PAGE Ft?1 IlE1 MICHIGAN DAILY
vrT4TrTw CITYAlw* A s *e " rr.-.
ITHURSDJAY, APRRIL 1. 1964
A Departure from the
U.S. Containment Policy
"Say, That H-Bomb Is Dangerous"
MONDAY NIGHT'S speech by Sec. of
State John Foster Dulles was ambigu-
ous and therefore open to many interpre-
tations. In my opinion his speech marks a
radically new step in the development of
U.S. foreign policy.
Since the implementation of the Contain-
ment Policy in 1947, the U.S. has made it
amply clear that it will not tolerate armed
aggression by a foreign power. We proved
this when North Korean Communists in-
vaded South, Korea. The policy of forcibly
resisting foreign armed aggression against
a sovereign State has been adhered to faith-
fully and there has been no really serious
opposition to it.
Until now, the Containment Policy was
applied only to aggression against a sov-
ereign State by an outside, foreign power.
The "Dulles Doctrine," however, takes a
long and reckless step beyond this contain-
ment policy. Formerly, the U.S. threatened
use of American troops in Indochina only
if the Communists sent actual manpower to
the aid of Ho Chi Minh. Dulles now states
that America will not tolerate "conquest of
Indochina by any means." What this comes
down to is that regardless of whether or not
Red China sends troops into Indochina, we
will not allow the native Viet-Minh Com-
munist-led rebels to gain control of Indo-
This is not a minor deviation or supple-
mentation of the Containment Policy. It is
a definite promise that the U.S. will inter.
vene in the domestic affairs of a nation,
even if no aggression has taken place.
This leaves us open to Communist pro-
paganda charges of "American Imperial-
ism" and "U.S. meddling." For the first time
in recent history, the U.S. has taken it upon
herself to force its will on other nations.
Notice that Sec. Dulles did not mention
a hostile act as being necessary for U.S.
intervention. The mere existance of a
presumably hostile government is all that
Dulles needs to justify U.S. interposition.
It will be argued that the fight against
Communism needs no moral justification.
The proponents of the "ends justify the
means" principle will insist: "International
power politics is no place for moralizers. The
basic threat to American security is Com-
munism, and we have to fight it with every
means at our disposal,"
But suppose the native Viet-Minh rebels
win or gain in the war in Indochina, with-
out the help of Chinese Communist troops.
The U.S., if it intervenes as Sec. Dulles im-
plied it would, at best will be dragged into
another fruitless and wasteful skirmish,
similar to the one in Korea. But whereas
in Korea the U.S. was defending the sov-
eriegnty of an invaded Nation from an ag-
gressor, it could make no such claim if it
intervenes in. the Indochinese Civil War.
Moreover, the U.S. was able to gain of-
ficial United Nations support for its action
in Korea only because Russia happened to
be boycotting the Security Council that
month. We may be sure no such stroke of
luck would keep the Russians from vetoing
any censure of the Viet-Minhese. This
means the loss of a valuable propaganda.
weapon (i.e. official U.N. sanction.)!
But most important, the sending of Am-
erican troops into Indochina could well
mean World War III. It is quite probable
that if we sent troops into Indochina, Com-
munist China would do the same. And in
view of Sec. Dulles' previously stated "Mas-
sive retaliatory power" strategy, this would
mean our bombing of China proper, and
subsequent full-scale war.
Thus, from all points of view, moral, legal,
and practical, the new policy line, as laid
down by Sec. Dulles, is an extremely inad-
The U.S. should continue its former con-
tainment policy. We should continue send-
ing arms and technicians to Indochina in
good conscience so long as Red China con-.
tinues to do so. But the threat to use force
in order to prevent the establishment of a
native communist government in Indochina
(which is exactly what was covertly stated
in Dulles' talk) is nothing but an abuse of
U.S. power. And a threat to world peace.
By WALTER LIPPMANN
HAT MOSCOW did last week about East
Germany cannot, it seems to me, be
treated as of no consequence merely because
the official announcement is so obviously
untrue. The East German Peoples Repub-E
lic has, of course, not been granted "sover-
eignty" in any actual sense, and there is
nothing to indicate that it has even reached
the point where it could be called a satellite
state. East Germany is Soviet-occupied ter-
ritory with a government installed and
maintained by the Red Army and run by
Yet the action of Moscow in conferring
upon these puppets the trappings of sov-
ereignty is significant. We may be rea-
sonably certain it was not done merely
to make headlines for a day or two in the
French and German newspapers.
The action fits much too well with the
position which Mr. Molotov took at the
Berlin conference in February. This was, it3
seems to me, to keep a firm grip upon
Eastern Germany until it might become pos-
sible to negotiate a German settlement with
the successors of Dr. Adenauer.
In such a policy the unification of Ger-
many would not be brought about at a four
power conference in which the United States
was a principal. In its outward form the uni-
fication of Germany would .be brought about
by direct agreement of the two German gov-
ernments. In fact it would be brought about
)y agreement between a post-Adenauer gov-
ernment in Bonn and the Soviet Union,
This German-Soviet agreement would set-
tle the crucial problem of a peace treaty-
namely tire Easter frontier. This is almost
certainly a problem that it has become im-
possible for a four power conference to deal
with. For the three Western powers can
never agree to the kind of bargain that a
settlement of this problem would involve.
The essence of the bargain would be to
make allies of the Soviet Union and re-
It is an error. I venture to think, to treat
this Soviet move in Eastern Germany as di-
rected mainly to preventing the ratifica-
tion of E.D.C. by France. At the Berlin
conference it was clear that Mr. Molotov
was addressing himself mainly not to France
but to Western Germany-and more spe-
cifically to the German Nationalists both
of the right and of the Social Democratic
left. Mr. Molotov's great diplomatic achieve-
ment at the conference was to induce the
three other foreign ministers to say expli-
citly that a united Germany would not be
legally bound by the E.D.C. By getting that
upon the official record he legitimatized the
German Nationalist opposition to Dr. Ade-
nauer, which aims in one way or another
at a negotated agreement with the Soviet
Union for the purpose of reuniting Germany
and of ending the occupation.
It is with that German Nationalist op-
position, far more than with the French
neutralists, that the Soviet Union ex-
pects to do serious diplomatic business.
This would be under any circumstances
a formidably difficult policy for the West-
ern democracies to overcome. The Soviet
Union holds big cards-unification, recti-
fication of the Eastern frontier, the end
of the occupaton, and the Eastern mar-
kets. The pattern of German-Russian re-
lations has been repeated much too often
to be dismissed now as if it were obso-
P 'S I
i * xs
, - i
tette4 TO THE EDITOR
The iDaiy welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the sriter
and in good taste, Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste witl
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
MlerrmenI M1etinI , quickly con idercd impossibli by
Pres. Eisenhower as our federal
To the Editor: budget could not stand the cut in
e 1revenue. This bill would have giv-
TOONIGHT AT 7:30 at the Pres- en tax cuts to people who are in
byterian Church, 1432 Wash- greatest need, It would have en-
tenaw, there will be a meeting of abled the dependent child to work
,tt rtex "*,,, "."students, townspeople, and faculty through the summer instead of
to plan the future of the Green abruptly stopping as soon as he
Feather.made $599.99. It is in families
All of you who are interested in where children have to work that
seeing some concrete plan of ac- the extra $100 means a great deal.
tion built around the symbol of President Eisenhower stated that
the Green Feather are encouraged he wanted everyone to share in
to attend. the responsibilities of paying tax-
-Blue Carstenson es and it was not fair to allow
Gretchen White someone who makes $700 to "es-
Allan Silver cape" paying taxes.
* * Perhaps I am not budget-wise
AMytr but it would have to be a cold
* day in July whenI could figure a
To the Editor: wad in which you can clothe, feed,
pay tuition and board a person on
~ T HAS BEEN rather a, mystery' $700, let alone $600.
to me why Republicans have There were many people who
been so reluctant to denounce Mc- were opposed to the excise tax cut
-Cathy but I have sen the lht.and in favor of personal exemp-
ON THE Good "Old Joe" is the left hand tinrseytwedn'taeim
of te maicin's ct hilethetion raise, yet we didn't take time
of the magician's act while the out to let our wishes be known.
W ASHINGTON Republican Party plays the role The time has come when we
of the right hand. The old adage, must concentrate on the right
I E tRY-GO-ROU N "Make your audience concentrate hand while keeping the left hand
on your left hand so they won't in sight out of the corner of our
Enotice what your right hand is eyes or the slight of the hand
doing" is a perfect example of trick will have a receptive audi-
what is happening on the poli- ence.
tical scene today. We're all so --Eve Kommnel
WASHINGTON--U.S. agents have dug up irrefutable evidence that busy fighting the antics of the # * *
rT Senator from "Wiscons in that wei
the 1939 nazi-Communist pact has been renewed, in effect, and are allowing a number of bills ' ReP -eflmtion *
that the Reds are again collaborating with unrepentant nazis in a to pass without opposition. I am
world-wide, underground network. particuarly referring to a bill re- To the Editor:
cently approved by both House NOTE TO Miss Etta Gluckstein,
The evidence is also conclusive that the network has used none and Senate which would either Mr. David R. Frazer, and all
other than Sen, Joe McCarthy as a propaganda mouthpiece. For abolish any tax on movie or any other interested parties. You claim
example, McCarthy charged the U.S. Army with torturing German admission tickets costing 50 cents that the proposed SEC plan would
or less; or cut all admissions tax be unfair to the students of the
war criminals who had been sentenced for the murder of American from 20 to 10 per cent. The gul- campus since there would be but 11
prisoners. This happened to be the Communist line in Germany, and lible public thinks that this tax students representing 17,000 at the
The President's Trade Polc.
McCarthy's sensational charges were circulated by the Reds to stir
up anti-American feeling among the German people.
Senate investigators traced the charges to Dr. Rudolph
Aschenauer, an ex-nazi working with the Communists, who helped
write McCarthy's speeches and mailed them to him from Frank-
fort, Germany, in large, brown, manila envelopes.
Aschenauer had three known agents in this country-Frederick
Weiss, H. Keith Thompson, and Ulick Varange-who also represented
the Socialist Reich party. This was such a flagrant, pro-nazi party
that it was finally outlawed by the West German government. Yet,
in spite of its Nazi trimmings, the S.R.P. was known to be drawing
money and support from the Communists. Its vice chairman, Dr.
Fritz Dorls, secretly visited Soviet headquarters in Karlshorst, East
cut will be passed on to them by
movie house owners. However,
these same owners have stated
that they haven't the slightest
notion to pass the savings on.
They will simply pocket the tax
savings in their own .pockets.
A bill introduced by the Demo-
crats, raising the exemptions per
person from $600 to $700, was
University. You also claim that SL
with its 40 or so junior politicians
is much more representative of the
students of the various colleges.
Since approximately % of SL is
made up of LS&A students, I don't
see how this is representative of
anything on this campus except
LS&A. Nuff said.
"T ADE NOT AID" was one of President
Eisenhower's election slogans. Now
more than a year later, the President has in-
troduced into Congress a program to imple-
ment that promise.
The liberal trade policy that Eisenhower
has asked is, as he pointed out, essential
to the free world. Economists have long
advocated lower tariffs and a freer trade
policy in order to ensure the welfare not
only of the rest of the free world but of
this nation itself. Trade is essentially a
two way street. The country that imports
too little and the country that exports too
little are both, in the final analysis, equal-
This situation Is recognized by the econ-
omists but the nation's politicians are not
so quick to assess economic conditions clear-
ly and without bias. Thus the United States
has heretofore been known for its myopic
attitude -toward trade; building high tariff
barriers which have prevented our allies
from necessary trade with us. For want of a
sound policy the country has, as Eisenhower
put it, had a "patchwork of temporary ex-
pedients" as tariff policy.
The approved short-sighted solution to
our allies' economic ills has been stop-gap
aid which, although it allows the giver to
feel philanthropic, does no lasting good. A
genuine opportunity to trade with the Uni-
ted States would be more appreciated and
would be economically sounder.
This is the purpose of the Administra-
tion's proposed tariff policy. It would in-
volve curbing the discriminatory "Buy Am-
erica Act," renewing the Reciprocal Trade
Agreement, due to expire in June, for three
years and giving the President the authority
AT RACKHAM AUDITORIUM ...I
University Woodwind Quintet: Nelson
Hauenstein, Flute; Lare Wardrop, Oboe;
Albert Luconi, Clarinet; Lewis Cooper,
Bassoon; Ted Evans, Horn,
THE QUINTET didn't hit its full stride
until the second half of last night's con-
cert, but when it did, the playing was sensi-
tive, assured, and meticulous in phrasing
and dynamics. Earlier in the program there
were times when all the players seemed to
be searching for the right tempo without
ever quite agreeing on it, and there were
other moments when some of the individual
players had slight difficulties with their in-
struments. But because of the superior per-
formances after intermission, the net effect
of the concert was one of truly distinguished
to adjust tariff rates downward by five per
cent annually, upon a wide var-iety of goods.
Opponents of freer trade will advance
all the traditional arguments foremost
of which claims that American industry
must be 'protected from unfair foreign
trade. The argument runs that lowering
tariffs will destroy local industry.
Important to consider in this argument is
the fact that it was initially used to favor
the "infant industries." These infants have
long been grown, lusty giants and need no
government protection to hold their own.
This can be attested by the opinion of an
industrial leader of the strength of Henry
Ford II who favors low tariff and the Am-
erican Manufacturers Association which has
come out for freer trade.
Admittedly the fate of the small industries
may be jeopardized but the maintenance of
such precarious businesses is no excuse to
put above the nation's welfare.
But despite all logical arguments for
lower tariffs the question is an explosive
one which cuts across party lines. Isola-
tionists will join with traditional protec-
tionists to try to defeat the measure. And
Congressmen contending with the lobby-
ing small local industries will be inclin-
ed, especially in this election year, to let
the national interest be subordinate to
Unfortunately for President Eisenhower,
the great majority of opponents are Repub-
licans. Firm party discipline plus active co-
operation of the Democrats will be needed if
the program is to be approved. The issue is
of such major importance as to warrant
the GOP leaders pressuring party loyalty,
The tariff question cannot be left to molder
for another year. The stakes are too high,
The program began with a Quartet
(flute, clarinet, bassoon, and horn) in
B-flat by Rossini-not a particularly ima-
ginative work for so talented a compos-
er, but one which seems worth playing, in
view of the limited repertoire for such a
combination. Following this work was a
set of dances, Acante et Cephise, by Jean
Philippe Rameau, arranged by Desormiere.
Neither the best woodwind writing nor
the most interesting Rameau, it was nev-
ertheless a pleasant suite. One of the
surprises in the concert was the Pastorale
by Pierne, a really attractive work--very
nearly the best music on the program, in
fact. The first half ended with a little
Scherzo by Bozza.
The next work, a Quintet by Haydn, may
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
NAZI ADMIRES McCARTHY j (Continued from Page 2) Deutscher Verein--Kaffee stunde will
-____--meet this afternoon at 3:15 in the Union
tIF THE THREE pro-nazi agents in this country, the best known Course 402, the Interdisciplinary Sem- taproom. Prof. H. Penzel of the Ger-
. Iinar in the Application of Mathematics man Dept. will be present. All inter-
is Weiss, who masterminds the national renaissance party, a to the Social Sciences, will meet on ested in speaking German are cordially
group of fanatical anti-Semites with headquarters in Yorkville, N.Y. Thurs., April 1, at 4 p.m. in 3409 Mascgi invited.
Weiss is one of McCarthy's most ardent admirers, yet at the same Hall. Mr. William L. Hays of the De- TheCongregational-Disciples Gild,
partment of Psychology will speak on Th CogeainlDciesGl,
time is collaborating with the Communists. He spouts the Communist "Multidimensional Unfolding." Itoday from 5:05-5:30 p.m., Mid-week
_____ Medtatin inDouglas Chapel: "Man-
line on foreign policy, particularly against the European Defense jhood of te Mster."
Community, and his fanatical band is known to- be infiltrated with Eient Reading Secti reT he
the individual improve his reading rate,
Reds, concentration, vocabulary, and critical F The Congregational-Disciples Guild.
comrehnsin. las dicusion prc-Freshman Discussion Group at Guild'
The FBI is most interested, however, in Varange, a mystery man tice th visal Cds rdigs electio r House this evening, 7 to 8 p.m. Topic:
tic wih vsua aisreaingselctins"Death and Immortality,"
who also goes by the names Francis Yockey and Frank Healy. He is with comprehension check4. Not open to
known to be the author of a book on fascist strategy, urging anti- University freshmen, Enrollment limited Episcopal Studnt Foundation. Stu-
to twenty. Early registration in the Ex- Eica tdent FFclyle vnoundation.u-o
American but not afti-Soviet activity. As for Thompson, he started tension service Office, 4501 Administra- dent-Faculty led Evensong, Ch eI of
out as a left-winger, switched over to the nazis, and now claims to tion Building, during University office St. Michael and All Angels, 5:15 p.m.,
have broken with them. hours, is advised. Eight wees. $,. today.
Instructor, Alton LRaygor, Teach- Tryouts for a one-act comedy to be
Purpose behind the new nazi-Communist partnership is to weaken I ing Assistant, Reading Improvement presented May '8 as part of the Inter-
hleft and right Though Services, Bureau of Psychological Ser- Arts Festival will be held from 7 to
democracy-an objective of both the extreme lf n iht huhjvices.9pm.tdyathSuen ubc-
the neo-nazis and Communists openly denounce each other, they Monday, April 12, 7 p.m., 306 Student in lday at the Student Publica-
secretly work together to tear down the democratic fabric. This is Legislature Building on state streeti
done by the old, familiar method of spreading hate, fear, suspicion, The Gospel Behind the Gospel Nar- in the Lague atu8 pm. for an inform
and dissension, ratives. The purpose of this course is to discussion of the basic concepts behind
distinguish the gospel or message of the social and ethic teachings. Every-
A devastating, documented story on the world-wide link between Jesus as gathered from the varying ac- one is welcome.
Communism and nazism appears in Reporter magazine, which went reporters atthewim a rks bhieand
reoresMttew arLueands oa. o Wesleyan Gtuild will not meet during
on the stands today. For example, The Reporter describes the Com- John-all written from fifteen to sev- vacation, but the church rooms will be
munist backing of the neo-nazi leader, Dr. Werner Naumann, who enty years after the events which they open for student use. Come to the
nominated by Hitr to be Josef Goebbels' heir as propaganda portray Eight weeks. $8.00. Registra- Open House Sunday night, April 11,
was nmntdb ilrt eJsfGebl'hi spoaad tion may be made during the half hour around 8 p.m., if you are back from
minister. preceding the first class in the room vacation. Enjoy yourself next weekl
* * * * where the class is being held,
t Intrucor, eroyWatrman, Profes- ,
But we are making the task of countering
this Soviet policy unnecessarily difficult for
ourselves and for our allies. In fact by the
Srigidity of ou policy and the harshness
of our methods, we are playing right into
Mr. Molotov's hands.
For more than a year we have been ex-
erting pressure for the ratification of E.D.C.
And where has it brought us? To an ever
more ominous deterioration of the rela-
tions between France and Germany. Is it
not plain'that even if we succeed in forcing
ths shotgun marriage, the certain effect is
amassing ill will and in both countries
brought about by the frustration of French
and German national sentiments?
The most elementary common sense, not
to speak of statesmanship, would have di-
rected our whole influence to the concili-
ation of all outstanding Franco-German is-
sues rather than to their exacerbation by
the excessive pressure for a formal ratifi-
cation. How could we have failed to rea-
lize that for two nations to fuse their arm-
ies they must trust each other very much?
It has been an enormous mistake, which
may yet lead to tragic consequences in Eur-
ope, to have put the ratification of E.D.C.
ahead of the solution of Franco-German
problems. In doing this we have been squan-
dering our influence by using pressure ra-
ther than persuasion, threats rather than
negotiations. The E.D.C. can be no good at
all for the defense of Europe and to its uni-
fication if French and German national in-
terests and sentiments have not been com-
posed and satisfied.
For if Western Germany is rearmed in
this climate of bad feeling which is now
developing, the foundations of the Bonn
government will be severely weakened. We
must not deceive ourselves as to the dur-
ability of the Adenauer regime. It has
done great things for Germany and for
the world, and its intentions and its pur-
poses are excellent. But it has been a
highly protected and a greatly subsi-
dized government and it is not deeply
rooted in the German nation. There is
no clear certainty about the future of the
NAUMANN RALLIED the pro-nazi splinter parties behind him in an
attempt to resurrect the nazi movement. He praised Senator
McCarthy and denounced President Eisenhower. Finally he was
arrested by the British on charges of plotting to overthrow the West
German government. The plot was inspired, according to closed-door
testimony, by a Communist agent.
sor Emeritus of Semitics.
Monday, April 12, 7:30 p.m., 132 School
of Business Administration on Monroe
Coming E fvents
Episcopal Student Foundation. 'lea
frn 4 t 5°Sn.C!n rhtsW^ - ' i
Reporter magazine charges that the "explicit aim of the
Naumann group was to establish a totalitarian West German
government oriented toward the Soviet Union."
Naumann used a Dusseldorf export-import firm, the H. S. Lucht
Company, as a front for a world-wide political network which kept
in touch with nazi exiles in Spain and Argentina, as well as pro-nazis
in other countries. For example, Col. Otto Skorzeny, the rescuer of
Mussolini, and Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, Hitler's former financial wizard,.
are connected with the company in Spain.
treet ,from , to := at Canterbury House, Fri.,
i April 2, followed by Student-Faculty
Doctoral Candidates who expect to re- led Evensong, Chapel of St. Michael
ceive degrees in June, 1954, must have and All Angels,
three bound copies of their dissertations
in the office of the Graduate School by
Friday, April 30. The report of the doc-
toral committee on the final oral exam-
ination must be filed with the Re-
corder of the Graduate School together
with two copies of the thesis, which Is
ready in all respects for publication, not
later than Monday, May 24 Sxty-Fourth Year
Doctoral Examination for Barron Edited and managed by students of
Brainerd, Mathematics; thesis: "An Al- the University of Michigan under the
gebraic Theory of Probability with Ap- authority of the Board in Controi of
plication to Analysis and Mathematical Student Publications,
Logic," Thurs., April 1, East Council__
Room, Rackham Building, at 3 p.m.
Acting chairman, A. B. Clarke. Editoral Staf
I arry Lunn ............ Managing Editor
x * ;
CO N AND SC INE SUCCUMB Eric Vetter...............City Editor
uo ncerts Virginia Voss.........Editorial Director
T WC MEBER ofthe aziCom unit udergoun inSpan IMike Wolff........ Associate City Editor
TWO MEMBERS of the nazi-Communist underground in Spain Choir Concert Cancelled. The Univer- Alice B. Silver..Assoc. Editorial Director
also took in Senator McCarthy's two junior G-men, Roy Cohn and sity of Michigan Choir concert, pre- Diane Decker..........Associate Editor
David Schine, during their comic-opera, spy-hunting junket through- viousiy announced for April 1, in Hill Helene Simon ..........Associate Editor
Auditorium, has been cancelled. The iEIvan Kaye...............Sports Editor
ouL. £J"uirjJ iObL,,year.new date-will be announced later.
One was Wolfgang Lohde, who filled the two youthful gumshoes
with stories of Communist -infiltration of Radio Free Europe. It later Even T oay
turned out that he had signed an anti-American manfesto circulated The International Tea, sponsored by
by a German Communist-front organization, the International Center and the Inter-
national Students' kssociation, will
The other informant was Hermann Aumer, who was authorized ;atioae Sthideeoon Aociton, il0 o
by Cohn and Schine to spy on the U.S.-licensed German press for o'clock, third floor, Rackham Building,
McCarthy. Once ardently pro-nazi, Aumer was fired by the U.S. Kappa Phi. There will be a business
Army in 1946 because of suspected Communist affiliations, Afterward, meeting today at 7:15 p.m., at the
he proved the suspicions had been well-founded by joining the board Methodist Church. Pease be present.
of directors of the East-West working group for East-West trade, a U. of M. Sailing Club meeting at
L-"n-_ 'D-4.. f,,--+..... 7:45 n n..tnivht in 311 5Wesr t nolne
Paul Greenberg.... Assoc. Sports Editor
Marilyn Campbell..Women's Editor
Kathy Zeisler. ...Assoc. women's Editor
Chuck Kelsey .....Chief Photographer
Thomas Traeger......Business Manager
william Kaufman Advertising Manager
Harlean Hankin...Assoc. Business Mgr.
1111iam Seiden........ Finance Manager
eChisho N.. 3rculaion Manager
Telephone NO 23-24-2