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May 05, 1954 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1954-05-05

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See Page 4

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Latest Deadline in the State
Campus o Vote on Calendar Referendun


L* .1 * imijuBallot Gives
Six Choices
In Early 1920's To Students
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first in a series of editorials and inter- Walter Urges Large
pretive articles dealing with the question of Congressional investigating
committees and civil liberties. Readers are reminded that the views ex- Y Ote onPRe f r um #
pressed in these articles reflect the opinions of the writer only.)
The campus will go to the polls
Despite the present widespread outcry over perils to academic today end tomorrow to vote in the
4 freedom, a brief look at American history reveals that civil liberties all-campus special referendum on
enjoy a better position today than they did thirty years ago. six proposed calendar plans.
Suppression of academic freedom in the past reached proportions Assistant to the President Erich
that make today's events seem tame by comparison, although if pres- A. Walter, chairman of the Uni-
ent trends continue, repetition of past cases may be the result. versity Calendaring Committee,
~ * * I commented last night, "I hope the

World News
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON -- Sen. Joseph
McCarthy (R-Wis.) produced a
"secret and confidential" letter,
allegedly signed by FBI Chief J
Edgar Hoover, at the Senate hear-
ing into his dispute with Army
The letter aroused a furor over

Federal Agent








where McCarthy got it and wheth-
er it should be used.


HANOI, Indochina -.- Scream-
ing Vietminh troops captured
another important strongpoint
yesterday in an attack on shrink-
ing Dien Bien Phu's western de-
fenses, then beat off a determ-
med French effort to retake the
* * *


ONE OF THE MOST dangerous trends to academic freedom was!
embodied in an anti-radical hysteria that arose during the First
World War and swept the country for nearly a decade during the
The concentrated propaganda program which accompanied
the war against Germany, and which, in fact, is necessary in any
war effort, brought with tthe suspicion and suppression for any
who did not fully agree with the national policies of the time and
culminated in the Espionage Act of 1917 and its amending Sedi-
tion Act of 1918.

students really express their pref-
erence. If we get a good, strong
vote it will help our Calendaring
Committee considerably in our de-

The Espionage Act dealt mainly with speech directed at obstruct-
ing the United States in its conduct of the war. In Schenck v. United
States, the Supreme Court upheld the conviction, under this law, of
several men for publishing pamphlets of incitement to resist the draft.
In 1918, however, the Sedition Act added nine new offenses. The
most striking section of this new law made unlawful uttering, print-
ing, writing, or publishing any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
language, or language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely
or disrepute as regards the form of government of the United States.
* * * *
BEFORE THIS second law was repealed in 1921, many were con-
victed and sentenced to twenty years in jail for utterances that were
placed within the bounds of the law by prosecutors. As is usually the
case of such laws, the interpretation and implementation of its pro-f
visions went far beyond original intentions. The excessive patriotism{
and triumphant nationalism of the time made it not only possible
but also provided the main encouragement.
Those convicted and Nailed under the statute, all degrees of
radicals including Eugene V. Debs, were eventually pardoned in
empty gestures of apology for the haste and recklessness in which
they had been convicted.
Many cases could be cited to demonstrate the vogue of ridding
the country of dangerous "reds" and silencing those who displayed
the slightest toward heresy in the period of 1917 to 1923. Although
most of the cases were concerned with speeches, publications, and
meetings, not to mention industrial strikes, there was also much
cleansing activity in the schools.
WHILE THESE two acts did not directly affect academic free-
dom, they did reflect the spirit of the times, which effected the re-

cision." WASHINGTON-An Army Court
* * * Martial yesterday convicted Cpl.
STUDENT leaders also urged Edward S. Dickenson of collabor-I
that the campus "get out and vote" ating with the Chinese Commun-
in the Student Legislature spon- ists while a prisoner of war in
sored, University financed elec- Korea.
tion. SL President Steve Jelin, It sentenced him to 10 years im-
'55, said, "This is a mater of direct prisonment with a dishonorablet
and vital concern to every stu- discharge.
dent. Each student has the respon-
sibility to express his opinion. It's WASHINGTON-Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles return-c
better that they vote at the polls ed by plane from Europe last
rather than complain later." night to report to President
Union Vice-President Howard Dwight D. Eisenhower ana Con- I
Nemerovski, '54E, student mem- gressional leaders on his so-far- I
her of the Calendaring Commit- unsuccessful drive to get united
tee, remarked "a large turnout action to stem Communism in d
would be a decisive factor in the Southeast Asia. s
decisions of the committee." * * *a
Nemerovski pointed out that the GENEVA - Canada's Lester B. a
administration has asked for this Pearson lashed out yesterday at g
expression of student opinion and Communist attacks on Americanj
if the response were large the policy in Asia with a declaration
committee could not fail to take itj that "Asia for the Asians is not the t
into account. same as-indeed is the opposite of n
Lucy Landers, '55, president of Asia for the Cominform." S
the League, emphasized that stu- -
dents who don't feel a change is ! A
necessary have ap chance to ex- sc
press this as the present system is - -''-

.Clardy Sees;,
NVo Danger
To Liberties
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the sec-
and of two articles based on an in-
terview with Rep. Kit Clardy (R-
Mich.), chairman of a sub-committee
of the Houise.Un-American Activi-
ties Committee.)
Rep. Kit Clardy, disagreeable in
the opinion of committee witnesses
and amiable in private conversa-;
tion, is always ready to dimuss his
committee's work in fighting
He likes to talk to people, and
he likes people to talk to him. In
ine with this, he sees no wvy in
which his committee violates free-
dom of speech. A communist "can
shoot off his mouth all Je wants
as long ashe doesn't advocata the
overthrow of the United States
government by force," he ailowAs.
* * *

Gives Name
Of Shaffer
At Hearings
Aetiities of Reds
In Detroit Cited
Special to The Daily
DETROIT-A crowded but qe
courtroom listened yesterday to
Federal Bureau of Investigation
agent Harold M. Mikkelsen name
nearly 150 Communist Party mem-
bers, including University student
Ed Shaffer, Grad.
As the hearings of the House
Un-American Activities Subcom-
mittee moved into their second
day, Mikkelsen, who for five years
reported to the FBI while an active
Communist Party member, was
quizzed for three and a half hours
on party activities in the Detroit
SHAFFER'S name was brought
into the hearings twice, once in
connection with work in the office
of the. Civil Rights Congress dur-
ing the Committee's 1952 hearings
and later for Labor Youth League
When asked to comment on
Mikkelsen's statement 'that he
was a party member, Shaffer
said last night, "As far as my
own political convictions are
concerned, I am not going to
say anything at this time. I'm
not going to bother confirming
or denying statements made by
a paid political informer.

-Courtesy Detroit Times
- - - - - - -

A COMMUNIST in an ediic:-
ional institution, however can-
not be tolerated under this con-
ideration. "for a Communist is
in agent of the Russian govern-
ment seeking to undermine the
coun try."

An Editorial

0 00a

LeaninĀ«f back in his chair. lie

nn the ballni;


* *
MR. WALTER has already re- A out
quested faculty opinion on calen-
dar changes and student opinion The Inter-Ho
is necessary in order to gauge the cluded its spring
reaction of the two groups directly Operation Inqu
involved. terday by quest
It has been stressed this spe- Service Enterp
cial election is not merely a mat- Shiel about th
ter of whether there will be "of- the Men's Resi
ficial" graduation or a "dead" A

ouse Council con-
semester series of
iry meetings yes-
ioning Manager of
rises Francis C.
e general state of
dence Halls.
inquiries ranging

says with conviction that "a
man is dangerous if he is a mem-
ber of the Communist Party" be-
cause the Party is controlled by
the Soviet. Membership in the
Communist Party is proof
enough of one's undesireability,
according to the grey-haired
chairman of the House Un-
American Activities Sub -com-

For nearly a year a joint committee of students, faculty repre-
sentatives and administrators has struggled to come up with an
academic calendar which would incorporate both a dead period'
before final exams and President Hatcher's request for a 'meaning-
ful' commencement. Today and tomorrow the campus will vote on
six alternate plans arising from the committee's discussions.
To be an accurate gauge of student opinion the referendumn
must have all-campus participation. Without such support it
can not serve as a guide to the committee in submitting their
recommendation to the Deans' Conference later this month.

Of the six listed on the ballot there appear to be only three
really workable glans: (1) thepresettwosmse iln.(2) the


" -'-"'"---"--**g*'uqu Aiiua .ini. rather stouta gure wih a p p F /P )
moval of several teachers for unpopular ideas state criminal syndical- aperiod before finals. It is essen- from questions on the present cost cheerful, round face, the affable Dwyer two-semester plan and (3) the reading period two-semes
ism laws under which the mildest "radical" was silenced, a re-empha- tially a complete calendar revi of food in the quads to future University graduate claims that plan.
sis on teachers' loyalty oaths which had begun in Nevada in 1866 and sion that is under discussion. plans for new dormitories, Shiel his committee is in no way respon-
reborn in Rhode Island in 1917, and a general tumult in academic When five student members 4ere summed up the session by point- sible for anyone losing his job. His The others are unacceptable for several reasons. A switch
circles. As Prof.' J. J. Stevenson of New York University wrote in an sked to attend Calendarg Co- ing out that although the quads errand, he makes clear, is merely to the quarter system would involve almost total revamping of
article in The Scientific Monthly of May, 1920, "Great unrest exists, ito expose Communists where ver course arrangement throughout the University in addition to
for many reasons, in academic circles .te uo sced by lt sn atmosphere the increasing num- they are." requiring finals three times a year.
exam schedule when there was no bes of students makes this very i *re
A pertinent example of the attitude prevalent in those confused "dead" weekend. They and the difficult sometimes. The Brown extending the after-Christmas fame du
years after the war is the statement by H. L. Chaillaux, then Director Worest of the 16 member committee He went on to conclude this dif- WHETHER anyone lodts a .ob - The BrownaplaneextendingttheiafteraChristmas lamesdtha
of the National Americanism Commission of the American Legion, aure now involved in finding a more ficulty is behind many of the coi because of information that comes session to four weeks and winding up the spring semester t
in the November, 1935, issue of the Annals of the American Academy. satisfactory calendar than the plaints that originate in the dor- out in committee hearings is up to fourth week in June, would cut summer opportunities.
presentt atorgi at i t e.or employers, insists Rep. Clardy. "I
Chaillaux wrote, "Within the past few years some of the present system. mitories. have interceded in some Cases fo . Similar objections can be raised to the Crary proposal to
educational institutions in this nation have allowed un-American a witness who was once a Cormm- begin the school year the first week in September with a three-
thought to creep into the student body. The Legion firmly believes nist but no longer is," he reports, - and-a-half-week recess at Christmas.
that Communism, radical pacifism, and other 'isms' have no place CALENDAR REFERENDUM adding that he did not think any- On the other hand the three feasible plans clear up t
in our schools. The members of our organization, as citizens, as (Check One) one should lose his job because of.
taxpayers, as parents, as men and women who have made an a past mistake which has since problems of a sufficiently long dead period and meaningfi
-1---------Underraduate Med-Dent School [7 Law School 1Other been corrected. , commencement. They also allow for completion of the spri

l I may say something on this
ter later but not at the present time,"
he added.
- Loren W. Campbell, who has
F been retained by the subpoenaed
University student as counsel, said
last night that he felt he was not
in the position to comment Until
ck, he could cross-examine Mkkelscr..
Three others, named yesterday
he by Mikkelsen as Communists fol-
lowed the former FBI undercover
agent to the stand.
BANGING his fist on the table
and declaring "The Fifth Amend-
he ment was meant to protect the in.
nocent and I am innocent" Ben F.
u1' Kocel, last of the witnesses brought
ng the house into an uproar.


investment in America by reason of their service in 1917 and
1918, will not stand idly by and see American schools made over
into centers for the dissemination of propaganda aimed at under-
mining American pri'nciples and American ideals."
This statement, though made in 1935, is an accurate reflection
of national thinking in the late teens and early twenties when such
statements were actually much stronger.;
* * * *
IN THE FALL of 1919, after dismissing six women teachers who had
admitted membership in. the Communist Party, William L. Ettinger,
the superintendent of schools in New York City, predicted. "Drastic
and swift action will be taken against any and all teachers in the
) See EXCITEMENT, Page 4
Petitions Open for Year-Long
Posts oil Joint Judic Council
Petitioning for five of the ten League president, League Inter-
positions on the Joint Judiciary viewing Council chairman and re-
Council is now open.
Three women and two men will tiring Joint Judic chairman.
be selected on the basis of peti- All applicants must have ac- j
tions and interviews to serve for cumulated 60 hours of credit by
terms of one year. The interviews the end of this semester, and can
are conduoted by a board com- not be holding membership con-
posed of the Student. Legisla- currently on the Student Legisla-
ture president and vice-president, ture during his term on the Coun-
" The joint judiciaa'y sitting as q
H eetorians body of peers, acts as an appelate
authority on both substantive and
procedural matters foi cases cOn-!
S When Zeus climbed high on go'-cerning University regailations or-

INSTRUCTIONS: You may vote for only ONE of the following
calendar proposals.
Present Two-Semester Plan
Fall semester classes begin the fourth week in September.
Christmas vacation is followed by two weeks of classes before
final examinations. The second semester is completed by the
second week in June.
[ Quarter-Semester Plan
Fall semester classes would begin the first week in October.
There would follow three ten week instruction periods with
one week of examinations at the end of each. The first
quarter would end by Christmas vacation, and the second
quarter by the third week in March which would de desig-
nated as Spring vacation. The third quarter would be over
by the third week in June.
[~~ The Brown Two-Semester Plan
Fall semester classes would begin the first week in October.
The present two week post-Christmas class period would be
lengthened to four weeks. The second semester would end
the fourth week in June.
-~ The Crary Two-Semester Plan
Fall semester classes would begin the first week in September,
with final examinations ending a few days before Christmas.
Christmas vacation would last approximately three and one-
half weeks. The second semester would be completed by the
middle of May.
The Dwyer Two-Semester Plan
Fall semester classes would begin the second week in Septem-
ber. Christmas vacation would be immediately followed by
final examinations. The second semester would end the last
week in May.
r, Th Rain er 'I.mwno.f.ivmTc.w..Plan

"But Communists should be
exposed so that they can be re-
moved from positionsin which
they can endanger the coun-
try," he repeats. He includes
here positions in government,
education, and the clergy.
Supporting his contention thatI
his committee is not at fault for
lost jobs is a reference to "the
newspapdrs' splashing names in
the headlines-names which they
can get only from the persons
He views with a sort of disgust
witnesses who invoke the Fifth
Amendment. Using it "is much
worse" than admitting to being
a Communist, he exclaims. "A
witness would be far better off
if he just admitted he was a
Communist," he says emphati-
Referring to all who are paft of
the "left-wing element," which in-
cludes those who attack his com-
mittee, as "inuddleheads," ne de-

semester by late May or early June and do not limit summer job The former naval reserve offi.
opportunities. cer, who now works for a Polish
Much furor has been raised over the present one-day dead language newspaper invoked the
d' Th f d I dFifth Amendment over 50 times
period'. This referendum is the only way students may express . in the course of his testimony.
their opinions on the calendar question. Kocelcretedisoresond
'-The Editors: Harry Lunn, Eric Vetteri Kocel created disorder a second
. ..;'time when he insisted loudly that
Virginia Voss, Mike Wolff,.Alice B. Silver, he resented as a "slur" a question
Diane D. AuWerter and Helene Simon from Rep. Gordon S. Scherer .(R-
----- - - --- ------ - ----- -------- Ohio) as to whether he had ever
' OVE TOD Y: ;engaged in "espionage activities
OPENS TODAY: against the United States."
Neither Kocel nor Curtis Davis,
Hou e D bats S nat 1an earlier witness, were isby
Hose DebateSenate affected when Rep. Kit Clardy
(R-Mich.),chairman of the sub-
" committee, pointed out they might
be held in contempt of Congress
Approved Seaway I3 l
foi improper use of the Fifth
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is an interpretive article discussing the back- "Same answer, same reason,"
ground of the St. Lawrence Seaway Bill.) Kocel replied in a sing song voice
By DAVE BAAD to question after question.
The long awaited showdown on the St. Lawrence Seaway takes IN CONTRAST the third witness
place today and tomorrow in the House of Representatives with formal of the late afternoon, Joseph
debate on the issue expected to start shortly after noon today. Chrin, told the committee quietly
This past January the Senate approved the bill in surprisingly "I respectfully refuse to answer."
easy fashion with a vote of 51-33. At one point in the proceed-
The House voting is expected to take place later in the week ings the appearance at the rear
and Rep. Kit Clardy (R-Mich.) is recessing his House Un-American of the courtroom of Labor Youth
_- Activities subcommittee hearings ILeader Balza Baxter, evoked
in Detroit for his return to the sharp comment from Rep.
-Hrt el ,Interrupting the. testimony the
ALTHOUGH it is generally con- Michigan Republican informed
S ~idpar1finht i mn inritv (f thI Baxter over the heads of the spec-


nies any distinction between the-
oretical communists and membeii
of the Communist Party. "They are
all out for the same thing," he
k points out.
"Take the name of the Russian
government," he offers, "the Umion
of Soviet Socialistic Republics.
There's the word 'Socialistic' right
in the' name." Here is the proof,



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