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February 13, 1953 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1953-02-13

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Justice, If N
Daily Feature Editor S

A SIZEABLE segment of our University
community felt more than a twinge of
disappointment upon reading in yesterday's
newspapers that President Eisenhower had
refused to grant executive clemency in the
esXionage conviction of Julius and Ethel Ros-
For most of these, it was a disappoint-
ment borne partly out of a nameless, un-
easy suspicion that the Rosenbergs' trial
was not wholly in accord with this coun-
try's judicial tradition.
The first ground is incontrovertible; sen-
timental reaction can be attacked as impru-
dent but, since it is not offered in logical
wise, it cannot be refuted by logical argu-
ment. It is the second basis of disappoint-
mient which is open to assault, and for-
tunately so, for it is this suspicion of less-
than-justice which is by far the more dan-
gerous of the pair.
Those who would do this nation harm
realize full well the efficacy of such an
atmosphere of suspicion The Communist
Party, particularly through its front groups,
such as the Civil Rights Congress, the Labor
Youth League and the like, is in large part
respoinsible for its diffusion. At the same
time, It should be noted, the Party virtually
destroyed any chance the Rosenbergs might
have had for securing a lighter sentence, on
the Presidential or a lower level.
Perhaps designedly the concern of the
Party and its accomplices proved a kiss of
death just as it did in the case of Willie
McGee. More significantly, the Rosenbergs
appear to have cooperated in the Party's
project to make them dead saints. This
is apparent in their abrupt denials of the
considerable evidence and testimony of-
fered in support of the government's es-
pionage indictment.
Through such tactics, the Communists
and their martyrs-to-be have smeared the
reputations of those who have tried to se-
cure them clemency for humanitarian rea-
sons, as well as discouraging the support of
thousands who would have lent their names
to a commutation plea had it not meant as-
sociation with the Party.
EQUALLY RESPONSIBLE for the creation
of this miasmic aid of public self-re-
proach and troubled conscience, however,
is the fact that the American people, at
least that portion of it which likes to think
it thinks, is incredibly ill-informed about
the Rosenbergs' acts, their trial and their
For as President Eisenhower asserted,
the pair was tried "in the time-honored
tradition of American justice." Those
around the President report that his prime
concern in dealing with the clemency plea
was whether the atomic spies had received
the benefit of every legal right available
to any United States citizen. Satisfied of
this, the President refused the plea.
The record attests that Julius and Ethel
Rosenberg have had every legal advantage
since their conviction in March of 1951 of
conspiracy to transmit atomic secrets to
the Soviet Union. Since then the United
States Circuit Court of Appeals has refused
to reverse Judge Irving R. Kaufman's death
sentence and the Supreme Court has found
no cause for setting aside judgments of
either lower -court.
Meanwhile, the pair was granted a stay
of execution while the President considered
their plea for clemency.
Nor are all avenues of appeal exhausted
even yet. Should they secure a further stay
from Judge Kaufman, their counsel may
still appeal the President's decision to
the Supreme Court.
That all of these techniques of defense

lot Mercy
end appeal have proved useless may be con-
trued as an indication that the case against
he Rosenbergs is unassailable. The revela-
ions of the original trial before Judge
Caufman have withstood all attacks on the
)art of the Communists, their supporters
and their dupes.
The government's case there was suffi--
ient to establish the pair's guilt before a
ury' of their peers. The trial transcript es-
ablished beyond, at least, the jury's doubt
;hat the Rosenbergs were guilty of espion-
,ge in wartime. Bear in mind that part of
heir spying was accomplished before the
'ar's end in 1945; it is this consideration
'hich demands a penalty of up to 30 years
mprisonment, or death. Judge Kaufman
;hose the death penalty.
Death, for what?
* * *

THEROSENBERGS were indicted for per-
suading Mrs. Rosenberg's brother, David
Greenglass, a machinist at Oak Ridge and
Los Alamos, to gather and turn over to them
atomic bomb secrets from 1944 to 1946. In-
dicted with the couple was Morton Sobel, a
former University student, as a matter of
grisly record.
Both Greenglass and his wife confessed
their part in the conspiracy, which made
American atomic data available to the
Soviet Union through a spy-courier chain
which included the Rosenbergs, former.
Soviet vice-consul Avatoli Yakovlev, con-
fessed traitor Harry Gold, and convicted
British physicists Klaus Fuchs and Allan
Nunn May. Yakovlev fled this country in_-
After Gold's arrest, Greenglass testified,
Julius Rosenberg gave him $5,000 to flee
the country. Though arrangements were
made to shelter him in Soviet embassies in
Mexico, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia,
Greenglass refused to r unand was arrested
in June 1950.
Another witness, Max Elitcher, employed
during and after the war in the Naval Ordi-
nance Bureau, told how the Rosenbergs and
Sobell tried to get him to transmit secret
armament data for the Soviets.
There has been considerable difference of
opinion over whether the material trans-
mitted by the Rosenbergs was of any real
value to the Soviet Union. To those who
hold that the data was worthless, one canj
only offer the words of Judge Kaufman:
"Their traitorous acts were of the high-
est degree. They turned over information
to Russia concerning the most deadly
weapon known to man, thereby exposing
millions of their countrymen to danger or
death." "
This fragmentary accounting of the Ros-
enberg case should clarify matters some-
what, at leastson two counts: first, the Ros-
enbergs did enjoy the benefits of fair judi-
cial procedure; second, the judicial pro-
cedure did establish their guilt beyond legal
One may quarrel, however, with the in-
itial court decision, with the subsequent
judgments, and with the President's re-
fusal of clemency, on one score. Those
whose hearts are troubled by the Rosen-
bergs' fate on the simple ground that the
sentence is too harsh, in spite of the fair-
ness of the trial and their obvious guilt,
would sleep easier had the President been
more merciful. Surely, this consideration
is what prompted so many clergymen and
brilliant figures like Dr. Einstein to speak
up for clemency.
On the other hand, President Eisenhower
too might sleep easier had he granted the
plea. That he could not is, once again, testi-
mony to the enormity of the crime, to the
essential evil of the world conflict, and to
the unimaginable burdens supported by the
President of the United States.

The Privacy
Of Professors
THE MOST INVIDIOUS type of forced
self-incrimination has been taking place in
the New York public hearings under the
Senate Internal Security subcommittee. In
these hearings, which have been held peri-
odically since last fall, teachers in colleges,
secondary, and primary schools have been
asked to answer in 'yes' or 'no' terms ques-
tions as to whether they have Communist
As of Tuesday, 34 of 41 New York teach-
ers have refused to answer these ques-
tions under the guarantee of the Fifth
Amendment protecting witnesses from tes-
tifying against themselves. However, tak-
en in the context of public opinion, this
protection seems to be futile.
Simply by virtue of the fact that these
teachers have been called before the com-
mittee and that they have then refused to
state definitely that they are not or have
never had Communist connections, they are,
in the public eye, incriminated enough. It
is obviously impossible for the general pub-
lic, much less Sen. Jenner and company,
to grasp the possibility that many of these
teachers are refusing to answer on principle
and that this refusal does not, ipso facto,
indicate guilt.
By refusing to answer, these teachers
immediately assume the "Red" label and
consequently, their profession' is often
ruined because of this-social stigma. Un-
der the New York City Charter, several
teachers have already been dismissed from
their jobs for refusing to answer ques-
tions before the committee.
Another element which enters into this
rather gloomy picture is privacy. Suppos-
edly, the realm of personal privacy is a
cherished American tradition. But unlike
most aspects of the so-called American way,
this one is seldom trumpeted these days.
Now, educators are being asked to ans-
wer questions before the public concerning
private beliefs, private associations and pri-
vate membership in organizations. It is
specious to assume that a public servant,
such as a teacher, has no right to a private
Privacy is steadily being whittled away
and one wonders just how far these ques-
tions will pry into private lives in the fu-
In addition to these hearings under the
Senate committee, a barrage of college in-
vestigations by the House Un-American
Activities Committee is now beginning to
invade the realm of academic freedom.
Both these investigations are examples of
an unwarranted trespassing into a field
which could and should be handled by the
administrations of the schools concerned.
The damage done by these probes certainly
seems to outweigh any good which could
possibly be accomplished.
-Alice Bogdonoff
Russo - Israeli
PE BOMB THAT damaged the Soviet
legation in Tel-Aviv Monday also pre-
cipitated the severance of diplomatic ties
between Russia and Israel.
Four legation members and the wife of
the Soviet ambassador were injured in the
blast, which seemed to be a retaliation act
against anti-Zionist activities in the So-
viet Union, as evidenced in the Czech
trials and the purge of the Jewish doc-
Although Israeli government officials have
spoken out against the bombing and have
begun arresting suspects, Moscow radio ac-
cused the Israeli police of conniving with
the culprits.
The tension between Russia and Israel,
culminating, in the diplomatic break, may
be interpreted as another indication that

the Soviets intend to make inroads among ,
the Arabs at all costs.
It mgiht mean the beginning of new So-
viet overtures to the Arab countries. It
might mean that the Russians intend to
make their next move in the Middle East,
perhaps in volatile Iran. Certainly, it means
that Soviet pressure in that area will be
In one sense, breaking ties with Israel
may turn out to be a disadvantage to the
Russians, because the move will weaken
the heretofore formidable Israeli Com-
munist Party. On the other hand, this 11-
ability may be more than compensated
for if the Arabs so confuse their goals
and objectives as to flirt with the Com-
munists in the aftermath.
Whatever the case, the Kremlin may now
be considering the oil-rich, strategic area
ripe for picking..
-Helene Simon
A WORLD FOOD PLAN is the easiest way
to begin a peace program. Increasing
the world's food supply would stimulate in-
dustrial development and world trade. The
United States, Russia, and China, for exam-
ple, export food; Great Britain and India
import it from all three. An international
authority based on the U.N. specialized agen-
cies and given limited power and funds to
apply modern science to increase the world's
food supply would be a realistic approach
to the problem of what to do with the forces
of science. It would be a first step to a dy-
namic peace, the only kind of peace possible


"When Is The Next One?*

(Continued from Page 2)
Astronomical Colloquium. Fri., Feb.
13, 4:15 p.m., the Observatory. Speaker:
Dr. Leo Goldberg; Subject: The Absorp-
tion Spectrum of the Earth's Atmos-
History 110. The classroom for His-
tory 110 has been changed to 2116 Nat-
ural Science.
Aircraft Icing Reasearch Seminar.
Fri., Feb. 13, 3:30 p.m., 1075 East En-
gineering. Prof. John E. Rutzler Jr.,
of The Case Institute of Technology,
will speak on "The Adhesion of Ice."
English 180, Major American Writers,
will meet TuTS 11 in 2235 Angell Hall.
Organ Recital by Marilyn Mason, In-
structor in Organ in the School of Mu-
sic, 4:15 Sunday, Feb. 15, in Hill Audi-
torium. In three works Miss Mason will
be assisted by a Brass Ensemble com-
posed of Paul Willwerth, ;lice Harper,
and Donald Haas, trumpets, and Glenn
Smith and Allan Townsend, trombones.
These are: Purcell's Ceremonial Music
for Organ and Brass, Goller's Festliches
Praeludium, and Normand Lockwood's
Concerto for Organrand Brass. The
balance of the program will include
Suite for Organ by Edmund Haines, for-
mer University of Michigan faculty
member, Pavane by Robert Elmore, and
Olivier Messiaen's Dieu parmi nous
The general public is invited.
Faculty Concert. Helen Titus, pianist,
will beheard at 8:30 Sunday evening,
Feb. 15. in Auditorium A of Angell
Hall, in a program of compositions by
Haydn, Schubert, Scriabine, and Kab-
alevsky. Miss Titus is a member of the
faculty of the School of Music, and
her recital will be open to the gen-
eral public.
Events Today
Motion Pictures, auspices of Uni-
versity Museums, "Cell Division," "De-
velopment of a Chick," and "Meosis,"
Fri., Feb. 13, 7:30 p.m., Kellogg Audi-
torium. No admission charge.
International Committee of SL. Meet-
ing at 3 p.m., at Club 600, South Quad.
All interested persons are invited to at-
Westminster Guild. Skating party to-
night. Meet at the Church at 7:30 and
go to the Coliseum.
Also tonight at 8 p.m. Great Books
Seminar. First in a series to be con-
ducted by Robert Lacy, graduate stu-
Congregational Disciples Guild. Coun-
cil meeting,,Guild House, 4 p.m. All in-
terested in participating are welcome.
At 8 p.m., the graduate professional
group will meet to discuss "What Is
Happening to Our Freedom?"
The Lutheran Student Association
will hold their gala annual square dance
at 8:30. Lane Hall has been reserved
for the event and Professor Ivan Parker
will do the calling. Refreshments will
be served.
Delta Sigma P1. Rushing smoker
from 7:30 to 9 p.m. All Economics, Pre-
Business, and Business Administration
male students are invited. The Chap-
ter House is located at 927 Forest.
Sixty-Third Year
Edited and managed by' students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Crawford Young.......Managing Editor
Barnes Connabe............City Editor
Cal Samra........... Editorial Director
Zander Hollander......Feature Editor
Sid Klaus.......Associate City Editor
Harland Britz........Associate Editor
Donna Hendeman.....Associate Editor
Ed Whipple.............Sports Editor
John Jenks......Associate Sports Editor
Dick Sewell.....Associate Sports Editor
Lorraine Butler.......Women's Editor
Mary Jane Mills, Assoc. Women's Editor
Business Staff
Al Green..........Business Manager
Milt Goetz....... Advertising Manager
Diane Johnston.... Assoc. Business Mgr.
Judy Loehnberg.......Finance Manager
1-TotiV. T r, bin f.irml,, inanEageo rn


Wesley Foundation. Valentine Party
in Wesley Lounge at s p.m.
Hillel services will be held Friday eve-
ning at 7:45. After the services Mrs. Su-
sanne Sarnoff will speak on "Trends in
Modern Jewish Art." Everyone is wel-
Roger Williams Guild. Annual Valen-
tine party at s p.m., in the Fellowship
Coming Events
Hillel, in cooperation with IZFA,
presents on Sunday from 6 to 7 a
Supper Club. At 7:15 slides, entitled
"Thumbing Through Israel" will be
presented, followed by a playlet, "Trial
and Error," in memory of Chaim
Naval Research Reserve Unit 9-3. The
meeting originally scheduled for Tues.,
Feb. 17, will be held on Mon., Feb. 16,
at the Aircraft Propulsion Laboratory,
Willow Run Airport, at 7:30 p.m.
Those without transportation meet in
the Main Lobby of the East Engineer-
ing Building at 7 p.m.
Hillel. Saturday morning services will
be held at 9 a.m. at 1429 Hill Street.
The African Union will present a
discussion on "Africa at the Cross-
roads." Recreation Hall, International
Center, 8:30 p.m., Sat., Feb. 14. Speak-
ers on the subject of "Africa below the
Sahara" will be C. Ememe, Sycum Geb-
regziabher, L. Naidoo, H. Onubogu. Dr.
C. Davis will discuss "Africa As Seen by
an American." Professor Preston. W.
Phi Delta Kappa, men's honorary ed-
ucation society, will hold its initiation
luncheon on Sat., Feb. 14, 12:15 p.m. at
the Michigan Union. The speaker will be
Dean J. B. Edmonson, "The Under-
world of Education."
Formosa Policy.. ..
To the Editor:
MARK READER'S editorial on
President Eisenhower's deci-
sion to remove the 7th Fleet from
Formosa states that this decision
will "bring 150 million Americans
closer to a third world war."
But are we not fighting a third
world war now? Ex-President Tru-
man (and apparently Mr. Reader)
would have us believe that Korea
is merely a "police action."
Tell that to those marines who
lost hands and feet because of
frostbite. Tell that to the 130,000
American dead and wounded. Tell
that to the four quadruple am-
putees of the Korean War. And
then ask yourself, Mr. Reader,
whether it is not time that we go
all out, or get out, in Korea.
Far from being alarmed at Pre-
sident Eisenhower's "drastic deci-
sion," I feel secure in the know-
ledge that we are no longer pur-
suing a policy of compromise,ap-
peasement, and stalemate; that
we have as President a man whose
leadership, integrity, and ability
will lead us safely through the
next four years.
-Hank Berliner
Adlai Speech .. .
To the Editor:
T HIS SATURDAY evening, Feb-
ruary 14, Adlai Stevenson,
former governor of Illinois, f or-
mer Democratic candidate for
President of the United States,
will appear on television to once
again address the people of our
nation. This will be an address
well worth listening to. It will be
spoken by a man whose ability as
an orator is unquestioned. The
quality of his speeches is so high
that for months after the election
a book of his campaign addresses
remained a best seller. More im-

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Drew Pearson is on a trip to Berlin and Paris to check
on crucial developments there and report on progress being made in unifying
our Allies.)
PARIS-If a vote were taken today the United European Army pact
would not be ratified by the French chamber of deputies despite
the recent pilgrimage here by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.
Considering the fact that to have French and German troops march-
ing under one flag and wearing the same uniform is number one on
the list of American foreign policy and considering the fact that in
this are wrapped up the hopes of European peace for years to come,
this is not a happy prospect.
Dulles' trip at first gave impetus to the pact's ratification. Then
his remark in Bonn that Germany's borders should not stop at the
Oder River give it a bad setback. The French Chamber is subject to
the same public pressures and political whims as the U.S. Congress
and contains just as many prima donnas, so it is estimated that
Dulles' remark cost a minimum of 30 votes in the chamber.
It is believed, however, that this bogged-down situation can
be rectified before April 23, the deadline Dulles has set, but it
will take some superhuman negotiations and above all some skill-
ful changing of public opinion to do it.
What the State Department hasn't appreciated is the difficulty
of building a firm military structure on shaky public opinions. It's
like building a skyscraper in a swamp. There should have been an
educational campaign to convince the French and German people,
for 80 years at each other's throats, regarding the advantages of
military cooperation.
OVER THE COFFEE cups a group of young French officials were
' discussing their problems with Germany. I told them of inter-
viewing young Germans who had just escaped from the Communist
east zone and how I was impressed by the fact that these youngsters
comprised the biggest single group escaping from Communism.
"There is just one reason why they are leaving," I explained.
"They don't want to join the army. They don't want to fight."
This caused surprise among the Frenchmen.
"There ought to be some way we could get some of those young
Germans down here, let them be interviewed by French newspapers,
put them on the French radio and let the French people realize they
feel just the same way we do," remarked one French official.
"You have another great ally in Berlin," I suggested. "Mayor
Reuter was so much opposed to war with France that he was jailed
by Hitler. He finally escaped 'and spent the entire war in exile. A
lot of men now running Germany are like that. Senator Paul Hertz
spent years in exile during the Hitler regime. These are some of the
top men who are running Germany today. It would be a great thing
for French and German understanding if the city of Paris invited the
mayor of Berlin for an official visit and let the French government
get acquainted with the man who, like them, also 'spent many years
battling the Nazis."
The French officials frankly admitted that the French public
had no idea that anti-Nazis were currently guiding the affairs of
Germany. Exchange of cultural human relations, they said, was
the most important yet the most neglected part of our foreign
affairs today.
"We've set up the NATO organization to create a military es-
tablishment for a hot war which is to come in the future-if it has to
come at all," said one. "Yet we've failed to create an international
organization for the cold war which is already being waged."
A T THE LAST meeting of NATO information chiefs the Italian
delegate proposed that NATO-nations combine to intensify their
propaganda against Communism. Last October Italian Premier De
Gasperi personally initiated such a proposal, emphasizing that while
NATO nations were arming for the future they were losing the pro-
paganda battle of the present. A decision at that time was postponed
so, this month, De Gasperi's deputy revived the idea and urged action
on it. As usual, the British have opposed any united propaganda ef-
forts to educate the European masses regarding; either the aims of
NATO or the evils of Sovietism, so the British stand this time was no
What occasioned not only surprise but amazement, however
was when Joe Phillips, representing the State Department, firmly
seconded the British stand.
General Eisenhower, when head of NATO, was strong for vigorous,
united propaganda efforts by its members. Also, Eisenhower, when
running for President, delivered a speech pledging an active propa-
ganda campaign behind the iron curtain. Furthermore, his new Se-
cretary of State went out of the way to criticize Secretary Acheson's
"containment"' policy toward the Soviet as being too passive. Never-
theless, State Department information chief Phillips emphatically
sided with the British against the Italian proposal to set up a co-
operative propaganda agency to fight Communism.
AT ANOTHER NATO information meeting, the French represen-
tative proposed a move to prevent Russian jamming of the voice
of America and other Allied broadcasts. He suggested that the British
Broadcasting Corporation, the French radio and the Voice beam their
propaganda to Russia at exactly the same time, thus making it im-
possible for Moscow to jam all of them. Again State Department re-
presentative Phillips said no.
The French also suggest an international anti-Communist
propaganda committee to prevent propaganda confusion. For in-
stance, a favorite trick of the Polish radio is to compare what the
British radio says with the French and the Voice of America to
show the conflict between them and then announcing "obviously
they lie."
These are just a few of the problems badly needing solution if

the great goal of a United Europe is to become a reality.
(Copyright, 1953, by the Bell Syndicate)










THE MINNEAPOLIS Symphony Orches-
tra, the only orchestra to perform here
this year from the west, could' not have
picked a more auspicious time fir its visit
than this its fiftieth anniversary season.
Inspired by a tradition of musical directors,
including Eugene Ormandy, Dimitri Mitro-
poulis, and now Antal Dorati, it is easily
,one of the more competent orchestras in
the nation.
And except for 'one thing, last night's
concert showed it to best advantage. Mr.
Dorti is a champion of contemporary mu-
sic. Among the works he has already per-
formed this season have been Copland's
third symphony, Bartok's opera "Blue-
beard's Castle," Lopatnikoff's two piano
concerto, and Honneger's fifth symphony.
The orchestra has also commissioned a
symphony from Walter Piston. It is a shame
that this type of music, which Mr. Dorati
performs so well, was not able to be in-
cluded in his program here, but certainly
the music that was performed was well
worth it.
The concert began with Mozart's Sere-
nade, "Eine kleine Nachtmusik," and cur-
iously enough this work, by far the simpl-

precision. Debussy's "La Mer" was a tribute
to Mr. Dorati's keen sense of orchestral
balance. No sonority of the orchestra was
more important than any other as each of
the composer's nuances was carefully and
exactly enunciated while yet not destroying
the total impressionistic effect of the work.
After intermission the major work was
Brahms' first symphony. The orchestra
achieved a warm sound and there was
some very lovely solo work by ;the con-
certmaster, Mr. Druian. Mr. Dorati's con-
ception of this work was not so flamboyant
as others; the first movement was more
underplayed dynamically than overplayed
thus giving the entire climax of the work
to the last mqvement. This emphasized
the symphony's lyric quality and afforded
the orchestra's sections a splendid oppor-
tunity to sing, besides being very effective
and valid musically.
Though the strings were occasionally
guilty of undue restraint here, and also in
the Mozart, it was rather a sacrifice in be-
half of precise intonation. The same might
be said of the brass, though in the Debussy



by Dick Bibler

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