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April 27, 1952 - Image 4

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i

PAGE FOUR

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

SUNDAY, APRIL 27, 12

____________________________________ IU

Jackson Prison

MAT-ER OF FACT

SEEING A MAN do his job well is always
a source of peculiar satisfaction. Occa-
sionally, this ability is of crucial importance.
At Southern Michigan State Prison for four
days this week, the lives of thirteen men
hung on the special skills of a few penolo-
gists. The men whose lives were at stake
were the prison guards who were held hos-
tage in the detention block by a group of
mutinous convicts. The procurement of the
release of these men was the most impressive
story to come out of the Jackson prison riot.
At first, it was hard to find anything
positive, or even human, in the blood and
violence of the rampage. But as one crisis
succeeded another, most of the onlookers
experienced a growing respect for the men
who were dealing with the difficult situa-
tion. Without the fundamental courage,
the enduring patience, and, most import-
ant, the solid intelligence of these prison
officials, the riot would not have ended so
soon.
Many of the press releases called it a
victory for the mutineers. But no one who
was present Thursday afternoon when the
eight guards last released were reunited
with their families at the main gate could
honestly accept that verdict.
In retrospect, it is virtually amazing that
only one life (that of an inmate) was lost
during the siege. No member of either the
prison staff or the State Police suffered
more than superficial injury; this in spite
of the fact that thirteen guards were held
four days by the most desperate men in the
prison-men who were armed with foot-
long butcher knives, baseball bats, and pick
axes. Since there is no capital punishment
in Michigan, these men had little to lose by
harming the guards. Several officials ad-
mitted privately that they knew no reason
why the beleaguered convicts did not use
the hostages to demand release from the
prison.
Why was the situation kept under con-
trol? Simply because Warden Frisbie and
Deputy Warden Fox never jeopardized
their trump card among the mutineers--
rebel leader Earl Ward. This was expert
psychology. The publicity-hungry Ward
maintained control only because officials
restrained overt police action against the
block which could have easily stampeded
the nervous convicts into crowning a new
and more maniacal leader. While Ward
was in command, Fifteen Block remained
rational and willing to bargain. In any
other hands, it would. probably have turn-
ed into a butcher shop.
This is no brief for Ward, who may have
been over-praised by relieved officials. Ward
held his authority in the block with the
same brutality toward fellow inmates that
his record indicates he exhibited before his
sentence. However, in using his weakness
for a headline, in playing along with his
notion of the whole affair as a kind of
labor-management quarrel; Frisbie and Fox
saved the guards. Ward may have eaten
steak and ice cream for dinner Thursday,
but the captured guards ate at home with
their families. That was the important
thing.
If the practical psychology of the officials

was great, their patience was almost super-1
human. More three-day prison managers
appeared on the scene or spoke from Lan-
sing swivel chairs than existed on the four
floors of Fifteen Block.
A National Guard colonel stood on the
prison roof late Monday planning how he
would fire bazooka shells into the cellblock
if he were only in command.
The State Auditor General, sensing a
political opportunity, remarked from a
desk he never left: "I think we have
ruined prison discipline in Michigan for
years to come."
A Pulitzer-Prize-winning newspaperman
from Detroit was mortally offended when a
guard touched him once in order to keep
him out of the line of fire. He swore "to
take this place apart brick by brick, and
you know I can do it too" should any
further indignity be committed. For the
entire week, his paper mis-reported, sensa-
tionalized, and deliberately warped the news
from the prison. They have asked editorially
that Dr. Fox be fired.
Probably the riot was not deliberately
planned by the men who finally led it. Ac-
cording to one of the guards who was there,
a baby-faced Detroit burglar, aged 21, made
the opening play, and after his surprising
success, he released Ward, Hyatt, and the
others, who used the moment to hit the
headlines.
Having visited the prison several times
before the riot, I suspect that only a few
of the grievances were completely legitimate.
Some including notably the overcrowding,,
officials also had pleaded to have improved.
For the most part the complaints can W'
remedied by additional appropriations from
the legislature. More money will also pro-
vide for more guards. A larger budget does
not mean you are coddling the prisoners. It
is due the guards who serve unarmed within
the walls and have safety only in their own
numbers.
The $2,500,000 loss, partially inspired by
false economy of the legislature, will be
expensive to make up. But it is, after all,
the prisoners who will suffer most. For the
time being, practically every facility they
had is vanished. No pact, pledge, or agree-
ment will replace what they have lost.
Keeping them quiet and occupied during*
the period of rebuilding will place addi-
tional burdens on the overworked and
under-rewarded men in charge.
Certainly the rewards for these men do
not come from the state legislators who call
for immediate investigations of the adminis-
tration, or from newspapers who think that
the state has bowed to a criminal king, when
"the king," shorn of everything but a mean-
ingless piece of paper, is returning to a
plank bed in a bare cell tonight and every
night.
Still there must have been moments that
made all the criticism seem unimportant to
the warden and his tireless assistant. Like
when the first of the eight hostage guards
met and embraced his wife and child at the
main gate. The flash-bulbs popped, the
reporters shouted-and it did not matter
much whether Earl Ward was eating steak
or caviar.
-Bill Wiegand

Itet4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
editors.

By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP

fI

-~ a a a a a S

-.

- - - -

WASHINGTON-Secretary of State Dean
G. Acheson has just told an astonishingly
uninterested country about one of the ma-
jor choices in American post'war diplomacy.
To be sure, he did not indicate this was what
he was doing. But this was what he did,
.none the less, when he dismissed the whole
so-called Soviet "peace offensive" as mere
malicious trouble-making, in his speech be-
fore the American Society of Newspaper
Editors.
Beyond much doubt, the fact that this
great American choice centered around Ger-
many was the major influence in the final
decision.
Almost since taking office, Secretary
Acheson has labored to integrate Western
Germany into the European c'ommunity,
first with the economic instrument of the
Schuman Plan; and second with the stra-
tegic instrument of the European army. A
German contribution to Western defense
has been one of Acheson's primary ob-
jectives since the outbreak of the Korean
war. And in theory at least, Acheson's
months and years of painful and toil-
some negotiations are now about to bear
fruit, in the form of agreement on all'
these projects and on West Germany's
substantive independence.
Precisely because the end of Acheson's ef-
forts seemed so near, the Kremlin tried to
nip the fruit in the bud, by suggesting that
Eastern Germany and Western Germany
might after all be re-united. The price, the
Kremlin said, was simply abandonment of
all the arrangements already made, especial-
ly including the West German contribution
to Western defense. But if this price was
paid, the Kremlin added, Germany might be
unified by true free elections, and might
also have her national army if she so desired.
T HIS ALLEGED bargain served, so to
speak, as the Soviet peace offensive's
spearhead. From the first, there were plain
signs that this Kremlin bargain was prob-
ably as phony as most of the others.
The Communist Quisling in East Ger-
many, Otto Grotewohl, was the mouthpiece
of the first offer of German unity and free
elections. So great was the fear of reper-
cussions in the Soviet-German province
that no one shared in the project except
Grotewohl himself and Gen. Chuikov, So-
viet occupation commander, who gave Grote-
wohl his orders. When Grotewohl announced
the offer, consternation at the thought of
free elections spread among the German
Communists. And the Kremlin then passed
the reassuring word that the elections would
really only be "free" in the Russian sense.
Such background facts obviously dim-
inished the attractiveness of the Kremlin
bargain, even when it was offered to Bri-
tain, France and this country in a formal
diplomatic note. Meanwhile, Secretary
Acheson, French Foreign Minister Schu-
man and German Chancellor Adenauer
naturally hated the very notion of any
further delay in the completion of their
long effort. In Britain, it may be presum-
ed that Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden's
response was less decisive. At any rate,
he told at least one Ambassador that the
Soviet note on German unity was a mat-
ter of the greatest importance when first
received, and then, three days later, said
it was not very important after all.
In the outcome, however, the decision was
taken which Secretary Acheson has now re-
vealed. The whole process of diplomacy with
the Kremlin, at the off-chance gamble that
the Kremlin may really have been willing
to re-unite Germany, are now to be sub-
ordinated. The plans to establish German
independence, to create a German army,
and to obtain a German defense contribu-
tion to the West, are now to have absolute
first priority. In the State Department it is
said that the agreements on these projects
may well be signed by May 20.
S * * -
THE STORY cannont end there, however.
In the first place, the signing of the
agreements must be followed by their rati-
fication, by the German and French parlia-
ments among other law-making bodies. Al-
ready there are hints, again from the East

German stooges who generally telegraph the
Kremlin's German moves, that the present
phase of sweet peacefulness may be suc-
ceeded by a phase of naked terrorization.
The Kremlin line will be that a peace offer
has been rejected by the Western powers,
and that arming the West Germans is a
war-like act. Every effort will be made to
exploit the German disappointment at the
lost hope of unity, and to play on the fears
of all of Europe of a Soviet attack. Under
these circumstances, French and German
ratification of the German agreements will
be far from certain.
In the second place, Acheson's summary
dismissal of the Soviet peace offensive prob-
ably means the end, for the time being, of
the recently raised hopes of a settlement in
Korea. For why should the Kremlin approve
the wind-up of the Korean hostilities, ex-
cept as bait for broader negotiation of East-
West problems?
Finally, there is the central question. If it
is useless to negotiate now (as it may well
be), when will East-West negotiations ever
be worth the bother? In many ways, the
raising of this question is the most troub-
ling aspect of this choice revealed by Secre-
tary Acheson, the wisdom of which is cer-

-Daily-Bill Hampton
"You understand, of course, that if you give in to him
you'll ruin discipline."

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

I

ON THE
Washington Merry-Go-Round
WIH RE eW PEARSON

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in It is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 2552
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (11
a.m. on Saturday).
SUNDAY, APRIL 27, 1952
VOL. LXII, No. 143
Notices
Personnel Interviews
The Northern Trust Company of Ci-
cago will have a representative here
on Tues., April 29, to see men graduating
in June in any field. They have the fol-
lowing types of positions open: Adver-
tising; Public Relations; Statisticians;
and Market Research; Management
Trainees and positionsein the Trust De-
partment. Call the Bureau or Appoint-
ments for an appointment.
The Northern Trust Company will al-
so have a representative here on Tues-
day to interview women graduating in
June in Business Administration or LSA,
in any field, or students in Economics,
or Accounting, and some typing and
shorthand is preferred.
Selling Research, Inc. of Detroit will
have a representative here on wed.,
April 30, to see June men interested in
a career in Marketing and Sales Re-
search.
Corn Products Refining Company of
New York City will be here Tues., April
29 to interview women graduating in
June for Market Research positions.
Women with degrees in Marketing (and
emphasis In Economics) are preferred.
Personnel Requests
Electric Auto-Lite of Bay City has op-
enings for Electrical and Mechanical
Engineers. The openings are for Pro-
duction and Methods Engineering.
For appointments and further infor-
mation contact the Bureau of Appoint-
ments, 3528 Admin. Bldg., Ext. 371.
Lectures
University Lecture, auspices of the
Department of Philosophy. "The Pic-
torial Theory of Meaning." Dr. Donald
C. Williams, Professor of Philosophy,
Harvard University. Tues., April 29,
4:15 p.m., Rackham Amphitheater.
University Lecture, under the auspices
of the College of Pharmacy and the De-
partment of Biochemistry. "4-HYDRO-
XYCOUMARIN ANTICOAGULANTS."
Dr. Karl Paul Link, Professor of Bio-
chemistry, University of Wisconsin.
Tues., April 29,' 4:15 p.m., 1400 Chemistry
Bldg. The public is invited.
Academic Notices
Correction to Examination Schedule
(L.S. & A.) as published In the Daily
Thurs., April 24.
Time of Class Time of Examination
Monday at 9 Tuesday, June 10, 9-12
Tuesday at 10 Tuesday, June 3, 9-12
The first of these corrections also ap-
plies to the Examination Schedule as
published in the Daily on Fri., April 25.
Doctoral Examination for Robert Eu-
gene Yoss, Anatomy; thesis: "Studies
of the Spinal Cord," Mon., April 28,
10:30 a.m., 4558 East Medical Bldg.
Chairman, E. C. Crosby.
Doctoral Examination for Myron Her-
man Halpern, Anatomy; thesis: "Pat-
terns of Cardio-Thoracic venous Drain-
age in the Rat," Mon., April 28, 1:30
p.m., 3502 East MedicalBldg. Chairman,
R. T. Woodburne.
Doctoral Examination for Maryland
Waller Wilson, Speech; thesis: "Broad-
casting by the Newspaper-Owned Sta-
tions in Detroit, 1920-1927," Mon., April
28, 1:15 p.m. West Council Room, Rack-
ham Bldg. Co-chairmen, W. H. Beaven
and G. R. Garrison.
Doctoral Examination for Lu-Shien
Hu, Civil Engineering; thesis: "The In-
stability of Top Chords of Pony Trus-
ses," Mon., April 28, 4 p.. .m., W. Engi-
neering Bldg. Chairman, L. C. Maugh.
Seminar in Complex Variables. Mon.,
April 28, 4 p.m., 247 W. Engineering
Bldg. Mr. Line will present theorems
of Fabry and of Polya.
Psychology Concentrates. A meeting
to discuss changes in th concentra-
tion curriculum for next year will be
held in the Natural Sciences Auditor-
ium on Tues., April 29, 4 p.m. All con-
centrates are urged to attend, since
the changes will effect your election of
courses for fall and summer.
Doctoral Examination for Robert Louis
Kahn, Social Psychology; thesis: "A

Hall. Professor Rainich will speak on
"Ternary Relations in Geometry and
Algebra."
Concerts
University of Michigan Varsity Band
"Pops" Concert, Jack K. Lee, Conduc-
tor. Sun., April 27, 8 Lpm, Michigan
Union Ballroom. The program will in-
clude Serenata by Anderson, On the
Trail by Grofe, and popular marches.
Thepublic is invited. Admission is com-
plimentary.
Student Recital: Ormond Sanderson,
pianist, will present a recital at 8:30
Monday evening, April 28, in Rackham
Assembly Hall, in partial fulfillment of
the degree of Master of Music, A pupil
of Ava Comin Case, Mr. Sanderson will
play compositions by Scarlatti, Schu-
bert, Alban Berg, and Beethoven. The
general public is invited.
Events Today
Wesleyan Guild: Morning Seminar,
9:30 a.m. in Pine Room. Guild supper
and program, 5.30 p.m. Dr. Hutchinson
will speak on the subject: "How to Ov-
ercome a College Education."
Canterbury Club: 5:30 p.m. Discussion
and dinner. Discussion topic: "Now
Therefore Thus Saith the Lord of Hosts:
Consider Your Ways."
Gamma Delta, Lutheran Student Club:
Supper Program 5:30 p.m. Panel dis-
cussion, "Christian Liturgics."
Lutheran Student Association: Sup-
per, 5:30 p.m' at the Center. Program,
7, speaker, Prof. William Alston of the
Philosophy Department.
Congregational-Disciples Guild: Picnic
and sports at Riverside Park Meet at
5:30 p.m. at Guild House to go down
with group. In case of rain, indoor pic-
nic at Guild House at 6 p.m.
Unitarian Students: Meeting at Lane1
Hall at 7 p.m. on Sunday, to hear Mr.
Sanoh Dharmgrongartame discuss:
"Buddhism-the Faith of 500,000,000
people." All students invited.
Israel Independence Day Celebration,
7:30 p.m., League. Prof. P. Slosson will
be the keynote speaker. An Israeli stu-
dent will tell of his experiences in the
War for Independence. Film on Israel
progress. Everyone is welcome.
Coming Events
La P'tite causette meets Monday
from 3:30 to 5 p.m. in south room,
Union cafeteria.
Photography Group meets at Lane
Hall, 7 pan., Mon.
SRA Executive Committee meets at
Lane Hall, 4:45 p.m., Mon.
Volunteer Naval Research Reserve
Unit 9-3. Meeting, 7:30 p.m., Mon., April
28, 2082 Natural Science Bldg. Speaker:
Prof. C. L. Hill. "Problems in industrial
relations."
Michigan Dames, The Bridge Group
of the Michigan Dames will have their
meeting at the League on Mon., April
28, at 8 p.m. Tickets for the dinner will
be on sale that night.
Deutscher Verein-German folk dane-
ing will take place at 7:30 p.m. Tues., in
the basement of Lane Hall. Refresh-
ments will be served. Everyone welcome.
Pre Medical Society. Meeting, Tues.,
April 29, 7:30 p.m., 1200 Chemistry Bldg.
Discussion of Socialized Medicine, led
by Dr. George Peek of the Political Si-
ence Department. Business meeting will
follow. Discussion of joining the nation-
al pre-medical society, Alpha Epsilon
Delta.
J-Hop Committee: There will be a
meeting of the 1953 and 1954 J-Hop
Commites, Tues., 7:30 p.m., in Room
3K of the Union.
Drama Season Tickets on Sale Wed-
nesday-Season tickets for the Univer-
sity of Michigan Drama Season will be
placed on sale, 10 a.m. in the Garden
Room, Michigan League Bldg. Opening
May 13, the Season offers stars of stage
and screen in five outstanding plays in
five weeks. The bill includes: Sylvia Sid-
ney in the gay comedy of college life,
"Goodbye, My Fancy," May 13-17; Joan
Blondell in the prize play "Come Back,
Little Sheba," May 20-24; Betty Field
and Burgess Meredith in an exclusive
release of the current Broadway hit
"The Fourposter," May 26-31; Con-
stance Bennett in a pre-Broadway pre-
sentation of the comedy "A Date With
April," June 2-7 and Edward Ashley
andhMargaret Phillips in the prize play
of this season, rvenus Observed," June
10-14. Mail orders are now being ac-

'Smear' ...
To the Editor:
THE WORD "smear" was used
by Joe Tannenbaum in ans-
wering the charges of corruption
brought against Adlai Stevenson,
governor of Illinois. This word has
been over used lately. It seems
that every time you pick up a
newspaper more dishonesty in gov-
ernment has been revealed. The
only response forthcoming to such
revelations are counter-charges
of "smear," "red-herring," "a
bunch of eyewash," but 'smear" is
used most often. These counter-
charges seem to be used as a
blanket to cover upexisting cor-
ruption and discourage further
investigation because corruption
certainly is not being cleaned up.
Any time I see the word "smear"
used as a counter-charge I am
goaded into further investigation
of the original charge. I find that
the charge of "smear"is rarely, if
ever warranted.
--Harry A. Payeur
YD-'s Protest....
To the Editor:
THE young Democratic Club of
Michigan feels that the cir-
cumstances surrounding the Mc-
Phaul dinner at the Union-the
use of an alias in arranging the
dinner, the fact that McPhaul
spoke only three days after he
was banned, and the fact that a
Daily reporter was invited for pur-
poses of publicity-merited an in-
vestigation by the University. Nev-
ertheless, we maintain that the in-
vestigation which was conducted
was ill directed and poorly hand-
led for the following reasons:
1. After the dinner the Univer-
sity Officials themselves were not
sure that a rule had been violated
and had to summon persons who
were present at the dinner to an
investigation to ascertain if a rule
was broken. How then, could the
University Administration expect
the individuals who attended the
dinner to realize that they might
be committing an illegal act?
2. 'The individuals who have
been indicted are not indicted for
arranging the dinner but for at-
tending the dinner. This seems to
indicate an application by the
University of the principle of col-
lective punishment.
3. The individuals called in for
investigation were assured, as stat-
ed in the testimony of the proceed-
ings of the special investigating
committee, that the investigation
would receive no publicity in the
newspapers, and that the testi-
mony would be held in "strict
confidence." That confidence was
violated.
In keeping with our constitu-
tional principle to "provide for
our people ... the highest degree
of justice and social welfare" we
strongly urge the University offi-
cials to reconsider the investiga-
tion.
Bernie Backhaut, Recording
Secretary Young Democrats
IYAD Civil Rights ...
To the Editor:
THE FOLLOWING resolution
was passed April 22, 1952 by
the Young Democrats:
RESOLVED:
Whereas, there is discrimina-
tion against the Negro in the
South and in other sections of
the country, against the Oriental
on the West Coast, and against
the American Indian in certain of
our Western states, and
Whereas, such discrimination is
contrary to the moral and ethical
principles of good Democrats and
the Democratic Party, and
Whereas, the situation in the
South is especially disgusting to
the members of the Young Demo-
cratic Club of the University of
Michigan, and
Whereas, the 1948 Democratic

National Convention wrote a cour-
ageous and clear-cut espousal of
true party principles when it wrote
into its platform the call for an
F. E. P. C. with compulsory en-
forcement, an anti-lynch law, and
an anti-poll tax law, therefore
Be it resolved: that the Young
Democratic Club of the University
of Michigan demands by going on
record, that the National Conven-
tion of the Democratic Partyto
be held in Chicago, Illinois this
July write the same strong plank
in respect to these Civil Rights'
question that it wrote in 1948, into
its 1952 national platform, and
Be it further resolved: that we
favor strengthening the Civil
Rights plank of our party by call-
ing for the end to all segregation
of the races in the public schools
of this country with all possible
speed, in the Democratic Party
Platform of 1952, and
Be it further resolved: that al-
though this club will support the
nominee of the Democratic Na-
tional Convention, it is strongly
opposed to the nomination of a
candidate for President or Vice-

gations will be discussed. We feel
that inasmuch as the accused have
presented their side, the accusers,
the University, should also have
the opportunity to make known
to the campus at large exactly
what its position is. Therefore, an
open hearing will be held next
Tuesday evening at 7:30 p.m. in
the Union. The public is invited
to attend and hear the full story
of the McPhaul dinner investiga-
tions. We hope to be able to pre-
sent the facts on both sides at
that time. Below is the invitation
presented to President Hatcher.
The Young Progressives of
America, University of Michigan
is seriously interested in the cur-
rent University investigations. We
have strong reason to believe that
the Administration has shown
flagrant disregard for academic
freedom, free speech, and personal
rights in regard to the McPhaul
dinner. We therefore are holding
a hearing next Tuesday evening at
7:30 p.m. to which we invite you,
President Hatcher, or an official
to represent you, to attend and to
p r e s e n t the Administration's
standpoint on the University in-
vestigations. We invite you to
bring any witnesses, and we will
present students who claim to
have been wronged.
We wish it to be clearly known
that we are not making an offi-
cial charge against the Admin-
istration at this time, but are only
seeking to determine if a viola-
tion of student rights has oc-
curred.
After the hearing, the group will
draw up the testimony and -pre-
sent it with a recommendation to
the Regents at their next meeting.
We sincerely hope you will be
able to attend.
Young Progressives
Joan Berler
Marguerite Buckley
*, * *
Investigation.,.
AS.A FORMER teaching fellow
in English at this university,
I want to applaud the impressive
composition of "A Statement of
Facts." in Tuesday's Daily.I think
it to be deplored, however, that
such evident skill could not be de-
voted to more worthy projects,
Could not these young people join
the Wolverine Club? Work for a
grander IFC Ball? Can we not for-
get those dreams of a university
leading a democratic community
in unrestricted debate and dis-
cussion?
Let us not nurture, certainly not
utter, any thoughts that the Mich-
igan State Legislature, the Amer-
ican Legion, or the Junior Cham-
ber of Commerce might not con-
ceivably endorse, and our rewards
will follow. It is, I venture, not
too sanguine to look for a guar-
anteed C average and the aboli-
tion of all those courses which do
not directly contribute to our
earning powers. Even, I hazard, a
School of Hotel Administration
may be ours!. Maybe TV! O bright
vision!
Edgar Whan
Vernal Equinox...
WHAT'S ALL this fuss about the
little uprising at Jackson. Aft-
er all let's remember what high
officials of another correctional
institution had to say concerning
a simular situation, "It's only
spring fever" and "boys will be
boys." How about a shot of Dean
Frisbie coming out of cell block
fifteen with his lips forming a
whistle. Congrats on your cover-
age of "Spring Madness" at our
sister institution to the west.
Sandy Reiter
Jim Brodhead
a 1e

I'1 .

BEHIND PRISON RIOTS
EHIND THE RASH of prison riots are
two things: 1, the population of the
United States has increased and with it our
criminal population; 2, most prisons have
remained woefully behind.
The New Jersey Penitentiary at Tren-
ton, where one of the first outbreaks oc-
curred, dates back almost to the days of
George Washington. Other jails almost
as antiquated include the Maryland State
Penitentiary at Baltimore, built in 1805,
and the Massachusetts Penitentiary at
Charleston, which dates back almost to
revolutionary day':
The Rahway, N.J., so-called state prison
farm, which I visited the other day, is
relatively modern, built in 1890. But it looks
as out-of-date as an English castle and is
surrounded by such a suburban area that
farming is out of the question. Built to
house 700 inmates, a total of 1,000 are now
crammed behind its dank walls.
One of the gripes of the Rahway pris-
oners, and a legitimate one, is that they
are not permitted a hearing before the
New Jersey Parole Board. When a pris-
oner is up for parole, a personal hearing is
standard in most states. A prisoner is
permitted to appear before the parole
board, state his case for parole, and an-
swer questions. This gives the parole
board an opportunity to judge the merits
of his case and decide firsthand whether
he should be released.
In New Jersey, however, the parole board
A frica Next
JN THE great tides of struggle that wash
around our globe, the Atlantic world
has been so deafened by those crests rolling
in and breaking from Asia, that few of us
have noticed a prodigious fact; Africa is
~-".

is so lazy that it won't hear prisoners, bases
its judgment merely on written reports.
* * *
CALIFORNIA'S MODERN SYSTEM
IN CONTRAST to New Jersey's antiquated
methods, I have sat in California's huge
Folsom penitentiary listening to the parole
board consider the case of prisoner after
prisoner. Its board is under a Negro, Walter
Gordon, who played football with Gov. Earl
Warren at the University of California, and
who is regarded as one of the outstanding
penal expert4 of the nation.
I listened as a Negro murderer from
Arkansas came before the board. He had
migrated to California with the "Arkies"
to pick fruit. Charles Dullea, a former
California police officer, now a member
of the parole board, -had every detail of
the criminal's record at his fingertips,
cross-examined him carefully, brought
out the story of his shooting of another
man in a quarrel over the prisoner's wife.
Chairman Gordon, without dwelling on
the fact that many of his race have had
little education in the past, then developed
the fact that this inmate had never learned
to read or write until he entered prison.
Now he had progressed to the fourth grade.
The prisoner was not paroled. But hope was
held out to him that if he progressed further
in his prison schooling, parole would come
in the not-too-distant future.
This is the kind of personal study given
by every modern parole board, but which
is not given in New Jersey. This is one
reason for the riots .
Another reason is the fact that prison1
budgets are appropriated by state legisla-
tures 18 months or so in advance. Then the
cost of living goes up, the budget is auto-
matically lessened,*end food is curtailed.
Another reason is the manpower short-
age. Good guards are hard to get at cur-
rent salaries. Many guards are aged. One
of them, 69 years old, was released by
rioting convicts at Jackson, Mich. Jie

Sixty-Second Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
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Chuck Elliott ........Managing Editor
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Ted Papes ................Sports Editor
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Jim Parker .....Associate Sports Editor
Jan James............Women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut, Associate Women's Editor
BDsifiss Staff
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Charles Cuson .. .Advertising Manager
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