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PAGE FOUR

3

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

TUESDAY, MARCH 31, 195

The Rights and Responsibilities
Of Universities and Their Faculties

"Anything Specific?"

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

# ,;.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is a complete
text of the statement of the Association of Ameri-
can Universities on "The Rights and Responsi-
bilities of Universities and- Their Faculties,"
adopted March 24, 1953.)
." I.
SOLE OF THE UNIVERSITY
IN AMERICAN LIFE
F OR THREE hundred years higher edu-
cation has played a leading role in the
advancement of American civilization. No
country in history so early perceived the
importance of that role and none has de-
rived such widespread benefits from it. Col-
leges moved westward with the frontier
and carried with them the seeds of learning.
When the university idea was transplanted
from Europe, it spread across the nation
with extraordinary speed. Today our uni-
versities are the standard bearers of our
whole system of education. They are, the
mainstays of the professions. They are the
prime source of our competence in science
and the arts. The names of their graduates
crowd the honor rolls of two world wars
and of the nation's peacetime affairs. By
every test of war and peace they have prov-
ed themselves indispensable instruments of
cultural progress and national welfare.
In the United States there is a greater
degree of equality of opportunity in high-
er education than anywhere else In the
world. A larger proportion of Americans
study in universities and colleges than any
other people. These universities have
shown and continue to show greater res-
ponsiveness to the needs of our society
than their European counterparts. They
have equipped our people with the varied
skills and sciences essential to the devel-
opment of a pioneer country. They have
imparted the shape and coherence of the
American nation to formless immigrant
groups. American ideals have been streng-
thened, the great cultural tradition of the
West has been broadened, and enriched by
their teaching and example.
Modern knowledge of ourselves and of
our universe has been nurtured in the uni-
versities. The scientific, technological, med-
ical, and surgical advances of our time were
born in them. They have supplied intellec-
tual capital as essential to our society as
financial capital is to our industrial enter-
prise. They have more than justified the
faith of the public in our distinctive system
of higher education. They have proved
themselves dynamic forces of American pro-
gress.
II.
THE NATURE OF A UNIVERSITY
A UNIVERSITY is the institutional embo-
diment of an urge for knowledge that
is basic in human nature and as old as the
human race. It is inherent in every indivi-
dual. The search that it inspires is an in-
dividual affair. Men vary in the intensity
of their passion for the search for know-
ledge as well as in their competence to pur-
sue it. History therefore presents us with a
series of scholarly pioneers who advanced
our knowledge from age to age and increas-
ed our ability to discover new knowledge.
Great scholars and teachers drew students
to them, and in the Middle Ages a few sucl
groups organized themselves into the first
universities.
The modern university which evolved
from these is a unique type of organiza-
tion. For many reasons it must differ
from a corporation created for the purpose
of producing a salable article for profit.
Its internal structure, procedures, and dis-
eipline, are properly quite different from
those of business organizations. It is not
so closely integrated and there is no such
hierarchy of authority as is appropriate to
erarchy of authority as is appropriate to
a business concern; the permanent mem-
bers of a university are essentially equals.
Like its medieval prototype, the modern
American university is an association of in-
dividual scholars. Their effectiveness, both
as scholars and as teachers, requires the
capitalizing of their individual passion for
knowledge and their individual competence
to pursue it and communicate it to others.
They are united in loyalty to the ideal of
learning, to the moral code, to the country,

and to its form of government. They repre-
sent diversified fields of knowledge, they
express many points of view. Even within
the same department of instruction there
are not only specialists in various phases of
the subject, but men with widely differing
interests and outlook.
Free enterprise is as essential to intel-
lectual as to economic progress. A university
must therefore be hospitable to an infinite
variety of skills and viewpoints, relying up-
on open competition among them as the
surest safeguard of truth. Its whole spirit
requires investigation, criticism, and presen-
tation of ideas in an atmosphere of freedom
and mutual confidence. This is the real
meaning of "academic" freedom. It is es--
sential to the achievement of its ends that
the faculty of a university be guaranteed
this freedom by its governing board, and
that the reasons for 'the guarantee be un-
derstood by the public. To enjoin uniform-
ity of outlook upon a university faculty
would put a stop to leprning at the source.
To censor individual faculty members would
put a stop to learning at its outlet.
for these reasons a university does not
take an official position of its own either
on disputed questions of scholarship or on
political questions or matters of public
policy. It refrains from so doing not only
in its own but in the public interest,, to

in those discoveries and at the same time
developing his powers of rational thought,
intelligent judgment, and an understand-
ing use of acquired knowledge. Thus es-
sential qualities of learning are combined
with essential qualites of citizenship in a
free society.
To fulfill their function the members of
university faculties must continue to ana-
lyze, test, criticize, and reassess existing
institutions and beliefs, approving when
the evidence supports them and disapprov-
ing when the weight of evidence is on the
other side. Such investigations cannot be
confined to the physical world. The ac-
knowledged fact that moral, social, and
political progress have not kept pace with
mastery of the physical world shows the
need for more intensified research, fresh
insights, vigorous criticism, and inventive-
ness. The scholar's mission requires the
study and examination of unpopular ideas,
of ideas considered abhorrent and even dan-
gerous. For, just as in the case of deadly
disease or the military potential of an
enemy, it is only by intense study and re-
search that the nature and extent of the
danger' can be understood and defenses
against it perfected.
Timidity must not lead the scholar to
stand silent when he ought to speak, par-
ticularly in the field of his competence. In
matters of conscience and when he has
truth to proclaim the scholar has no obli-
gation to be silent in the face of popular
disapproval. Some of the great passages in
the history of truth have involved the open
challenge of popular prejudice in times of
tension such as those in which we live.
What applies to research applies equal-
ly to teaching. So long as an instructor's
observations are scholarly and germane to
his subject, his freedom of expression
in his classroom should not be curbed.
The university student should be exposed
to competing opinions and beliefs in
every field, so that he may learn to weigh
them and gain maturity of judgment.
Honest and skillful exposition of such
opinions and beliefs is the duty of every
instructor; and it is equally his privilege
to express his own critical opinion and
the reasons for holding it. In teachng, as
in research, he is limited by the require-
ments of citizenship, of professional com-
petence and good taste. Having met those
standards, he is entitled to all the pro-
tection the full resources of the univer-
sity can provide...
Whatever criticism is occasioned by these
practices, the universities are committed to
them by their very nature. To curb them,
in the hope of avoiding criticism, would
mean distorting the true process of learning
and depriving society . of its benefits. It
would invite the fate of the German and
Italian universities under Fascism and the
Russian universities under Communism. It.
would deny oul' society one of ts most fruit-
ful sources of strength and welfare and re-
present a sinister change in our ideal of gov-
ernment.
* * * .
III.
THE OBLIGATIONS AND RESPONSIBIL-
'ITIES OF UNIVERSITY FACULTIES
WE MUST recognize the fact that honest
men hold differing opinions. This fun-
damental truth underlies the assertion and
definition of individual rights and freedom
in our Bill of Rights. How does it apply to
universities? In the eyes of the law, the
university scholar has no more and no less
freedom than his fellow citizens outside a
university. Nonetheless, because of the vital
importance of the university to civilization,
membership in its society of scholars en-
hances the prestige of persons admitted to
its fellowship after probation and upon the
basis of aohievemeit in research and teach-
ing. The university supplies a distinctive
forum and, in so doing, strengthens the
scholar's voice. When his opinions chal-
lenge existing orthodox points of view, his
freedom may be more in need of defense
than that of men in other professions. The
guarantee of tenure to professors of mature
and proven scholarship is one such defense.
As in the case of judges, tenure protects the
scholar against undue economic or political

pressures and ensures the continuity of the
scholarly process.
There is a line at which "freedom"' or
"privilege" begins to be qualified by legal
"duty" and "obligation." The determina-
tion of the line is the function of the
legislature and the courts. The ultimate
interpretation and application of the First
and Fourteenth Amendments are the func-
tion of the United States Supreme Court;
but every public official is bound by his
oath of office to respect and preserve the
libertes guaranteed therein. These are not
to be determined arbitrarily or by public
outcry. The line thus drawn can be
changed by legislative and judicial ac-
tion; it has varied in the past because of
prevailing anxieties as well as by reason
of "clear and present" danger. Its loca,
tion is subject to, and should receive, cri-
ticism both popular and judical. However
much the location of the line may be cri-
ticized, it cannot be disregarded with Im-
punity. Any member of a university who
crosses the duly established line is not
excused by the fact that he believes the'
line ill-drawn. When the speech, writing,
or other actions of a member of a faculty
exceed lawful limits, he is subject to the
same penalties as other persons. In ad-
dition, he may lose his university status.
Historically the word "university" is a

enhanced if he has the humility and the
wisdom, to recognize the fallibility of his
own judgment. He should remember that
he is as much a layman as anyone else in
all fields except those in which he has spe-
cial competence. Others, both within and
without the university, are as free to criti-
cize his opinions as he is free to express
them; "academic freedom" does not include
freedom from criticism.
As in all acts of association, the profes-
sor accepts conventions which become
morally binding. Above all, he owes his
colleagues in the university complete can-
dor and perfect integrity, precludiig any
kind of clandestine or conspiratorial ac-
tivities. He owes equal candor to the pub-
lic. If he is called upon to answer for his
convictions it is his duty as a citizen to
speak out. It is even more definitely his
duty as a professor. Refusal to do so, on
whatever legal grounds, cannot fail to
reflect upon a profession that claims for
itself the 'fullest freedom to speak and the
maximum protection of that freedom
available in our society. In this respect,
invocation of the Fifth Amendment places
upon a professor a heavy burden of proof
of his fitness to hold a teaching position
and lays upon his university an obligation
to reexamine hs qualifications -for mem-
bership in its society.
In all universities faculties exercise wide
authority in internal affairs. The greater
their autonomy, the greater their share of
responsibility to the public. They must
maintain the highest standards and exercise
the utmost wisdom in appointments and
promotions. They must accept their share
of responsibility for the discipline of those
who fall short in the discharge of their aca-
demic trust.
The universities owe their existence to
legislative acts and public charters. A
State university exists by constitutional
and legislative acts, an endowed univer-
sity enjoys its independence by franchise
Aom the state and by custom. The state
university is suppoorted by public funds.
The endowed university is benefited by
tax exemptions. Such benefits are con-
ferred upon the universities not as favors
but in furtherance of the public interest.
They carry with them public obligation
of direct concern to the faculties of the
universities as well as to the governing
boards.
Legislative bodies from time to time may
scrutinize these benefits and privileges. It is
clearly the duty of universities and their
members to cooperate in official inquiries
directed to those ends. When the powers of
legislative inquiry are abused, the remedy
does not lie in non-cooperation or defiance;
it is to be sought through the normal chan-
nels of informed public opinion.
IV.
THE PRESENT DANGER
WE HAVE set forth the nature and func-
tion of the university. We have out-
lined its rights and responsibilities and those
of its faculties. What are the implications
for current anxiety over Russian Commun-
ism and the subversive activities connected
with it?
We condemn Russian Communism as we
condemn every form of totalitarianism.
We share the profound concern of the
American people at the existence of an
international conspiracy whose goal is the
destruction of our cherished institutions.
The police state would be the death of
our universities, as of our government.
Three of its principles in particular are
abhorrent to us: the fomenting of world-
wide revolution as a step to seizing power;
the use of falsehood and deceit as nor-
mal means of persuasion; thought con-
trol-the dictation of doctrines which
must be acepted and taught by all party
members. Under these principles, no
scholar could adequately disseminate
knowledge or pursue investigations in the
effort to make further progress toward
truth.
Appointment to a university position and
retention after appointment require not on-
ly professional competence but involve the

affirmative obligation of being diligent and
loyal in citizenship. Above all, a scholar
must have integrity and independence. This
renders impossible adherence to such a
regime as that of Russia and its satellites.
No person who accepts or advocates such
principles and methods has any place in a
university. Since present membership in
the Communist Party requires the accept-
ance of these principles and methods, such
membership extinguishes the right to a
university position. Moreover, if an instruc-
tor follows communistic practice by becom-
ing a propagandist for one opinion, adopt-
ing a "party line," silencing criticism or
impairing freedom of thought and expres-
sion in his classroom, he forfeits not only
all university support but his right to mem-
bership in the university.
"Academic freedom" is not a shield for
those who break the law. Universities must
cooperate fully with law-enforcement off i-
cers whose duty requires them to prosecute
those charged with offenses. Under a well-
established American principle their inno-
cense is to be assumed until they have been
convicted, under due process, in a court of
proper jurisdiction.
Unless a faculty member violates a law,
however, his discipline or discharge is a
university responsibility and should not
be assumed by political authority. Disci-

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Xettegp TO THE EDITOR

,

The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
editors.

[U' Paternalism . ,.,
To the Editor:
THE TIME has now come for me
to add my voice to the chorus
of students participating in extra-
curricular activities in expressing
strong disapproval of the manner
in which the administration of the
University proceeds in making de-
cisions' directly concerning, the
student body. The matter to which
I specifically refer is the recently
announced change in final exami-
nation schedules. As usual, student
opinion was not solicited although
there existed two excellent chan-
nels for opinion in this instance,
the Student Legislature and the
Senior Board. The tune was the
same this time as in the past, but
the words were a bit different. This
time it was an academic rather
than a business matter in which
the administration assumed the
students would have little inter-
est.
Under the circumstances, I can
not help remember the words of
one administrator as he addressed
the Student Legislature early last
fall. At that time, the Legislature
was told that the administration
would always be happy to aid stu-
dent governing bodies if only they
would consult the members of the
administration when considering
matters of policy. From all evi-
dence, this is to be only a one way'
process. Is it that the people
charged with administering the
University don't feel that the stu-
dents are interested enough in
their own welfare, is it that the
students are not intelligent enough,
or is it that they are just not con-
sidered to be important enough?
I wonder.
It is evident that this continued
practice on the part of the admin-
istration has dimmed the zeal of
the prospective student leaders
and has helped to produce an all
campus apathy drive on the part
of the students. Perhaps it is per-
tinent to remind the administra-
tors that the State of Michigan is
looking to the University to pro-
duce fine citizens as well as clear
thinking scholars. Perhaps, though,
this task is out of the educational
as it is to academic integrity. The
university is competent to estab-
lish a tribunal to determine the
facts and fairly judge the na-
ture and degree of any trespass
upon academic integrity, as well
as to determine the penalty such
trespass merits. ,
As the professor is entitled to no
special privileges in law, so also
he should be subject to no special
discrimination. Universities are
bound to deprecate special loyalty
tests which are applied to their
faculties but to which others are
not subjected. Such discrimina-
tion does harm to the individual
and even greater harm to his uni-
versity and the whole cause of ed-
ucation by destroying faith in the
ideals of university scholarship.
XV.
CONCLUSION
FINALLY, we assert that free-
dom of thought and speech is
vital to the maintenance of the
American system and is essential
to the general welfare. Condemna-
tion of Communism and its prota-
gonists is not to be interpreted as
readiness to curb social, political,
or economic investigation and re-

realm of even as fine a school as
"The Harvard of the West" (with
apologies to Dr. Conant). As the
time for the revised final examina-
tion period draws near, it is to be
hoped that the new group of stu-
dent leaders will find the, admin-
istration more cooperative and
more approachable than did the
disillusioned and disgruntled group
leaving Michigan in June.
-Roger W. Wilkins
President L.S.A.
Class of '53
* * *
Educational Goals . .
To The Editor:
' UCH OF THE misunderstand-
ing lately emanating from the
discussion of educational goals
comes from a confusion of the ap-
parent and actual objectives of a,
student's education.
To be sure, a wise student who
wants the most modern and fash-
ionable University facilities will
always inform the Alumni, State
Legislature, and other beneficiar-
ies that the objective of his educa-
tion is to find the Truth, Know-
ledge, and Understanding neces-
sary to benefit mankind. Altruis-
tic objectives seem to appeal to
philanthropists, and a clever stu-
dent will never question the pro-
priety of his beneficiaries' motives.
But the advantages derived from
misleading his providers will be
lost if the student, in turn, be-
lieves the fallacies he promotes.
The actual purpose of his educa-
tion should be nothing more or
less than to gain the maximum
advantage he can achieve over
those with whom he later bar-
gains and competes. Thus, by
gaining the maximum knowledge
while in school, the student will
be best able to convince his intel-
lectual and economic opponents
that what he knows to be good
only for himself is; also, very good
for his opponents.
The truth of this educational
objective seems evident. Never-
theless, there are an increasing
number of students who believe
they should be at the University
for the sole purpose of finding
ways to benefit mankind. That
is unfortunate. These students,
though sincere, must nevertheless
suffer by failing to pursue know-
ledge which will prepare them for
the realities of life awaiting them
on the not-so-altruistically-mind-
ed side of human society.
-Bernie Backhaut
Sixty-Third Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
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Editorial Staff
Crawford'Young. ...Managing Editor
Barnes Connable...........City Editor
Cal Samra... .... ..Editoria Director
Zander Hollander..... Feature Editor
Sid Klaus ...... Associate City Editor
Harland Brit?.........Associate Editor
Donna Hendleman.....Associate Editor
Ed Whipple............Sports Editor
John Jenks......Associate Sports Editor
Dick Sewel.....Associate Sports Editor
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Mary Jane Mills, Assoc. Women's Editor
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Business Staff
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The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
'TYPEwRITTEN form to Room 2552
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (before
11 a.m. on Saturday.)
TUESDAY, MARCH 31, 1953
Vol. LXII, No. 125
Notices
Student Tea. President and Mrs.
Hatcher will be'at home to students
from 4 to 6 o'clock Wednesday, April
1.
General Library. A University re-
gulation requires that all students leav-
ing Ann Arbor for extended vaca-
tions must return library books before
their departure. The purpose of this
regulation is to insure the availability
of books for scholars who wish to use
them while the University is not in
session.
In accordance with this rule, stud-
ents planning to spend Spring vaca-
tion outside of Ann Arbor must re-
turn Library books to the Charging
Desk of the General Library (or the
proper Divisional Library) before leav-
ing the city.
Special permission to charge books
for use outside Ann Arbor may be
given in case of urgent need. Ar-
rangements must be made at the
Charging Desk for books from the
General Library or with Librarians in
charge of Divisional Libraries.
Students taking library books from
Ann Arbor without permission are
liable to a fine of $1.00.
The Preliminary Examinations for the
Ph.D. in English will be given as fol-
lows in 2419 Mason Hall from 9 to 12
a.m.
Tues., April 14: English Literature to
1550
Sat., April 18: English Literature
1550-1750
Tues., April 25: English Literature
1750-1950
Sat., April 25: American Literature
Students intending to write any of
these examinations should notify Pro-
fessor J. L. Davis, Secretary, Graduate
Committee, 1624 Haven Hall, before
April 3.
Women Students now on campus who
have not renewed their present hous-
ing agreements for the fall semester,
1953, may apply for housing accommo-
dations on Wed., April 1, at the Office of
the Dean of Women, 1514 Administra-
tion Building. Applications will be ac-
cepted from both graduate and under-
graduate women. Information concern-
ing the types of housing available may
be secured at any time in the Office
of the Dean of Women.
The University General Stores will be
closed to take inventory the week of
April 13 through the 17th.
An appraisal of Departmental needs
for materials regularly supplied by the
General Stores should be made in time
so that Stores Requisitions may be
filled and delivered before Fri., April
10. Your cooperation in anticipating
and ordering your requirements of
Stores items for the week of April 13th
will be appreciated.
Juniors wishing to enter the Honors
Program in Psychology for the year
1953-54 should apply by letter to Dr. W.
J. McKeachie, Chairman, Honors Com-
mittee, Department of Psychology, on
or before April 3.
Blue Cross Group Hospitalization,
Medical and Surgical Service. During
the period from Mar. 30, through Apr. 17,
the University Personnel Office (3012 Ad-
ministration Bldg.) will accept new
applications as well as requests for
changes in contracts now in effect.
These new applications and changes be-
come effective June 5, with the first
payroll deduction on May 31.
The Personnel Office. has just been
notified that after Apr. 17, no new ap-
plications or changes can be accepted
until April, 1954.
Students, College of Engineering. The
final day for Removal of Inompletes
will be Fri., Apr. 3. Petitions for exten-
sion of time must be on file in the
Secretary's Office on or before Fri.,
Apr. 3.
Students, College of Engineering. The
final day for Dropping Courses Without
Record will be Fri., Apr. 3. A course
may be dropped only with the permis-
sion of the classifier after conference
with the instructor.
Law School Admission Test. Applica-
tion blanks for the Law School Admis-
sion Test to be given on April 25, are
now available at 1213 Angell Hall or 110
Rackham Building. These application

blanks are due in Princeton, New Jer-
sey, not later than April 15, 1953
Medical College Admission Test. Ap-
plication blanks for the May 9 admin-
istration of the Medical College Ad-
mission Test are now available at either
1213 Angell Hall or 110 Rackham Build-
ing.. These application blanks are due
in Princeton, New Jersey, not later
than April 25, 1953.
Camp Davis Meeting. A meeting of
all Civil Engineering students who plan
to attend Camp Davis this summer will
be held on Wednesday evening, April
1, at 7:30, in 205 West Engineering
Building.
Junior, Senior, and Graduate Stu-
dents in Aeronautical Engineering. Two
Frank P. Sheehan Scholarships and one
Curtiss- Wright Scholarship for 1953-
54 are available in the Aeronautical En-
gineering Department. It is anticipat-
ed that other scholarships may be
available later. Interested students will
please address letters of application to
Professor E. W. Conlon, 1079 East Engi-
neering Bldg., giving a brief statement
of their qualifications and experience
as regards both scholastic and outside
work, military status, and plans for
further study. Applications will be re-
ceived up to April 15.
Teachers Interested in Detroit. Mr.
George Baker, Personnel Director, of De-
troit, will hold a meeting in 1025 An-
gell Hall, Thurs., April 2, at 4 p.m. for
all juniors and seniors who are inter-
ested in teaching in the Detroit Public
Schools.
Personnel Requests.
T e Washington National Insurance
Co.. Detroit. has available positions in

The American institute of Launder-
ing, Joliet, Ill., is seeking a man to fill
a position in their Laboratory Division.
They are interested in a person with a
degree in Chemistry or one with two
years of Chemistry with 'some experi-
ence. The Chemistry involved is In-
organic.
Ann Arbor Organization hasan open-
ing for a Clerk-Typist. Women with a
knowledge of typing may apply.
Sales Engineers are needed in the De-
troit area to sell to utility, engineering,
and heavy construction firms for Erico
Products, Inc., of Cleveland, Ohio.
Ceco Steel Products Corp., Chicago,
Ill., offers a Training Program to Engi-
neers or persons with at least three se-
mesters of Engineering with an inter-
est in sales.
For, further information and appli-
cations, contact the Bureau of Appoint-
ments, 3528 Administration Building,
Ext. 371.
Lectures
Dr. Otto F. Janko, Professor '-of
Economics and Education of the staff
of the viennese University, vienna,
Austria, who is travelling in this
country under the sponsorship of the
State Department, will speak on "Aus-
tria-A Country Split by -the Iron
Curtain" on Tues., Mar. 31, at 4 p.m.,
in 2412 Mason Hall. Dr. Janko will il-
lustrate his talk with movies of pre-
sent-day Austria. His appearance is un-
der the auspices of the Department
of Journalism. The public is invited
to the lecture and to a coffee hour
immediately following in 1443 Mason
Hall.
Benning Dexter, Associate Professor
of Piano in the School of Music, will
give the final lecture in the series
of Tuesday afternoon discussions of
music for the piano. At 4:15 on March
31, in Auditorium A, Angell Hall, Mr.
Dexter will perform and give an analy-
sis of Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 209. The
general public is invited.
Academic Notices
Doctoral Examination for Harol
Frederick Allen, Aeronautical Engineer-
ing; -thesis: "Engineering Applications
of the Theory of Tine-Dependent Elas-
ticity," Tues., Mar. 31, 1073 East En-
gineering Building, at 4 p.m., Chairian,
E. W. Conlon.
Mathematics Colloquium. Tues, Mar.
31, at 4:10 p.m., 3011 Angell Hall, Pro-
fessor G. P. Hochschild of ,the Univer-
sity of Illinois will speak on Algebraic
Cohomology Theory and Class Field
Theory.
Part II,.Actuarial Class, will meet
Tues., Mar. , at 2:10 p.m.In 3201
Angell Hall to discuss integral calculus
problems.
Engineering Mechanics Seminar. Mr.
P. R. Sethna will speak on "Stability
Criteria in Non-Linear Mechanics" at
3:30 p.m. on Wed., Apr. 1, in 101, West
Engineering Building.
Events Today
Young Democrats. Meeting tonight
at 7:30 in Room 3-G of the Union. A
discussion will be held on labor leg-
islation, with emphasis on Tat-Hart-
ley. All interested persons are invited
to attend.
Senior Board. Meeting tonight at 7:30
In the SL Building.
Deutscher Verein meeting, at 7:30,
third floor, Michigan Union. Dr. Nord-
meyer: lecture, Omar Khayyam in Ger-
man verse; comments in English.
Fro~h Weekend, The Publicity Com-
mittee for the Blue Team will be work-
ing on posters Tues., Wed., and Thurs.
nights in the Publicity Room of the
League from 7 to 10 p.m. All members
of the committee and anyone inter-
ested in helping are urged to come.
The Graduate History Club will hold
its second meeting of the semester, at
8 p.m. in the West Conference Room of
the Rackham Building. Professor George
E. Mendenhall of the Department of
Near Eastern Studies will speak on "The
Bible as History" Refreshments will be
served.

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Motion Picture. / Ten-minute film,
"Beach and Sea Animals"-shown Mon.
through Sat. at 10:30, 12:30, 3, and 4
o'clock and on' Sun. at 3 and 4 o'clock
only,k4th floor, University Museums
Building.
Square and Folk Dance Workshop. Ex-
perience in calling and learning new
dances. guest caller. Lane Hall, 7:30-
10:00.
Si.A. Council meets at Lane Hall,
5:15 p.m .
Hillel. There will be a meeting for
representatives of all groups who are
building booths for the Independence
1.Day Carnival, at Hillel, at 4 p.m., today.
The Civil Liberties Committee will
meet this evening in the Michigan Un-
ion, starting at 7:30 p.m. Discussion
will be on the topic: "Towards a Defi-
nition of Acadenic Freedgm."
Coming Events
Pre-Medical Society Meeting will be
held on Wed., Apr. 1, at 7:30 p.m., An-
gell Hall Auditorium D. There will be
a program of films. A business meeting
for members will follow during which
elections will be held for next year's
officers. Refreshments will be served.
All 'Pre-Meds are invited.
Wesley Foundation. Morning Matin
Wed., Apr. 1, from 7.30( to 7:50. Re-
fresher Tea Wed. from 4 to 5:30.
Phi Beta Kappa. Annual Meeting,
Wed., Apr. 1, in 1035 Angell Hall at 4:30
p.m. Members are urged to attend.
Russky Chorus. There will be a meet-
ing of the Russky Chorus Wednesday on
the ninth floor of the Bell Tower. All
members please attend.
Roger Williams Guild. Lenten Chat
Wed. from 4:30 until 5:30 in the Guild
House. All Baptist students and their
friends are urged to use this social hour
to relax over refreshents while be-
coming better acquainted with the
minister and the other students.
Roger Williams Guild. Yoke Fellow-
ship meets Thurs., at 7 a.m. in the
Prayer Room of the First Baptist
Clhurch. We have been reading selee-

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