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THE MICHIGAN DAILY
BEHIND THE LINES
9 The Impact of Science on Society
By CAL SAMRA
Daily Editorial Director
BERTRAND RUSSELL'S latest effort, The
Impact of Science on Society has much
to commend it from a literary standpoint.
As a satirical artist and stylist, Lord Rus-
sell has no peer, and his irrepressible
thrusts and trappings are refreshing to a
reader bored by intolerable textbooks and.
forced academic labor.
Beyond its literary qualities, however,
the book is not in the Russell tradition
of penetrating creativity. Rather, it seems
to be a rehash of conceptions which long
ago were adequately presented by such
writers as Huxley, Shaw, Conant, and Or-
Russell is primarily concerned with science
as technique and science as philosophy.!
Scienti~ic repercussions on political institu-
tions, both oligarchic and democratic, are
cleverly traced. This is coupled with an an-
alysis of the relation of scientific technique
to war and peace. Finally, Russell discusses
science as a philosophy of tolerance and
science as a philosophy of power.
As technology, science has become a Le-
viathan to Russell. In furnishing the means
for industrialization, it has regimented Man
in an organic society. Man has become noth-
ing but a cog, lost in a swarm of organiza-
tions, the most extensive of which is the
state .It has permitted government offi-
cials and dictators to control the "mass
mind," to maintain a tyrannical power over
citizens in the name of security.
The increased power of officials," Rus-
sell observes, "is an inevitable result of
the greater degree of organization that
scientific technique brings about. It has
the drawback that it is apt to be irres-
ponsible, behind-the-scenes power, like
that of emperors' eunuchs and kings' mis-
tresses in former times."
The striking aspect of Russell's book is
its pointed lampooning of government offi-
cials and totalitarians who have been nur-
tured on a scientific philosophy of power.
Though himself a socialist, he excoriates the
police-staters and bureaucrats in terms
which would gladden the heard of an Amer-
ican Republican. A state which substitutes
the welfare of the whole for the welfare
of the individual is tyrannical, whether pow-
er is held by one or 6,000,000 Cars.
Russell's sights are particularly aimed
at progressives who "narcissistically hyp-
notized by contemplation of their own
wisdom and goodness, proceed to create
a new tyranny, more drastic than any pre-
viously known. This breed he says,
claims a transcendental love for the pro
letarlat, when, in reality, they only hate
the rich. Science, by laying the founda.
tions for a regimented society, by provid-
ing instruments of control, and by pro
viding a philosophy of power, has per.
mitted their perpetuation, for instance, in
The influence of George Orwell on Rus-
sell is indisputable. He charitably acknow-
ledges Orwell's 1984 several chapters after
he has plagiarized him.
Lord Russell is rightfully dismayed by
what he believes to be a "race between hu-
man skill as to means and human folly as
to ends." He points out that technology--
namely, the atom and hydrogen bombs-
is rapidly chasing mankind to the brink of
destruction, primarily because or knowledge
is far greater than our wisdom.
The answer to the problem the English
philosopher does not find so simple. He sug-
gests a greater emphasis on the Rights of
Man and the necessity for broadening free-
dom of states internally while restricting it
externally. He demands more tolerance on
the part of individuals and nations. If scien-
tific society is to survive, nations must be
subordinated to a World Law and World
Government. He proposes the abolition of
war, "even distribution of ultimate power,"
and birth-control-all of which might be
offered as panaceas by liberals, world fed-
eralists, and Malthusians.
Then suddenly he jolts the reader with r
a highly un-Russellian pronouncement.
Thishedoes apologetically. "There are
certain things that our age needs, and
certain things that it should avoid ... The
root of the matter is a very simple and
old-fashioned thing, a thing so simple that
I am almost ashamed to mention it, for
fear of the derisive smile with which wise
cynics will greet my words. The thing I
mean-please forgive me for mentioning
it-is love, Christian love, or compassion.
If you feel this, you have a motive for
existence, a guide in action, a reason for
courage, an imperative necessity for in-
tellectual honesty. . . " This is Russell the
atheist, the mechanist grudgingly admit-
ting that there may be some purpose to
Whatever the merits of Russell's sugges-
tions, the reader still has an uneasy feeling
that the planet is destined to be blown to
smithereens-regardless, and it is difficult
to share his belief that the present situa-
tion can be met by "courage, hope, and
reasoned optimism." It's somewhat like
scratching an appeal for clemency while
dangling from the gallows. However, every-
one is entitled to a modicum of optimism.
Parenthetically, what makes Russell's lat-
est particularly notable is the fact that he
has finally succumbed to the notion of pro-
gress. Heretofore, the philosopher of un-
certainty has treated the notion rather skep-
tically. Even in his Unpopular Essays, he
never had the heart to admit it. Now, he
concedes, for instance, that 20th century
England has undergone considerable im-
provement over 19th century England. Ap-
parently, his celebrated suspension of judg-
ment has undergone suspension in his old
In passing, it should be noted that Rus-
sell, what ever his genius, frequently des-
cends to a method of argumentation
which is hardly befitting a scientist of his
stature. It is a devious method employed
by Soviet geneticists and diplomats, which
certainly does not recommend it. In brief,
the idea is to satirize something you dis-
agree with, even parody it, and then pro-
ceed to tear it down on that basis. While
this may be effective in literature, jour-
nalism, diplomacy, and Soviet genetics, it
does not seem justifiable in the realm of
In any case, The Impact of Science on
Society is the product of a great and bril-
liant mind struggling with the pressing
problems of the times. It is replete with a
glowing humanitarianism and abounding in
congenial wit. As such, the book should be
welcome on this campus, and all can eagerly
look forward to the day when The Impact of
Bertrand Russell on Society appears, which
should not be too far in the foreseeable fu-
(Courtesy of Slaters)
The A pathetic
AS FEWER STUDENTS turn out for more
jobs in campus organizations, campus ac-
tivity leaders are wondering whether the
caliber of the Michigan student is sinking.
Despite knowledge to the contrary, a talk
with some of these extra-curricular chiefs
gives one the impression that the draft has
laid claim to everybody within a 200-mile ra-
dius of Ann Arbor.
The Daily needs men in the worst way,
they say, the 'Ensian could use some help,
and if somebody doesn't try out for foot-
ball manager pretty quick, rumor has it
that Fritz Crisler and Bennie Oosterbaan
will be spending their fall evenings clean-
Nobody knows for sure what is the under-
lying reason for the lack of interest in cam-
pus activities. Some contend that this uni-
versity is being over-run by "vegetables."
This strange species characteristically ex-
hibits a completely apathetic attitude tto-
His sole source of joy seemingly comes in
criticizing the efforts of his colleagues who
are doing something activity-wise. The fra-
ternity men, for example, who cry to the
heavens for vengance whenever an uncom-
plimentary piece appears in the pages of the
Daily, should check around to see how well
they are represented on the paper before
complaining about slanted coverage. They
would be surprised at what they would find.
The worst offenders as a group, from an
activity standpoint, seem to be first year
men. Whether it's the threat of Korean duty
in the event of academic failure that's hold-
ing them back, or just plain laziness, is a
subject open to speculation, but if the Stu-
dent Directory wasn't just as big as always
you wouldn't even know they were on cam-
It is time that these "vegetables" real-
ized that half of college life is the college
atmosphere, and that unless students,
especially the underclassmen, go out for
extra-curricular activities, this place
won't have an atmosphere.
Obviously enough, extra-curricular activ-
ities have a way of benefitting both the in-
dividual and the University.'It is downright
folly for students to pass up the opportunity
to dip into the vast reservoir of profitable ac-
tivities which this institution can provide.
Daily Managig Editor 92
Recounts Early Activities
EDITOR'S NOTE: Ralph Stone was Sports Editor when the first Daily
came out on September 24, 1890. The following year, he became the second
Managing Editor. Stone did his undergraduate work at Swarthmore College,
attended Law School here. Since graduation, Stone has distinguished him-
self in the banking business. He served two terms as University Regent, from
This is the second in a series of articles by prominent Daily alumni re-
evaluating their college life in terms of their later experience.)
BY RALPH STONE
Daily Managing Editor, 1892
THE TOURING LEGISLATORS
And this, Gentlemen, will be the site of our Mr. Crisler's
"Stadium Management Seminar."
/ettep TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretioA of the
YOU REQUEST an article "re-evaluating my college experience
with the perspective that time and experience can give," with
answers to such questions as: "What type of curriculum would you
choose? "and" What courses have been particularly valuable?" You
also ask what emphasis I would now put upon the various phases of
college life, generally known as "extra-curricular," such a social, fra-
ternities, which you specifically name, and naturally you would in-
clude athletics, student journalism, musical, dramatic, debating, relig-
ious, political, etc., organizations.
1-As to the "curricular" queries: It would be necessary to
first say that I entered the Law School in September 1890 with
the degree of A.B. from Swarthmore Collgee, Class of 1889, and
after "reading law," as it was then known, for one year, in the
office, in Wilmington, Delaware, of a lawyer, known then as a
"preceptor," who directed the reading of text books, and oc-
casionally quizzed the student. The lawyer, in my case, was a
United States Senator, 'so his partner did most of the quizzing.
That experience gave me a background of legal lnowledge which,
of course, was helpful at Law School. However, it is difficult, in
looking backward? to answer your queries as to what "type of
curriculum" and what "courses" I would consider "particularly
valuable," with benefit of "the perspectice of time and exper-
I graduated from the Law School with the Class of 1892, but ac-
tually allegedly "uracticed law" only one year;b ecoming an officer
To the Editor:
EASILY THE MOST amusing
letter in the Wednesday Issue
of the Daily was Jasper Reid's in
which he stated that only true-
blue, 100 percent. 24 carat, genu-
ine Republicans may join the
Young Republican Club. Exactly
what a Republican is, I cannot
imagine. I will concede that a gov-
ernment official or employee,
whose job depends on a Republi-
can administration, could call
himself a Republican. However, I
fail to understand how an Ameri-
can citizen, unaffiliated with gov-
ernment, could simply say that he
would give his "general support
to all party candidates." regard-
less of who they might be. This
applies to both parties. I have al-
ways believed that the intelligent
voter will vote for the man, not
for the party. I also believe thatj
neither political party has such a
monopoly (as Mr. Stevenson said),
on virtue or vice that I should sup-s
port or oppose that party exclu-
Mr. Reid desires that "card car-
rying" Young Republicans sin-
cerely support these nebulousj
principals of Republicanism. I
trust he will not find it necessaryj
to form an investigating commit-
tee to clear prospective members
of possible Democratic tendencies.
Presumably, a simple oath will
satisfy the exeutive board that the
applicant will not stray from the
principals of Republicanism.
* *; *
Fo thoed .d.i
To the Editor :
his hands. . . . No political opposi- of a trust company in 1893 and still serving as such in successive offi-
tion is tolerated. cial capacities at Grand Rapids and Detroit, a period of nearly 60
"Two U.S. officials of the Mu- years, However, during all that/ time I was in constant professional
tual Security Agency have just fin- contact with lawyers, and, until recent years, transacted legal busi-
ished a three month study of labor ness in the office and in the courts for the two trust companies.
conditions on Formosa. Their re' But the real, or more important reason, why it is difficult to
'Child labor is common in most answer your queries is that the curriculum and the courses, and in
industries and often on the land. fact the whole program of legal education, has made such tremendous
Small children are loading and strides in advance, in improvement in methods of teaching, etc., that
pushing carts of ore underground a comparison with the methods of over 60 years ago is not only almost
in the copper and gold mines . . . impossible to, make but would not lead to very valuable or useful
Less than one child in ten on For- conclusions.
mosa attends school beyond the For instance in 1892, the faculty, exclusive of a few part-time
grades. teachers, numbered only six. Today the faculty numbers thirty.
"Labor has almost no rights.
There are no trade unions in the Then all the courses were required and all of the instruction
accepted sense. So-called labor or- was by lecture or textbook. The quizzes of individual students were
ganizations, claiming about 130,- very few in the course of a year, because of the small faculty
000 members, are government con- and the large number of students. My class of 1892 totaled 294 at
trolled. . . . No collective bargain- graduation, 32 now living. The class of 1951 graduated 252--ex-
ing contracts exist. .. . Strikes are clusive of juris doctor, master of laws and doctor of the science
forbidden by law. Last year how- of law, total 56. Today the Law School Announcement for 1952-53
ever, squalid conditions drove lists seven required courses for the first year, three for the second
workers in salt fields t riot. . . year and four for the third year. (In 1892 all courses *ere re-
con"ludehthe goanmnstigs quired for the total of two years.) Today the Announcement lists
fconcluded the government is en- twenty-nine elective courses and twenty seminars and special
tiey learned, have been frozen courses, a total of4 49 ,as well as experience in "practice courts"
for three years while in the first and "Case Clubs."
nine months of 1951 prices rose The present Law School offers other ancillary advantages not
39.5 per cent. Workers' living offered by the School (then known as "Law Department") of sixty
standards have sunk out of sight." years ago. The Bulletin of the old school does contain the statement
Those responsible for America's that "It is desirable that students should be familiar with the more
new foreign policy insist upon important of the leading cases, and, therefore;members of the
Chiang as an ally, yet are puzzled junior classes are required to make a study of Leading Common Law
by the ineffectiveness of their anti-Cn
E -1 Cases." Memory is faulty but I think there were occasional trials of
L+ ±MUSIC, +
THE BUDAPEST String Quartet presented
the second in the current series of three
concerts last night in the Rackham Audi-
torium. Three composers were represented,
each by the work that is considered his mas-
terpiece for this combination.
The Quartet in D major by Dittersdorf
was as interesting as it was entertaining.
A contemporary of Haydn and Mozart,
the composer showed himself clearly in-
debted to the former in many respects. His
use of the slow opening theme, three move-
ment construction and dramatic pauses,
and the dominance of the first violin are
all typical of the earlier quartets of Haydn.
This slow opening theme, in the first move-
ment, was employed in a unique way, how-
ever, in that it was not the introduction
one expected. Rather it proved to be the
main theme of the movement, being used
in the development and repeated in the
final return; each time played in a tempo
relatively slower than the second theme.
Mr. Roisman, the first violinist, suffered a
little rosin trouble in the first and last move-
ments, but otherwise the performance went
smoothly. This cannot be classed as great
music, but it compares favorably with many
of the Haydn and Mozart works of the same
period, and served as an excellent begin-
ning for the concert.
ciated with the early church music. This
rhythmic freedom was more than com-
pensated for in the other movements, how-
ever. Such virility of motion is a won-
derful rebuttal to those who consider im-
pressionistic music too effeminate and
ethereal. This is music that is difficult to
take sitting down, so strong is the urge to
move with it.
The obvious rhythmic element was wisely
subdued by the Budapest Quartet, in favor of
the sheer sound inherent in the combina-
tions of notes, which chords in themselves are
a source of great vitality. I need not reiter-
ate Mr. Harris' accurate account yesterday
of the wonderful sound which emanates from
this group. One can't help but marvel again
at the rapport which exists between these
players. While maintaining an individuality
impossible within an entire section of a sym-
phony orchestra, each player still seems to
know exactly what the others are going to do
at all times. Indeed, it would be interesting
to watch these four men at a game of bridge!
Schubert's last quartet, numbered 15 and
dated 1826, closed the program in a manner
hardly anticlimactic. Unified by the ma-
jor-minor relationships present in both the
first and fourth movements, this work is so
symphonic in conception that one contin-
At the State
"THE NAKED SPUR"
A SLIGHTLY Better than average west-
ern, The Naked Spur nevertheless fol-
lows the standard pattern closely enough to
make it interesting only to those who like
the comfort of an old, familiar story.
James Stewart, the pursuer, Robert Ryan,
the pursuer, Ralph Meeker and Millard Mit-
chell are all men with "passions."
Stewart's preoccupation is a ranch
which he hopes to buy with the $5,000 re-
ward being offered for the capture of Rob-
ert Ryan. Mitchell is an unsuccessful but
still hopeful gold prospector, while Ryan
and Meeker both suffer from less directed
restlessness which leads Ryan to commit
murder and Meeker to seduce an Indian
girl, thereby putting the entire Blackfoot
tiibe on his trail.
Janet Leigh is a less intensive character
whose major function seems to be to "do"
(massage) the back of the outlaw Ryan to
whom she is devoted.
The film's major deviation from the stand-
ard formula, is that the capture takes place
at the beginning of the story, the rest of
the celluloid being used to depict the com-
pany's safari back to Kansas, where Ryan
committed the crime.
At the outset, the situation stands:
Ryan and Leigh against Stewart, Mitchell
and Meeker. Ryan, however, who presum-
ably has greater psychological insight
than the rest, clumsily tries to divide his
captors by creating suspicions and jeal-
ousy among them.
The young lady's wavering affections fur-
ther confuses the situation until it confuses
Mitchell to the point of commenting "It's
getting so I don't know which way to point
the gun anymore.,'
Anyway, as in most westerns the scenery
is lovely, the animals are intelligent, and
there are enough rocky peaks and swift
rivers to keep the action at an exciting
pace. Also there is the expected brutality,
the sand-paper tenderness, and in this
film the added joy of an incomprehensible,
James Stewart is charming, as always.
Robert Ryan is looking more boyish these
days, and Janet Leigh shouldn't have used
so much eye-shadow. It looks mighty ridicu-
lous out there among all those natural
Stalinist program. At the present I
tune, the Formosan farmer or la-I
borer cannot choose between de-
mocracy and . totalitarianism; he
must accept one master or seek a
Henry Elsner, Jr.-
A Bit More Effort . .
To the Editor:
!"I AI nI tNT Tnr ,r,-, SnA rT'rN . 71 TN
(ENE MEASURE of Chiang Kai- CARO L t UMBA U adUD. J
shek's value as an ally is the Clarkson wrote a most inter-
record of his administration on esting'and enlightening "letter to
Formosa. In light of the currently the editor," which appeared in
accepted notion that he has "re- this paper February 19, 1953. I;
formed" since being ejected from k was most surprised to find out that
the mainland, we believe the Jan. there are women here on campus
9th report of Frederick Kuh, for who are desirous of making male
eign correspondent of the Chica- acquaintances. In my five years at
go Sun-Times, to be of interest. the university, I have observed
The lesson Chiang learned, says virtually no indication that this
Kuh, is the need for some land re- virtally n iation that this
form for the peasants. But other- was the ase. I am sure that there
wise- are many many desirable young
cases in student moot courts, sixty years ago. I am indebted to, Dean
Stason of the Law School for much of the foregoing information.
It must be understood that old Law School in 1892 was re-
garded as among the foremost progressive law schools of the
country. In Indiana, for instance, at that time, a certificate of
good moral character was all that was required to practice law.
It should be borne in mind, too, that the tremendous develop-
ment and growth in methods of legal education at Michigan
(and elsewhere) was due largely to, and in response to, the de-
mand for specialists in the various branches of law--as in medi-
cine and other professions-created and stimulated by the vast
volume and complexity of business and industrial organizations,
in the fifty years, or thereabouts, known as the "Material Age"
or "Machine Age."
So, for the foregoing reasons, I find it difficult to re-evaluate to-
day my experiences in legal education of sixty years ago. There can
be no doubt, however, that the experience of that time-as would be
true of the school experience of today-in mental training, and in
the retaining of some knowledge of fundamental legal principles,
irrespective of specific courses, was of much continuing advantage
C through the subsequent years.
2-As to the "extra curricular" activities queries: I would ramble
along indefinitely as to these, but my alloted space is about used up
with the foregoing. If participation in student activities outside of
the purposes for which educational institutions are operated, is, so
to speak, an offense, then I must be considered a gross offender, for
I spent a generous part of my time at both college and university
in athletic and student journalism activities. Such participation, of
course, can be overdone. It should be regulated and controlled. Even
after the sobering and modifying influence of sixteen years as a
Regent, I feel that the "play time" activities of the student body,
have an important and necessary part in the whole program of edu-
cation. I will be guilty of quoting that much used saying that "All
work and no play make Jack a dull boy." I like the motto of our
athletic association at Swarthmore College, "Mens sana in corpore
sano"-A sound mind in a sound body. Our great President Angell,
speaking to the Detroit alumni, at a meeting on December 14, 1906,
4 said: "Though I have been pictured as a reformer in college athletics,
I am free to state that that feature of life at the University has been
one of the most efficient instrumentalities in bringing about such a
i union" (referring to a statement he had just made that "the Un-
e versity was never so filled with the united spirit.") He added: "No
"All pover on this 13,000 square
mile island refuge is centered in
(Continued from page 2)
La P'tite Causette will meet tomor-
row from 3:30 to 5 p.m. in the North
Cafeteria of the Michigan Union. Alf
interested students are invited.
The Hillel Social Committee will meet
on Tues.. Feb. 24, 4 p.m., Hillel Bldg.
All committee members and interested
people are invited.
Annual Brotherhood Banquet. Lane
Hall, Monday evening, 6 p.m. Dr.
Franklin H. Littell, speaker.
Tickets for Department of Speech
Spring Playbill will go on sale at the
Menaelssohn box office at 10 a.m. on
Monday, Feb. 23. First production is
Gounod's opera "Faust," produced with
the School of Music and to be sung in
English. Other productions inclu e
Pirandello's amusing comedvr"Righ.
You Are If You Think You Are," Mar.
25-28; Puccini's opera "Madame But-
terfly," April 16, 17, 20, and 21; and
D'Usseau and Gows modern drama
"Deep Are the Roots." Special reduced
rates for students. Box office open daily
from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.
men who feel exactly as these two
young ladies. Further. I am con-
fident that if these coeds expended
I some effort (a little more than
just sitting and waiting) to rem-
edy the situation. the returns
would be most gratifying.
-David R. Reitz
Six )-Thard Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under th
authority of the Board in Control of single influence has done so much (as college athletics) to carry the
__tudentPu _____t__ns._great body of students together in a common interest."
Editorial Staff I like, too, the paragraph in Vice-president Pierpont's Finan-
Crawford Young.....Managing Editor cial Report for year ended June 30, 1952, referring to the many
Barnes Connable...... City Editor services rendered to the students by the University and the
Zandier oiander Eitlire dtor "facilities for student recreation, student publications, including
Sid Klaus Associate City Editor the daily newspaper, the year book. and literary and humor mag-
Harland Brit7 ....Associa'e Editor azines," in which he says:
Donna Hendleman. ...Associate Editor "These services obviously carry the interest of the University
John Jenks.... Associate Sports Editor in its students beyond the wall's of the class room. This is in accord
Dick Sewell.. Associate Sports Editor with the University's conviction that its task is the education of the
Lorraine Butler . Women's Editor whole man' and that the student's housing, his extra-curricular in-
Mary Jane Mills Assoc. Women's Editor terests and opportunities, his health and general welfare, all have a
Business Sta f3 bearing upon his education, and upon his progress toward useful cit-
kAl Grecon......... .. Business Manager izenship."
Milt Goetz.......Advertising Manager Considerably more than one-half of the capital assets of the
Diane Johnston ...Assoc. Business Mgr. University have come to it from its alumni, alumnae and friends.
Judy Loehnberg .. .. Finance Manager
Harlean Hankin . Circulation Manager Much of these gifts have been inspired, not only by a feeling of
ari_ an __a_ _o.ligaution tthe TTniversity for the mental equipment and stimulus,