THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 2$, 1956
ALTHOUGH President Eisenhower prom-
ised during the 1952 campaign to give
the nation "a better law than this McCarran
Act," an understanding among Congres-
sional leaders has ruled out any possible
change in the notorious McCarran-Walter
immigration law during the next session
McCarran and his cohorts got the "un-
derstanding" in return for dropping their
opposition sufficiently to permit passage
of the Administration bill allowing 214,000
refugees to come to this country.
Informed sources say the unbreakable
agreement explains why opposition to the
Administration bill collopsed so suddenly in
The pact is so solid that Rep. Francis
Walter (D-Pa,) plans to move to table all
24bills offering amendments to the basic
immigration act at the first session of the
House Judiciary Committee.
His move, said to be sure of approval,
would virtually kill any hope of amending
tloe bill during the session.
It is interesting to note that McCarran
was called to the White House for a con-
ference just before he withdrew his opposi-
tion to the refugee bill sufficiently to allow
it out of committee.
All this means that passage of an act
admitting about 214,000 refugees has been
achieved at the expense of making revision
of the McCarran Act, vetoed by Truman
as discriminatory and backward, impos-
sible for this session of Congress.
In fact, Sen. Arthur Watkins (R-Utah)
who led the Senate fight for the refugee
bill, wrote Eisenhower this summer to say
that no attempt would be made to revise the
McCarran-Walter Act during the life of the
refugee bill which doesn't expire until Dec.
The President on April 27, cited 10 specific
provisions of the McCarran law which op-
erated with "unwarranted harshness," in a
letter to Sen. Watkins.
Now Sen. Watkins tells the President the
Republicans are in good shape politically
on the immigration question, having passed
the refugee bill. He adds that efforts of Sen.
Lehman (D-NY) and others to get Ike to
help push revision of the McCarran Act
are "politically inspired."
Of course the Administration's much
vaunted bill will admit 214,000 refugees
over a three-year period. About one-fourth
of those admitted will be Germans, an-
other fourth Italians, another fourth
greek and Dutch and the remaining fourth
But nothing has been done about the un-
fair, outmoded and discriminatory basic
policy of admission quotas based on national
origin, and on 1920 census figures, in-
equitable quotas which bear no relation to
Discrimination against "inferior" races,
religions and nationalities continues in pres-
ent overall immigration policy, while some
"better" West European countries have
quotas beyond their needs.
If the President is a party to the agree-
ment not to change the basic immigration
law until December, 1956, he has violated
the voters' trust and placed himself on the
side of reaction on this issue.
If, as Is more likely, the President has
not committed himself to leave McCar-
ran's monstosity alone, he should at least
urge the McCarran Act reforms which
he himself has called necessary.
Ike's Congressional "team," however, will
almost certainly not cooperate. Failing a
Democratic landslide in '54, the nation will
have no chance to rid itself of the McCarran-
Walter Act until after the 1956,\Presidential
ONCE AGAIN an educational institution
has allowed itself to be intimidated into
dismissing a faculty member.
Temple University Wednesday dismissed
Prof. Barrows Dunham, head of the phil-
osophy department, because he defied the
House Un-American Activities Committee
last February by refusing to answer their
questions. In their meeting this week Tem-
ple trustees voted unanimously not to re-
instate Dunham who had been suspended
since March, stating that they took "un-
compromising exception" to the professor's
refusal to testify.
The point in question here is not so much
Dunham's action before the Congressional
committee as it is the grounds upon which
the trustees of Temple University based their
Itappears that sole basis for the dis-
missal was Dunham's stand against the
Committee. No further evidence of his
fitness to teach was considered beyond
this one fact. Also completely ignored was
whether Dunham was prompted in his
action by a genuine disapproval of the
committee and, as it appears from his
statement, a belief that his conduct was a
positive stand for democracy rather than '
a subversive action.
Temple University did not consider any
of these factors but just took "uncompro-
mising exception" to an action the motives
for which thev did not hther tn inveti-'
MATTER O .rFACT
IetteP4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
By JOSEPH ALSOP
MANILA, P.I. -- Probably the most trying
characteristic of the new world in which
we live is that what is distant often matters
more than what is near. Whether Gov.
Thomas E. Dewey leaves politics or runs for
re-election in 1954 will certainly matter to
the people of New York State. But even to
New Yorkers, it can perhaps be less import-
ant in the long run than whether Elpidio
Quirino is beaten or is re-elected in the cur-
rent contest for the Philippine Presidency.
But why should this be so? The answer has
to be deduced from the circumstances of the
Philippine election itself. These may be
briefly summarized as follows.
First, all impartial observers here agree
that there is almost no doubt about the
popular verdict. Quirino and his Liberals
have altogether lost thersupport of the
country. Since Gen. Carlos P. Romulo
boldly led his Democrats into coalition
with the Nationalists, the Nationalist--
Democratic candidate, Ramon Magsaysay,
is certain of a huge popular majority.
From the country people of the barrios
to the businessmen of Manila, from the left-
wing.labor leaders to the famous Philippine
multi-millionaire, Col. Soreanu (who still
has great influence here although now an
American citizen)-the support for Mag-
saysay is impressively solid and passionately
enthusiastic. Quirino, by contrast, seems to
have no real adherents except the members
of his political machine and the beneficiaries
of the machine's special favor.
In these circumstances, it is clear that
Quirino can only win by force or fraud or a
combination of both. The question everyone
now asks in Manila is not whether Magsay-
say is in the lead. That is taken for granted.
The question asked is, rather, whether Mag-
saysay's lead is huge enough to overcome
any attempt to steal the election. The Qui-
rino administration is now reshuffling the
provincial and municipal treasurers, who
have the largest share in reporting the vote.
The removal of the Philippine army's able
and impartial Chief of Staff, Gen. Calixto
Duque, has only been prevented by prema-
ture publicity. In the Army's lower ranks,
however, the capable, non-political officers
promoted under Magsaysay have recently
been transferred to school assignments and
the like, while important provincial com-
mands have suddenly been conferred on offi-
cers purged or passed over for incompetence
and bad behavior.
Perhaps Quirino will choose differently
in the end but his partisans are at least
readying the instruments of force and
fraud. Nor is the force wholly on Quiri-
no's side. Magsaysay was a brilliant guer-
rAla leader in the last war. There is some
evidence that a guerrilla organization sup-
porting him, sworn to "enforce a free el-
ection" is growing up in key provinces.
As these words are written, moreover, Ma-
nila is ringing with talk - that is not
groundless either-that there will be a rev-
olution if Quirino steals the election. In
these circumstances, the Philippine Senate,
which is predominately Nationalist, will first
refuse to certify that Quirino has been duly
elected. But if this should fail, the most sol-
id and respectable Nationalist and Demo-
cratic party leaders say they will "go to the
"If Quirino allows a free election and
wins, that's our bad luck," one of these men
told this reporter. "But if the will of our
people is going to be defied, we may as well
fight now rather than later."
Such are the explosive ingredients now
bubbling away in this Philippine electoral
pot. There are several reasons why the out-
come, whatever it may be, must be of great
interest to Americans.
In a practical sense, in the first place
Magsaysay is the American candidate.
He has become so without American gov-
ernmental action or American support of
any kind. But he is the American candi-
date none the less, by virtue of .his past
close links with American policy, when he
was fighting the Huks; and by virtue, too,
of the known though unspoken preference
of the Washington administration. Per-
feet correctness has been maintained by
Ambassador Raymond Spruance, but the
practical situation is such that a new
American ambassador will have to be
named if Quirino is re-elected.
Vastly more important, the re-election of
Quarino, if achieved by fraud and force,
will write finis to the hopeful political de-
velopment of the Philippines, the most po-
litically mature of the free nations of Asia.
Such a defeat for the cause of free gov-
ernment in Asia will be a sore blow in it-
In the Philippines, meanwhile, the surface
of affairs may remain unchanged for a lit-
tle. But discontent will smolder angrily be-
neath the surface even if it does not break
out in rebellion. The authority of govern-
ment, already precarious, will be weakened
still further. And the first external shock,
such as a drop in world demand for Phil-
ippine products and a resulting of poverty
and unemployment, will then be likely to
give the Philippine game to the Communist
Hukbalahaps, who are still capable of a
Maybe Manila opinion is wholly mislead-
ing. Maybe the Philippines are strong for
Quirino instead of Magsaysay. If the election
here is reasonably honest, there is little to
fear either way. But on present prospects
one kind of election result promises to
build the Philippines into a bastion of free-
dom in Asia, while the other threatens the
eventual loss of the Philippines as a signi-
ficant partner of the Free World. Those who
doubt the American interest in this kind of
change in the Asiatic power balance, need
only think of Korea.
(Copyright, 1953, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
WITH DREW PEARSON
C.u R R ENT rm o b/kIE
At the Orpheucm
THE WHITE LINE, an Italian film with
Enzo Stajola and Gina Lollobrigida
THE ITALIAN neo-realistic renaissance
which woke up the film industry all over
the world a few years ago has about run its
course. Unmistakable signs of deterioration
have been creeping in since the days of
"Open City," "Shoeshine," and "The Bi-
cycle Thief." Now comes Luigi Zampa's
"The White Line," a catalogue of all the
cliches of the school, technique without sub-
stance, style without fiber, feeling without
The gambit of the neo-realistic films
have been simple enough: the little guy is
at the mercy of an indifferent state. The
political constituency of the state does
not make much difference; indeed arbi-
trary realignments of the political alleg-
iances are used as a deliberately torment-
ing device designed to show the victim in
that particular condition of helplessness
that only the perfect indifference of the
state can cause.
In "The White Line," this is accomplished
with the least subtle of possible devices:
bringing a painted boundary line through
the middle of a peaceful community, arbi-
trarily dividing the ttown into Italian and
Yugoslavian armed camps. The United Na-
tions is the remote villain of the peace and
the entire remainder of the picture is occu-
pied in dramatizing the error of the politi-
cians' ways in terms of the unjust travails
forced on the people of the community.
It is consistently surprising the genius
Italian directors have for placing the cam-
era in the proper position at almost all
times; but it is equally surprising in this
picture that not a single honest moment re-
sults from this talent. Zampa's actors, from
"IT MAKES no difference what one's po-
litical expression may be. That man who
closes his mind even to listening to what
other men have to say for fear that they
may convince him to the contrary has made
himself a non-functioning member of the
democratic community. Not only does he
tear down the democratic principle, but he
also assumes unnatural opinions, and be-
the much publicized Gina Lollobrigida to
"Bicycle Thief's" young Enzo Stajola, react
with the same tormented expressions to all
situations; the situations themselves being
trumped up to jerk tears. The ending at
once offers a naive resolution and a phony
note of tragic hopelessness, even going so
far as to exploit a shot of the child bearing
the border marker on his back like Christ
with the cross.
What so many of the neo-realistic Ital-
ian film directors seem to have become
is soft-focus Frank Capras. They use nat-
ural locations and native costume with
telling effect, but, like Capra, they have
only one story to tell-man at the mercy
of the overlords. This is a dangerous story
to still try to tell with seriousness. It can-
not be told truly by means of suffering,
wordless children any longer, no more
than it can be told with the Mister Smiths
and Mister Deedses which Capra once
employed. Beyond a given point, you can
simplify an idea past any valid recogni-
tion of it.
The suspicion persists, particularly be-
cause of the liquid English narration spot-
ted through this film, that it was designed
for "international consumption," which too
WASHINGTON - Seldom have so many new American ambassa
dors been appointed from one city than the rash of Washingto
socialites named by the Eisenhower administration to represent th
United States abroad. They include millionaire Bob Guggenheim, am
bassador to Portugal; serious-minded philanthropist Corrin Strong
ambassador to Norway; charming party-giver Wiley Buchanan, wh
replaces Perle Mesta in Luxembourg; and palpitating Arthur Gard.
ner, scion-in-law of part of the Ford Motor fortune, who is ambas
sador to Cuba.
All were given a devastating round of farewell parties before the;
left Washington and none got a more intensive send-off than Ambas
sador Guggenheim, heir of the Guggenheim copper millions. Appar
ently the ebullient Bob figured that many of the people who enter
tained him in Washington were expecting to come to Portugal to b
entertained by him in return. At any rate he got a little stuffy abou
dinner parties in his honor, wanted to know who was coming, demand
ed that dinner start promptly at 8:30 p.m.
"How are you going to get people to dine at 8:30 at your
embassy when the Portuguese don't dine until 10:30?" asked
Mrs. Anthony McAuliffe, wife of the famed "nuts!" general who
refused to surrender to the Germans in the battle of the bulge.
"It'll be my embassy," replied the new ambassador, "and if the
don't come at 8:30 they won't get any dinner.
"It's a small embassy," he continued, "and I can seat only 22. I
my dining room here at home I seat 75.'
"But small dinners are better because that's where you get you:
information," suggested another guest.
Guggenheim agreed that it was the duty of an ambassador to se-
cure information, but continued to comment about the smallness o:
"When any of you come to see me," he warned, "I'm not going
to have you stay at the embassy. I'll resrve a room for you at th
hotel and send you the bill."
"Then I can't possibly afford to visit you," chided Mrs. McAuliffe,
"An army officer's salary is too low.
"I'm sorry," concluded the ambassador, whose bark is worse tha
his bite, "but I refuse to have anyone share my bathroom."
Note-Charming Ambassador Arthur Gardner spent a cool sum-
mer in Michigan, rather than Cuba, waiting for the American Em-
bassy in Havana to have its roof repaired. Arthur was not unhapp
about avoiding a Cuban summer, and the State Department was no
unhappy about having him avoid it.
- SMALL BUSINESS CHAMPION -
ONE OF THE TOUGHEST, fightingest battlers for small busines
Washington has seen in many a year stepped out of governmeni
yesterday. He is commissioner Steve Spingarn, member of the Federa
Trade Commission, who probably did more to revive the commission's
original concept of free competition than any other man in a decade
Spingarn began life as a Teddy Roosevelt Republican and di
his best to carry out T.R.'s attempt to prevent the American econom
from being dominated by big business. His views are the exact op-
posite of General Motors' Charley Wilson, who today is busy concen-
trating military production in the hands of three or four big firms.
So naturally when Spingarn's term expired yesterday he was
Before he stepped out, however, the irrepressible young
commissioner fired some blasts that may make precedent inside
the federal trade commission,
He warned that funds for protecting free enterprise were cut dan-
gerously low and demanded that FTC funds be fixed directly by Con-
gress, not by the White House under the budget bureau. Congress, he
pointed out, had set up the Trade Commission as an independen
agency to check on the executive branch of government, not to kow-
tow to it. Therefore its funds should not be scuttled-as they have
been recently-by the White House.
BUT THE OUTGOING commissioner fired his most potent blast a1
the oil cartel which he had helped to expose and prosecute. This
expose led to a grand jury investigation of five of the nation's top oi
companies, a probe later dropped by the Eisenhower Administration
Since the ending of price controls and of this prosecution, Sping-
arn pointed out, the oil companies have boosted prices to the poini
where it will annually cost the American consumer up to a billior
"Meanwhile," he said, "one major company has taken cash
dividends out of its middle eastern oil holdings during the past
five years amounting to 1,489 per cent of its average investment.
"It's easy to understand in view of these price increases why the
oil companies so bitterly and so relentlessly fought me and the com-
mission's oil report."
-SENTIMENTAL SPY CALIBER-
SPINGARN'S rather expansive bosom is covered with medals an
battle stars received in two World War II invasions and for op-
erating the 5th army's counterintelligence in North Africa and Italy!
His job was to plant American spies behind enemy lines and catcl
enemy spies behind our lines.
The oil companies and some of the politicians who have fought
Spingarn would never suspect that he nursed a strong streak of sen-
timentality. During the war, for instance, he captured an Italian girl
named Carla Costa who operated as a spy for the Nazis. For a long
time she refused to talk, finally broke down, told in detail what she
had done for the Nazis. She was sentenced to 20 years in jail.
Some years later, Spingarn, writing a series of articles for the
Guilt By Relationship .*.
ILO RADULOVICH faces an
air force administrative hear-
ing on the charge that he is a poor
security risk. The officials admit
that they do not doubt Radulo-
vich's own loyalty, but they con-
sider him a poor security risk
because of the alleged associations
of his father and sister.
Such a charge no longer is guilt
by association, but something more
insidious, guilt by relationship. As
Radulovich himself said, "A per-
son can pick his friends and as-
sociates but has no choice in his
parents and relatives."
In an atmosphere where such
rulings can occur, the present day
student is forced to choose with
fear his friends, his speaking ac-
quaintances, and even to be fear-
ful of his family.
One of our basic democratic
principles is that a person shall be
judged on his own performance. Is
this democracy when a person can
be suspect because of his father
and sister's alleged associations?
As citizens vitally interested in
maintaining our democracy, we
protest the possible discharge of
Radulovich by the air force.
-Paula Levin and eight other
girls from Steven's Coop
* * *
He Is Only One .. .
I VERY much regret having seen
the editors of the Michigan
Daily going off half-cocked, as
they did in the front page edi-
torial concerning Radulovich.
Although I do not doubt the
ability of the Air Force to make
a mistake I also have no doubt
that the Air Force has conducted
a much more thorough investiga-
tion into this problem than has
Another principle to be asserted
is that we millions of Americans
depend upon the enforcement of
security measures, to a degree, for
the security of our lives and our
way of life. It is useless to entrust
a government secret to a hundred
men, all "cleared" at great govern-
ment expense, if one of them will
betray the secret.
That is to say, that the number
of persons entrusted in this way
by the government, makes it in-
creasedly necessary to be certain
of the trustworthiness of each one
in order to be certain of the secur-
ity of the secret. In the past, the
desire of government security offi-
cials to protect human rights and
to be "nice" to people has been
exaggerated and very costly to the
free world as a whole. We have
erred on the side of laxity, and
seldom on the side of stringency.
Although the government would
lose human talents if it needelessly
decided Radulovich was a security
risk, I believe that the govern-
ment-the Air Force board in this
case-has no duty to be "nice" to
anyone, but has a very solemn duty
to the people of the United States.
The editors of the Daily display-
ed no knowledge or understanding
in stating that this "is a pertinent
example of security considerations
being carried beyond the point of
safeguarding the nation to the
point of discouraging vital govern-
ment personnel. . .. This is an
equally great security risk." Not
equally. One disloyal or careless
person can destroy the advantage
of a thousand conscientious work-
ers. One conscientious person re-
fused employment is very regret-
table, but it is only one, however
able he may be.
* . .
To the Editors:
IN VIEW of your recent editorial
on rushing counselors, we
should like to clear certain mis-
understandings that appeared evi-
The new system does not em-
phasize public relations to the ex-
tent suggested- in your article.
However, it is undoubtedly an im-
portant area that has been overi
looked in the past. Yet, the mere
fact that the rules have been
changed to allow rushing coun-
selors to rush, when not serving
in an official counseling capacity,
certainly doesn't mean that we are
strictly emphasizing public rela-
tions. It is true that personable
young men are wanted to meet
the rushees as. representatives of
the fraternity system. Formerly,
the majority of the individual
fraternities were unwilling to re-
lease from rushing their most rep-
resentative members. Yet, does not
the University follow the same pro-
cedure when they select their top
activity men to speak to alumni
and high school groups'
A second point in your article
pertained to counseling the young
men in regard to our fraternities.
Never have the rushing coun-
selors of the fraternity system
shown any partiality in their coun-
seling. It is recognized that a
rushee should and always has
made his own choice when consid-
ering fraternity affiliation.
Rushing counselors will continue
to impartially point out the finan-
cial status, obligations, scholar-
ship, etc. of each fraternity in
question, and, generally and speci-
fically, to counsel men through
the fraternity rushing period.
The new change has been care-
fully considered by men who have
previously rushed and are familiar
with the Michigan rushing system.
In addition, it is justly felt that
there can be no meaningful com-
parison between the Panhellenle
and Interfraternity rushing sys-
However, the fraternity system
will be the first to evaluate its new
proposal at the end of the present
rushing period. But until that time,
we feel the present situation to be
an equitable one for both the fra-
ternities and the rushees.
-C. A. Mitts, III
-John C. Baity,
Executive Vice-President, IHC
jDAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
has merely meant American
-Bill Wiegand '
New Books At The
Carrighar, Sally-Icebound Summer; New
York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1953
Farris, Jack-Ramey; Philadelphia, Z. B.
Lippincott Co., 1953
Franklin, Jay-Republicans on the Poto-
mac; New York, the McBride Co., 1953
Giskes, H. J.-London Calling North Pole;
New York, The British Book Centre, Inc.,
Roosevelt, Eleanor-India and the Awak-
ening East; New York, Harper & Brothers,
Scholes, Arthur-Seventh Continent; Lon-
don, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1953
"OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE and certitude
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publcation in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 2552
AdministrationNBuilding before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (before
11 a.m. on Saturday).
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1953
VOL. LXIV, No 5
General Library. On all Sundaysbdur-
ing the current academic year, begin-
ning September 27, the General Library
will be open from 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. Ser-
vice will be given in the Main Read-
ing Room, Periodical Reading Room,
and at the Circulation Desk. The Medi-
cal Library will not be open, but the
Medical Stack is accessible through the
Study Halls will be closed, but books
needed for Sunday use may be re-
served by students on Saturday.
Holders of stack permits will have
access to the stacks and may with-
draw books. Other users of the Library
may return and renew books at the
Choral Union Chorus. In order to
secure a proper balance of voices, a
limited number of tenors and basses
will be admitted by audition. Appli-
cants should make appointments for
tryouts at the offices of the University
Musical Society in Burton Memorial
Tower-telephone 7513 (or University
Co-operative Boarding Applications
are now being accepted. Three meals a
day are provided at approximately $8
per week. Apply in person, or write
Luther Buchele, 1017 Oakland, or phone
6872. Office hours, I to 5 p.m.
Hillel is having an Open House after
the football game. Everyone is cordially
Hawaii Club Mixer tonight at 8 p.m.
in the Wesleyan Lounge of the First
Methodist Church; Informal.
First Saturday Luncheon Discussion,
Lane Hall, 12:00-1:30 p.m. Good stu-
dent discussion. All students invited.
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Harry Lunn...........Managing Editor
Eric Vetter......,..........City Editor
virginia Voss.......Editorial Director
Mike Wolff......Associate City Editor
Alice B. Silver..Assoc. Editorial Director
Diane Decker......... Associate Editor
Helene Simon..,.... ..Associate Editor
Ivan Kaye............Sports Editor
Paul Greenberg.. .. Assoc. Sports Editor
Marilyn Campbell.. Women's Editor
Kathy Zeisler.. Assoc. Women's Editor
Don Campbell......Head Photographer
Thomas. Treeger......Business Manager
William Kaufman Advertising Manager
Harlean Hankin ..Assoc. Business Mgr:
William Seiden......Finance Manager
James Sharp.... Circulation Manager