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May 22, 1952 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1952-05-22

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T
THE MICHIGAN DAILY ' ', ,:A kk 21,,T

FOUR

I I

t-

x. Hatcher's Delay
on the Bias Bill
ON MARCH 11, the Student Affairs Com-
mittee, by a 7-6 vote, passed the Stu-
dent Legislature's watered-down ant-bias
clause bill. The bill provided that all fra-
ternities with bias clauses in their constitu-
tions must, petition their national organiza-
tions every year for its removal. Failure to
do so would lead to a denial of University
recognition. The bill then went to President
Hatcher for approval. Two months later, it
reiains on the president's desk, and no de-
cision has yet been announced.
It is difficult to avoid drawing a para-
lel between President Hatcher's handling
of the case and the way President Ruth-
ven dealt with it last year.
Last March, an anti-bias clause bill,
which set a five-year time limit on bias
clause removal, was passed by the SAC and
went to President Ruthven. Ruthven with-
held his decision until almost the last day
;of the semester, when he vetoed it.
This action was unfair to the students.
Because it was vetoed at so late a date,
no formal protest or action could be un-
dertaken by recognized student groups,
which, under SAC rules, had to disband
one week before the semester ended.
Furthermore, Ruthven's reasons for veto-
ing the bill were based on a "would-be" vio-
lation of property rights. To many students,
these arguments seemed like rationaliza-
tions, and led to the suspicion that the main
reason was excessive alumni pressure.
This is President Hatcher's first real
test in the eyes of the students. Since he
is a "freshman" president, he has not
been expected to take a strong stand on
controversial issues.
But whatever he decides in this case, it is
imperative that he make his decision im-
mediately, so that the student body will
have time to consider it. And he should also
show his faith in the students by giving
all the reasons for his decision, even alumni
pressure, if that is the case.
-Jerry Helman *
'TheFunction
of A College
(EDITOR'S NOTE: On November 27, Charles
Odegaard, now Dean of the literary college, ad-
dressed the Annual Conference on Higher Edu-
cation here on campus. The following is taken
out of the speech's context.)
APPARENTLY, there are widely accepted
values in the educational experience-
the football drama, fraternal life, campus
politics, the general social entree college pro-
vides-but it is equally apparent that one
must be careful not to acquire too much
refinement in the working of his rational
parts, one must not develop too much en-
thusiasm for activity of the mind, one must
not become too proficient in reasoning lest
he be distinguished from his fellows as an
intellectual. I submit that one of the anoma-
lous features of American life is this combi-
nation of a deep belief in widespread popular
education and a lurking anti-intellectualism.
The basic problem is the justification of
higher education in terms of a clearer
understanding of its purpose, of its pe-
culiar contribution to the social. order
through the experience it provides for
those Individuals who pass through our
colleges and universities.
My prejudice in this matter is obvious. I
believe that colleges and universities should
be institutions designed to aid individuals,
who have the capacity and aptitude, to in-

crease their power to think at higher and
higher levels of comprehension about prob-
lems, to emancipate themselves from con-
-ventionally-received stereotypes, more and
more to free themselves from immediate
emotional reactions in favor of more con-
sidered judgments, and thus to increase the
rational resources in our society for con-
fronting the problems of human life.
Though the primary aim of the college
should be the cultivation of the student's
mind, we recognize that the mind does not
function in a vacuum, that the student,
like any living human being, is embraced
in a personal, social and physical context
within which he has to act and to make
decisions affecting his own life and the
lives of others. What we can achieve in a
well-planned college is a context which
stimulates the student to think about his
personal life and his social and physical
environment, a context which provides
him with ready access to minds present
and past which have thought about, anal-
yzed, and sought the interrelationships
among human experiences in society and
nature.
The function par excellence of the college
is to teach, to instruct, to aid in the develop-
ment of men's minds, to encourage students
to reflective consideration of all types of
human experience.
New Books at Library
Harnsberger, Caroline Thomas-"A Man
of Courage; Robert A. Taft." New York,

PROGRESS IN PENOLOGY:
Indeterminate Life Sentences
Proposed As a Practical Goal

AS A FOOTNOTE to all the investigations
and inquiries on' the causes of the Jack-
son prison riot, it was interesting to read
an editorial in one of the last issues of
"The Spectator," the prison newspaper, pub-
lished just before the outbreak suspended
operations there. The Spectator office was
one of the casualties on the mob violence,
and it will be a while before the presses are
repaired.
The column, written by an inmate in
March, about six weeks before the rioting,
may suggest an insight into what has
been going on in the minds of prisoners
across the country in the last few uneasy
months. Certainly this insight has not
been provided by any of the ex-post-facto
analyses of the self-styled experts.
In part, the inmate wrote:
"It took twenty-five years for this prison
to become overloaded. Aseuming that most
of this time has been spent in seeking
methods to curb crime by punishments,
deterrents, and researches and investiga-
tions, not much apparently, we're sorry to
see, has been accomplished.
"Groups still meet to discuss the prob-
lem of juvenile delinquents-the felons
and convicts of tomorrow. Theories are
still offered for their predicament. And
the prison still fills its cells.
Legislators still propose laws-stiffen
the punishment in others. Point an in-
dignant, trembulant finger at crime and
cry, "that'll fix you!'
"Nuts!
"Increased punishment, let alone mere
punishment, never has and never will
deter crime. The impression made on a
particular offender is unimportant. It's
the impression made on those who have
yet to be snatched up by the law, the
novice with no experience in crime. Pun-
ishment inflicted on other people is some-
thing easily forgotten . .
"We believe that confinement with a
purpose-ending when it has served its
purpose-would do as much, if not more
than the current concept-that of social
ostracism for a number of years.
"Too many people believe that a defin-
ite sentence to prison, say from 3 to 15
years, mollifies the offender's infraction
of society's rules and laws. They are
wrong. In effect, they tell the offender
he will no longer be a criminal at the end
AlItruism
In Prisons
DURING THE past few weeks, while the
explosion of unprecedented prison riots
has held the headlines, few people have
realized that behind the walls of many pri-
sons, inmates are contributing to medical
science.
In the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus,
for example; inmates are having their
blood typed for civil defense purposes. At
the Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Geor-
gia, volunteers are being bitten by malar -
ia-infected, anopheles mosquitos to pro-
vide human test-tubes for measuring new
therapeutcs.
It is traditional in prisons that when a
call is made for human guinea pigs for vital
scientific experiments, there are always
more volunteers than can be used. An in-
mate's participation in such experiments
doesn't grant him financial reward or spe-
cial consideration with regard to sentences.
Many risk their lives in such experiments.
knowing only that they are making a con-
tribution to society.
At the same time,nany prison officials
have been accomplishing wonders in the
field of penology. In such modern pri-
sons as Sing Sing, they have instituted
extensive programs of psychotherapy, vo-
cational rehabilitation, and medical treat- ,
ment which will help inmates make. a
healthy adjustment to society when they
are released.

Although much of the severe criticism ex-
tended to both inmates and prison adminis-
trators is perhaps justified, it is only just'
that the sincere efforts of many and their
contributions to social progress be recog-
nized. The total picture is far from black.
-Marim Levin

of that time, and fit to live as a free man.
Would it be any different if a doctor told
his patient that he would be well at 12:30
the next Tuesday afternoon?"
The writer than proposes the adoption of
the "indeterminate life sentence" system
which would reform the criminal code and
place the discretion of the length of all
sentences after conviction in the hands of
a board or agency. In other words, sentences'
would run from "one day to life," release
being at the discretion of the board.
He concludes by saying:
"The idea isn't new. But the nearest to
realization of this is legislation now being
processed that gives a judge the power to
sentence sexual psychopaths to a one-
day-to-life term. The 'one day' feature is
okay because it means that the prisoner
can be released at that moment when his
'cure' is apparent, be it a day, a year, or
five years. Punishment and confinement
beyond what is needed defeats the pur-
pose-that of re-socialization."
In spite of his admitted prejudices, the
inmate who contributed this advice may
have unconsciously struck much closer to
the fundamental motives for the coming
rebellion than many of the off-the-cuff
inquiries afterward which cited over-
crowding, improper segregation, under-
staffing, and so forth. The issue he raises
is that of the precise social purpose of the
prison term in Michigan. It is a question
that has not only confused the writer of
the article and frustrated other prisoners
with its apparent contradictions, but has
confounded officials as well. Out of it,
psychotics like Earl Ward play John L.
Lewis, and men like Vernon Fox become
victims of the political opportunists.
Typical of this inability to comprehend
the problem was Senator Homer Ferguson's
statement on a recent radio broadcast. The
Senator said of the riot that he was shock-
ed to learn that men in prison had no res-
pect for law and order. The Senator ap-
parently does not understand that to a pri-
soner condemned to life in a penitentiary,
there is no order. He has nothing to gain
and nothing to lose; he is a man completely
without direction. To a prisoner with a sen-
tence of twenty years or more, things are
not much better. Progressive penology re-
ceives lip service, "re-socialization" becomes
the tormenting lure to the convict; but the
criminal courts still operate under mosaic
codes.
These codes, as the writer notes above, do
not deter crime outside the walls, and the
very contradiction of their hopelessness fos-
ters unrest within the walls. This is a basic
truth breeded by a basic confusion in goals.
It transcends allsecondary corrective meas-
ures such as segregation and better staffing.
At a time of reaction against progres-
sive penology (and Dr.*Fox in his recent
address here described this as such a
time), it is worthwhile to try to reaffirm
the principles under which its sponsors
are working. The indeterminate life sen-
tence for all crimes is one of the ways to
implement their objectives. Its acceptance
ought to be urged in Michigan.
Through it, men in prison can become hu-
man beings with human goals, rather than
flotsam supported by the state. It elimi-
nates the tormenting contradiction between
a surface policy of "re-socialization" and
the contrary practice of long sentences.
It minimizes the importance of judge
and jury in such a fashion that it looks
forward to the day when these ineffi-
cient institutions of medieval cultures
may finally be eliminated. The legal
eagles and court hangers will be replaced
by men with experience in the criminal
diseases. Eventually, it is possible that
qualified penologists could -form a guild
simliar to the bar associations. Crime
would then become the "materia medica"
of a professional class, not the bread and
butter of a political judge. Decisions about
human lives would take place with as
small an opportunity for error as human
experience can invent; and not depend
on the flip of a coin in a jury room.
Rather than being untimely, a considera-
tion of this proposal now not only positively

restates what the progressive group is
working toward, but suggests in a hard-
headed and practical way some of the deep-
er issues of the causes of crime both inside
and outside the walls-issues from which all
investigators have so far shied away.
-Bill Wiegand

"All Ready For D-Day?"
bt
A-
ON THE
with DREW PEARSON
~~ASHINGTON-The personal and political expenses of Democratic
National Chairman Frank McKinney are causing a lot of back-
stage comment in top Democratic circles this week.
They've also caused the resignation of Democratic budget
officer, William S. Bradley.
Bradley resigned with a caustic Iconfidential letter calling atten-
tion to McKinney's personal expenses, which include $750 to the
Marian Service Co. of Miami, reportedly for handling his yacht; a
total of $26,000 for his suite at the Mayflower Hotel plu o5ther
personal expenses between January 1 and April 7: and $2,17 paid
to a photographer P. H. Ho of Indianapolis, McKinney's home town,
for "pictures of chairman."
The most amazing of McKinney's political expenses is $40,000
which was dumped into Cook County, Ill., to try to cut down the
vote for Sen. Estes Kefauver during the recent Illinois primary.
Use of national committee funds against any Democratic candi-
date in a primary election is strictly against all the political
rules, and, as a result, non-partisan members of the Democratic
National Committee are boilinig mad.,
All this came to .the surface when Democratic budget officer
Bradley submitted his resignation, with a stinging private letter blast-
ing the manner in which McKinney was conducting Democratic
finances.
* * * *
ITEMIZED EXPENSE ACCOUNT

XtteA'4 TO THE EDITOI
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld fromnpublication at the discretion of the
editors.

k

fl

Disturbing Remarks .. .
To the Editor:
In the genocide debate Prof.'
Slosson made some remarks which
disturbed me deeply. I am particu-
larly referring to his assertion
that the United States govern-
ment has done many things for
"the benefit of the colored race."
I strongly object to the terminol-
ogy used for a number of reasons.
Several years ago I observed the
signs in a bus in Chattanooga,
Tenn. In the front I saw the
words, "This Section Is Reserved
For White People," while in the
rear I read, "This Section Is Re-
served for Members of the Colored
Race." Out of curiosity I asked the
bus driver why there was this
difference in terminology. "Why,
we just don't consider them people
down here," was his prompt reply.
There is a certain ugly logic to
the bus driver's words. The word
race implies a nebulous, indefin-
able mass. The word people, a
grouping of individuals, of human
beings, with dignity and respect.
Furthermore, there is no such
thing as a colored race. There are
colored peoples throughout the
world and in the United States
there is a Negro people.
Secondly, I know of no law or
of any deed designed for the "ben-
efit of the colored race." Perhaps
Prof. Slosson was referring to the
announced civil rights policies of
the government. If he was, then
he has not understood their full
meaning. For by this remark Prof.
Slosson is implying that those
white Americans who are fighting
for civil rights are doing the Negro
a favor. But this is not so.
The fight against segregation,
against discrimination, and
against genocide is a fight for the
benefit of all the American people.
White America also suffers from
discrimination. Because there is
discrimination America cannot
make the best use of its talents,
resources, and skills. Everyone is
hurt by it. Therefore when the
United States government does
something positive in the field of
civil rights, it does it for the bene-
fit of all Americans.
-Ed. Shaffer

Confusing World .. .
To the Editor!
[N THE complex and confusing
world that is the Earth today,
there is a continual need for the
re-examination of our values, eth-
ics, and philosophy of life. This
task is not easy considering the
multiplicity of pressures and ide-
ologies that confront the sensitive,
aware student of the social and
political scene. Insight and intell-
igence though essential to the ade-
quate grasping of the significance
of changing social conditions, is
in itself not enough for the ra-
tional individual to ascertain that
which is 'right' or 'correct.' The
human intellect requires a higher
law or authority to definitively
conduct it onto the path of truth.
Should one hold that American-
ism is the one "ism" that is in-
trinsically correct and should be
upheld by all, then he is subject
to reproving griticism from vari-
ous ideological quarters. He is
compelled to defend his belief
against those inquisitors who de-
mand to know: "What do you
mean by Americanism?" The re-
ply should and invariably does in-
clude a reiteration of the princi-
ples underlying the American Way
,of Life. But at this the critics
scoff: "Your reply is nebulous and
too abstract to have any real
meaning."
Gradually the basis of the ori-
ginal belief may become threat-
ened. The defendant may find
that his, answers no longer merely
fail to satisfy his critics; but that
they fail to satisfy him as well.
What is then needed is a strong
reaffirmation of his faith in the
ide'als of this country through a.
higher law, if it cannot be gained
through reason. But how is he to
achieve contact with this higher
law?
The answer was given us last
week. This fellow need fear his
critics no longer. His search is
ended; the triumph is his. Gener-
al Douglas MacArthur, fearing no
one, proclaimed to the world that
he was for Americanism. What
further assurance is needed than
to know absolutely that one is on
the same side as God!
-Lawrence Hulack

f

V,

4.

;k

I

Bradley also sent a letter to two top Democrats, Jonathan
Daniels of Raleigh, N.C., and Molly O'Riordan of Boston, itemizing
the chairman's extravagances. These included personal expense
checks paid to McKinney fob' $3,000 each on Jan. 1, Feb. 2, and
March 24, plus $1,720.70 on March 25, the latter credited as "expense
acct.-Florida." This was in addition to the $750 to the Marian_
Service Co. of Miami, reportedly for handling the McKinney yacht.-
McKinney's total for expenses up to March 25 was listed as I
$10,578.93. This, however, did not include his bills at the May- s
flower Hotel in Washington, which added another $15,591.65 and I
brought the total up to $26,000 for three months only. However,
this also covers the expense of Judge Joseph Howard, assistant a
to McKinney, who shares the same apartment.
In fairness to McKinney, it should be noted that he has not<
received a salary from the committee. However, the $35,000 salary ofa
his predecessor, Bill Boyle, cost the Democrats less than the $100,000
annual scale of living to which the new chairman so far has been
accustomed.
Bradley, who has been budget and controls officer under three
previous Democratic chairmen, also had some critical things to says
about Jackson-Jefferson Day dinners. This column has been able toM
obtain a copy oft his confidential letter, dated 'May 13, to Chairman
McKinney. Salient portions follow:
* * * *
BRADLEY'S LETTER
"SINCE JANUARY 1, and as of April 30, 1952, your office has exceeded:
its budget by the amount'of $18,912.90. This has been occasionedj
by your employment of more 'assistants to the chairman' than were
provided for in the budget, and at a higher scale of salaries, and the
extraordinary liberality of the expense allowances granted them,"
Bradley told McKinney.
"I do not know the source of the information on which you
based your public statement that 'the 1952 dinner was the most
successful ever held'," the budget officer.5continued, "but it was
completely erroneous. The records of the Comptroller's Office
could have provided the correct figures, had they been consulted.
The 1950 dinner, held in- the Armory, under comparable cost
conditions, produced the following res'ults. Total receipts--$581,-
543.00. Total costs-$120,872.66. Net receipts-$460,670.34.
"A notable example of the need for the establishment of controls
is the recently held Washington Jefferson-Jackson dinner. In spite
of the fact that the total receipts for the dinner ($422,046.00-includ-
ing pledges) were far below expectation, the committee could have
saved approximately $50,000.00 by the application of reasonable con-
trols over spending and waste.
"For example, we paid for 5,390 dinners, yet we received con-
tributions, including pledges, covering only 4,220 dinners-in other
words, we fed 1170 free-loaders, at committee expense.
Perhaps 200 of these tickets were given to the staff and official
guests-but what happened to the other 970? I do not think your
records will disclose the names of the persons who received these free
tickets-and yet, each ticket had a potential value of $100.00. The
proper control of such an operation is exceedingly simple-immensely
important. Some two month before the dinner, I made this suggestion
to Judge Howard, again during your absence. I quote his reply: 'Since
Wash Williams is dinner chairman, suppose we let him run it'.
* * * *
WASHINGTON PIPELINE
JRNTERING the cabinet meeting recently, Secretary of Commerce
Sawyer was asked: "Are you going to the Chicago Convention?"
. "I can't," he said, "I was defeated." . . . running for delegate in
Ohio, Sawyer was swamped by the Kefauver landslide.
Sen. Bill Jenner isn't worried about Democratic opposition, but he is
really jittery lest his own party put a candidate in the field against
him. Eisenhower Republicans don't like Jenner's strong pro-Taft,

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN',

(Continued from Page 2)
Buckley, 2235 AH; Carr; 223┬░AH; Chan-t
dler, 2235 AH; Chapman, 4 AH; Cher-
niak, 2235 AH; Ciugst n, 3017 AH; Cobb,
6 AH; Cox, 2219 AH; Culbert, 231 Al;
Dickey, 35 AHl; Eastman, 1025 All;
Engel, 3017 AH; Everett, 1020 Al; Fel- .
heim, 225 AH; Felver, 1025 AH; Foster,1
16 AH: Hampton, 18 AH; Hendrick, 1025
AH; Hendricks, 229 All; Hill, 209 All;
Jackson, 212 Al; Kraus, 2013 Al; Mc-
Caughey, 2014 AH; Markman, 231 AH;
Marshall, 1209 AHll; Miske, 1007 Al;
Moon, 2016 All; Morillo, 2225 All; Muehl,
35 AH; Needham, 2231 AH; Newman,
2003 AH; Orel, 2215 AH; Pearce, 2225
AH;; Peterson, 1018 AH; Pinkus, 3010
AH Shedd, 2029 AH; Slatoff, 2029 AH;l
Slote, 3011 AH; Speckhard, 3209 AH;1
Steinhoff, 231 AH; Stockton, 231 AH;
Super, 231 AH; Swartz, 110 Tap; 'Us-
sery, 108 RL; Vande Kieft, 2116 NS;
Weimer, 3231 AH; Woodruff, 1053 NS.
Concerts
Student Recital: Margaret Strand, pi-
anist, will present a program in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the
Bachelor of Music degree at 8:30 p.m.,
Thurs,, May 22, in the Architecture
Auditorium. A pupil of Mischa Meller,
Miss Strand will play compositions by
Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, and Chopin.
The program will be open to the public.
Student Recital: Harold Thompson.
pianist, will present a program in par-
tial fulfillment of the requirements for
the Master of Music degree at 4:15 p.m.,
Fri., May 23, in the Rackham Assem-
bly Hall. A pupil of Benning Dexter,
Mr. Thompson will play compositions
by J. S. Bach, Beethoven, Hindemith,
and Chopin. The public is invited,
Events Today
Modern Dance Club. Final meeting
of the year, 7:30 p.m., Fencing Room,
Barbour Gymnasium. All club mem-
bers please be present.
University Lutheran Chapel, 1511
Washtenaw, will have an Ascension Day
Vesper Service at 7:30. Sermon by the
Rev. Alfred Scheips.
U. of M. Sailing Club. Meeting, 7:30
p.m., 311 W. Engineering Bldg. shore
school for new members. Informal
sailing at Whitmore Lake on Saturday
and Sunday.
Armed Forces Communications Asso-
ciation. May meeting, 8 p.m., 1041 Ran-
dall Laboratory. Prof. H. R. Crane will
describe the principles of operation of
the synchroton followed by a visit to
the Synchroton Laboratory.
International Center Weekly Tea for
foreign students and American friends,
4:30-6 p.m.
Co-operative Apartment Housing for
Married Students. Meeting of all people
interested in establishing a cooperative
apartment house for married students,

International Relations CJlub. Meet-
ing, 7:30 p.m., Union. Please note the
change of meeting place.
School of Music. Prof. Charles Stevevr
son, Department of Philosophy, will
present a talk entitled "Is There a
'Correct' Interpretation of Music?"
8 p.m., East Conference Room, Rack-
ham Bldg. Graduate students and fa-
culty invited.
Brandeis Camp Alumni. Meeting,
4 p.m.at the new Hillel. Irma Mae
Wolf will speak.
Brandeis Camp Candidates: Meeting
for all those interested in attending
Brandeis Camp, 7:15 p.m. at the new
Hillel. New York representative of Bran-
deis Camps will speak.
International Students Association.
Special council meeting, Room 3B, Un-
ion. Legal counseling for foreign stu-
dents will be discussed.
Literary College Conference Steering
Committee, 4 p.m., 1011 Angell Hall.
Coming Events
Motion Pictures, auspices of Univer-
sity Museums. "What Makes a Desert,"
"Life in Hot Dry Land," and "Desert
Demons." 7:30 p.m., Fri. May, 23, Kel-
logg Auditorium. No admission charge.

A.
fir

C.
A

'-.

MATTEH dOARCTTA -P
By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP

[JASHINGTON-Secretary of State Dean
G. Acheson has just appointed an im-
pressively distinguished committee to take
a fresh-eyed "new look" at the problems of
disarmament and atomic energy control.
Dr. -J. Robert Oppenheimer, Dr. Vannevar
Bush, President John Dickey of Dartmouth,
and Allen W. Dulles, of the Central Intelli-
gence Agency, are the men chosen to under-
take this grave responsibility.
It is hard to imagine a bigger job, or to
name a more imposing committee. It is

announced in this space not long ago. They
not unnaturally shrank back from the pros-
pect of a world divided into two vast, con-
tending power groupings, both brandishing
world-destroying weapons.
The effort of the scientists, which was
conducted at a high level, inevitably tend-
ed to drag the whole grim skeleton of
atomic energy out of the closet. Mean-
while, on the other hand, the American
policy makers were also running into
trouble in the United Nations Disarma-

Sixty-Second Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Chuck Elliott ........Managing Editor
Bob Keith .................City Editor
Leonard Greenbaum. Editorial. Director
Vern Emerson ..........Feature Editor
Ron Watts .............Associate Editor
Bob Vaughn ..........Associate Editor
Ted Papes ................Sports Editor
George Flint ....Associate Sports Editor
Jim. Parker .....Associate Sports Editor
Jan James ............ Women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut. Associate Women's Editor
B~siness Stanf
Bob Miller ...........Business Manager
Gene Kuthy, Assoc. Business Manager
Charles Cuson ... .Advertising Manager
M.ilt Goeatz----------Circulationl Manager

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