimer sales
employment in Michigan on1 May 4 in
Room 3B of the Michigan Union from
1:00 p.m. to 4:45 p.m. Call the Bureau
of Appointments, NO 3-1511, Ext. 2614
to make an appointment to be inter-
Brookside Country Club, Canton,
Ohio-interested in securing a college
trained man for the position of Assist-
Battelle Institute, Columbus, Ohio-
interested in employing Metal., Mech,,
and Chem. E. and Physicists, for per-
manent research staff.
The City of New York, Civil Service-
Exam for Supervising Street Club Work-
er. For further information about edu-
cation and experience requirements
contact the Bureau of Appointments.
U.S. Civil Service announces exams
for Agricultural Marketing Specialist
.-GS-7 through GS-14 with specialized
fields: Commodity Distribution-Foreign,
Commodity Programs, Poultry and Poul-
try Products Program, Fruit and vege-
table Programs, Livestock Supervisor,
Marketing Research, Seed Regulatory,
Fishery Marketing Specialist, Also ex-
ams for Auditor GS-7 to GS-15.
For information contact the Bureau
of Appointments, Ext. 371, 3528 Ad-
The Henry Russel Lecture will be de-
livered by Dean George Granger Brown,
Wed., May 4, at 4:15 p.m., in the Am-
phitheater of the Rackham Building.
Seminar in Chemical Physics. Tues.,
May 3 at 4:10 p.m. in Room 2308 Chem-
istry. Dr. Michael Beer will speak on
"Electron Transitions in Acetylenic
Systems." Drs. R. B. Bernstein and M.
Tamres will report on the Cincinnati
meeting of the American Chemical So-
Doctoral Examination for Edward
Earle Potter, English Language and Lit-
erature; thesis: "The Dialect of North-
western Ohio: A Study of a Transition
Area," Tues., May 3, East Council Room,
Rackham Bldg., at 3:00 p.m. Chairman,
Astronomical Colloquium. Tues., May
3, 4:15 p.m., the Observatory, Dr. M. S.
Uberoi, research associate,Engineering
Racar.. T"Qffim. wilm gn' nn "'Ph
Seminar in complex variables will
meet Tues., May 3, at 2:00 p.m. in 247
West Engr. W. V. Caldwell will continue
on "The Subordination Principle."
Doctoral Examination for Joseph Ot-
terman, Electrical Engineering; thesis:
"Aperture Correction for Instrumenta-
tion Systems," Ties., May 3, 1500 East
Engineering Bldg., at 2:00 p.m. Chair-
man, Gunnar Hok.
Preliminary Examinations for the
Ph.D. in Linguistics will be given on
May 13 and 14, Students intending to
take the examinations should notify
Prof. Marckwardt by May 5 If they
have no already done so.
Actuarial Review Class. Tues., May 3.
Comprehensive Examination 2:00-3:00
p.m. 3017 AH, 3:00-5:00 p.m. 3010 AH.
Zoology Seminar. Dr. George H. Lauff,
Instructor in zoology, will speak on
"Water Masses and Currents of Grand
Traverse Bay," Wed., May 4, at 4:15 p.m.
In the Natural Science Auditorium.
Doctoral Examination for Lloyd Rob.
ert Yonce, Physiology; thesis: "Choline-
sterase Studies on Three Isolated
Choinergic Systems," Wed., May 4,
4017 East Medical Bldg., at 9:30 a.m.
Chairman, C. R. Brassfield,
Sociology Colloquium. Dr. Gerhard E.
Lenski will speak on "Some Behavioral
Consequences of Inconsistencies 1
Status," at 4:00 p.m. Wed., May 4, in..
the East Conference Room, Rackham
Student Recital: Ann Pletta, pianist,
program in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Bache-
lor of Music at 8:30 p.m. Tues., May 3,
in Auditorium A, Angell Hall. Compo-
sitions by Angles, Soler, Schubert, Pro-
kofieff, and Schumann; open to the
public. Miss Pletta studies piano with
Student Recital. Joan Rossi, soprano,
8:30 p.m., Wed., May 4, Auditorium A,
Angell Hall, in partialtfulfillment of
the requirements for the Master of
Music degree; compositions by Cesti,
Scaratti, Gossec, Schumann, Respighi,
and Barber; open to the public. Misa
Rossi is a pupil of Chase Baromeo.
Sailing Club. Meeting Tues., May 3,
7:30 p.m., 311 W. Eng. for all interested
in going to the Regatta at Wisconsin.
Rides to the Lake Sun. will leave Lydia
Mendelssohn 8:00, 8:30, 11:15 and 11:30
a.m. and 1:30 p.m.
Deutscher Verein program on Tues.,
May 3, at 7:30 p.m. in the Union. Mod-
emn dance based on German dance
techniques by Nancy Pobst, and a film
on the Berlin Philharmonic. Heinz
Koehler, exchange student from Ber-
lin, will speak on the Free University of
Berlin. 'Games and refreshments.
Science Research Club Meeting, Rack-
ham Amphitheatre, 7:30 p.m., Tues.,
May 3. "A Paleobotanical Expedition to
Northern Alskg," Chester A. Arnold,
Botany. "The New Science of Radio-
Astronomy," Leo Goldberg, Astronomy.
La Sociedad Hispanica will meet
Tues., May 3 at 8:00 p.m. in the Michi,
gan room of the League. Election of
new officers, dancing, entertainment,
La Socedad Hispanica's weekly "ter-
tulia" will be held Trues., May 3 from
3:30-5:00 p.m. at the Michigan Union
S.R.A. Council supper meeting. Lane
Hall, 5:15 p.m.
Lutheran Student Association, Tues.
at 7:15 p.m. The class an Martin Luther
will be concluded this week with a
film strip of 70 pictures from the life
of Luther, Center, Corner of Hill St.
and Forest Ave.
Russian dance group will meet, 7:00
p.m. at International Center.
Square Dance Tonight. Instruction
for every dance. Everyone welcome.
Lane Hall, 7:30-10:00 p.m.
Undergraduate Zoology Club presents
"Tropical Fish, their Behavior, Care and
Breeding." Frank McCormick, Univer-
sityAcquarium. Wed., May 4, 3:15 p.m.
328 E. Liberty.
Resident Directors' Seminar Wed.,
May 4, at 2:30 p.m., League. Vice Presi-
dent James A. Lewis will speak.
Michigan Crib Meeting. Room 3B,
Michigan Union-8:00 p.m., Wed., May
4, Room 3B, Michigan Union. Arthur
Carpenter will speak on "Law in Pub-
tic Life." Refreshments.
U. of M. Chapter of the American
Society of Civil Engineers will meet
Wed., May 4, at 8:00 p.m. in Rackham
Amphitheater, jointly with the Mich-
igan Section of the American Society
of Civil Engineers. E. Thomas Baker,
Chief Engineer, Michigan Turnpike
Authority will speak on "Studies of
the Michigan Turnpike Authority." All
members of the local chapter are re-
quested to attend. Guests invited.
The 49th Annual French Play. Le
Cercle Francais will present "L'Avare,"
a comedy in five acts by Moliere Wed.,
May 4, at 8:00 p.m. in Lydia Mendels-
sohn Theatre. The Box Office will be
open today 10:00-6:00 p.m. and May
4, 10-00 a.m.-8:00 p.m. Members of the
Club will be admitted free of charge
by returning their membership cards.
Student Zionist meeting, Wed., May
4 at Hillel. 8:00 p.m. Israeli dances will
be taught after the meeting.
Episcopal Student Foundation. Stu-
dent Breakfast at Canterbury House,
Wed., May 4, after the 7:00 a.m. Holy
Senior Society Meeting Wed., May 4
at 9:15 p.m. in the Union.
Hillel. Petitions for positions for the
executive committee and the adminis-
trative council may be obtained at Hii-
lel. The deadline for executive peti-
tions is May 4. The deadline for the
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
By TOM WHITNEY
AP Foreign Staff
IT LOOKS AS if the Communists are getting
set in several east European satellite states
to renew the drive to collectivize farming-a
drive interrupted by Stalin's death in 1953.
Reports from the Far East indicate that the
Chinese Communist leadership is pressing a
campaign against "Kulaks"-peasants who are
slightly better off than the average-and press-
ing Chinese peasants to join farm cooperatives
which are a step on the road to collective
These moves are taking place at the same
time the Soviet government is concentrating
big attention on efforts to increase food pro-
duction. In the USSR the collective farm sys-
tem has failed to grow enough to satisfy the
nation's growing population.
FREE EUROPE PRESS, a private American
organization, reports signs that in Hun-
gary, Bulgaria, Romania and Albania a col-
lectivization campaign is planned for autumn.
This organization, bases its conclusion on
study of materials from the press and radio and
statements by Communists leaders. It predicts
the drive will be waged by administrative and
propaganda pressures short of outright force.
The reason the Soviet-supported regimes in
these countries are not apparently planning to
use terror at the present stage is they fear
what the effect might be on food production.
Statements made in Hungary stress the nie-
cessity for caution in approach to the problem.
But it has been made fully clear the march
away from private farms to state-controlled
collective farms must proceed.
COLLECTIVIZATION OF agriculture has pro-
ven itself even in the Soviet Union to be
highly unpopular. It has failed to solve Rus-
sia's farming problem.
Now the Kremlin is going to proceed further
with nlans to force the unsucceosfil nviet tn-
QUESTION OF SIGNIFICANCE:
Principles Set by Bandung Nations
(Editor's Note: Mr. Govindaraj Is
a graduate student from India study-
ing international law at the Univer-
By BUDDHA V. GOVINDARAJ
THE ANNOUNCEMENT of an
Asian-African conference, to
be held in April, 1955, was made
by the Colombo powers( Burma,
Ceylon, India, Indonesia and Pak-
istan) in December, 1954. Reac-
tions to the prospective confer-
ence were varied.
Fear of anti-colonial blasts, sus-
picion of the People's Republic
of China's maneuvering the con-
ference to anti-Western stands,
and mistrust of the intentions and
motives of some of the Colombo
powers were not uncommon..
Now the conference is over. Re-
actions as to the results of the
conference are astonishingly
many. Some gloat over the fact
that the conference did not
achieve much; others satisfy them-
selves with the fact that some of
the participating nations did not
have as much influence on the
decisions of the conference as was
thought; and still others unduly
push to prominence persons who
were vocal enough to be counted
as pro-Western and run down
others of whom they disapproved.
African nations; to advance mut-
ual interests; to consider social,
economic and cultural problems;
and to explore ways and means
of contributing to international
Clearly there was to be no at-
tempt to form any definite mili-
tary alliance nor to forge a neu-
tral Asian-African bloc. It was
to be a forum to explore the pos-
sibilities of co-operation among
themselves. The communique, is-
sued at the end of the conference,
laid down vague and general prin-
ciples, but it must be understood
the purposes themselves were
broad and general.
ALTHOUGH CULTURAL and
economic co-operation among
themselves and their implementa-
tion were emphasized, no specific
organiation was set up. To the
extent the results . were in tune
with the declared purposes, the
conference can be said to have
had done well.
Considered exclusively from the
point of view of its over-all sig-
nificance to the rivalry of power.
groups, it may not be very sig-
Considered, however, from the
point of view of the participating
HENCE ON THEIR emergence
as free nations, they are clear-
ly at a handicap to deal with the
more diplomatically advanced
countries of the West and are
completely at a loss to appraise
world events, nation's potential
significance and national interest.
Their limited military power
gives them little voice in interna-
tional power-politics. This results
in their lacking of self-confidence,
which is more so in their relations
with the Western nations. While
they are not influential in a con-
ference with the West, they will
comparatively be significant in a
conference of the Asian-African
It indeed gives them the much-
needed self-confidence. The
speeches of the delegates are ex-
emplificative of their self-confi-
SELF-CONFIDENCE, it may be
expected, would further the
feeling of self-respect, self-re-
liance and self-evaluation, which
in turn might help them to rea-
lize self-determination and self-
assertion internationally. The Ban-
dung conference was unmistakably
helped them in this process of
Above all, the significance of
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