Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

February 28, 1952 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1952-02-28

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.



_______________________________________________________________ U I

The Detroit Hearings
television should exist for the benefit of the House Un-American
the American people so they could perceive Committee and the reporter
the hate in the eyes, the contempt on the hearings in Detroit have app
lips and the conspiracy in the heart of a ten is that a man is innocen
Communist witness." guilty.
This was said by Rep. Potter of Michigan Since Speaker Sam Rayb
at the Detroit Un-American Activities order saying that the proc
Committee hearing to a witness who re- not be televised, the only w
fused to answer some questions could be informed of ther
hearings objectively is thro
A peifect example of just how far the pers, and the latter 'nave fa
committee and the press have gone. the job.
From this asinine remark by Potter we For example
are now to understand that suspected Com- F ea l
munists look a certain way and that the all- On the back page of theb
mighty committee has been endowed with banner "These Witnesses Sw
certain powers to detect the hidden meaning Truth," and then m smaller:
in the eyes, lips, and heart of a, person. We Believe Them?"
In yesterday's Detroit N
Not only is a brutally unfair remark like story" appeared on page on
this typical of the way the committee has ing a witness, reporter Willia
abused its power but in using the phrase "His black hair is combed b
communist witness" Potter makes it quite not ruffled by what happe
clear that he considers the witness a Com- nervous smile on his face or
munist before the accused has admitted or Perhaps the most insidious
been proven such. that appeared was in the "Tir
The unfortunate consequences of assum- on page 4 analyzed three with
ing that as soon as someone is named a the fifth amendment excess
Communist the accused is a Communist can cal communist types."
easily be seen in'the case of Detroit school Quoting from the article:
teacher, Mrs. Eleanor'Cook Maki. "One was smugly defient.
Mrs. Maki was named a former Commun- Another prattled sophomor
ist by an ex-FBI undercover agent. A Federal And*a third snarled."
subpoena was issued for her to appear before And again a typical gener
the committee but the authorities have not so many of his type, is well ed
yet been able to reach the art teacher. These are only a few of th
sensationalism that is turn
In the meantime, before any testimony mittee's hearings into a ful
by Mrs. Maki the Detroit school superin- hunt.
tendent removed Mrs. Maki from the pay-
roll until "all facts in her case could be The newspapers are being g
determined." to burn by the members oft

rican principle
s covering the
arently forgot-
nt until proven
urn issued an
eedings could
ay the publie
results of the
ough newspa-
allen down on
Free Press is a
ear to Tell the
print "But Can
Vews a "color
e. In describ-
am Lutz wrote
back and it is
ns. Is that a
a smirk?"
piece of drivel
mes." An article
nesses who used
ively as "typi-
ralization, "like
he examples of
ring the com-
ll scale witch-
iven ample fuel
the committee.

The teacher's suspension is a direct denial
of the American principle that an accused is
innocent until proven guilty.
But, perhaps even more important than
the actual suspension, is the personal smear
which Mrs. Maki is helpless to prevent. A
Detroit paper, obviously looking for sensa-
tionalism, found it in the story of how the
children at her school asked such questions
as, "do you think the Communists will catch
her first?" or, "will they electrocute her?"
Teachers told reporters that Mrs. Maki
was a "good teacher" but "if she were a
Communist then hbw is this going to af-
fect our school?"
It is clear that whether Mrs. Maki's guilt
is ever established or not, she has beenj
smeared, she will have difficulty getting a
job in the future and her name will al-
ways raise suspicion.
Mrs.' Maki's is not an isolated case. Every
day individuals are being hurt by the tactics
of the Un-American Activities Committee,
and yet no one has been able to show any
positive value to this country which out-
weighs the harm done to individual citizens.
-Alice Bogdonoffl
The C
The Unwain
WILLIAM ALLAN is a Communist. He is
also an Atheist. He is the Michigan re-
porter for the Daily Worker, and lives in
Herman Gardens, a Detroit Housing Com-
mission project, with his wife and three
children. Mr. Allan makes no secret about
the fact that he is a Communist. He does
not throw rocks at the windows of his Capi-
talist neighbors nor does he advertise his
political views at unseemly hours of the
night when his neighbors are trying to
sleep. William Allan pays his rent regularly.
In short the only thing that can be held
against Mr. Allan are his disagreeable views.
Some of Mr. Allan's neighbors don't like
Communists or Atheists. They decided to
do something about it and tried to get
him kicked out of his house. The Neigh-
bors let the Detroit Common Council know
that a Communist and Atheist was living
in a Housing Commission project. The
Council was shocked to find that this
Communist and Atheist and his wife and
three children were living in a Housing
Commission project, although some of
them may have known about it all along
since Allan freely admitted his political
beliefs. The Council requested the Housing
Commission to kick Allan out of his house.
The Housing Commission wanted to kick
Aillan out. A leading Detroit newspaper
wanted Allan kicked out. They couldn't do
a darn thing about it.
A federal housing regulation blocked ous-
ter proceedings. Even the Corporation Coun-
cil's office said that no legal grounds could
be found for giving Allan the boot. The
Common Council is still trying to get the
'Worker' correspondent out of his home.
During the hearings that the Common
Council held a lot of nasty things were said
about Allan and his children. Especially
about them being Atheists. Allan asked to
be allowed to speak in his own defense. The
Council refused his request. One member
even tried to make something of the fact
that he is a naturalized and not a natural
born citizen. Another councilman suggested
that they ought to take the matter to Con-
gress and get something done about it there.
It is a recognized crime to advocate the
overthrow of the government by force and
violence. The Detroit Council reasons that
all Communists advocate the violent over-
throw of the government. Hence all Com-

Such statements as Rep. Charles Potter
made yesterday in wishing for television so
that the public could see "the contempt on
the lip and the conspiracy in the heart of a
Communist witness," and one by Rep. Don-
ald Jackson when he reprimanded "Your ac-
tions would have brought holes in your
head before morning from the politburo"
are not indicative of an objective investi-
What everyone forgets, and why it was
wise to stop televising the hearings is that
people. called as witnesses and those who are
accused are not automatically convicted of
being communists. And also, that witnesses
cannot be sued for libel for what they say.
Viewers and readers of newspapers for-
get that the committee's job is fact find-
ing, not prosecution: Therefore, in pro-
tecting innocent citizens from public os-
tracism when their names are mentioned
before this modern day inquisition, Ray-
burn's TV ban is commendable.
But since the newspapers have failed in
their trust, it is time to take definite steps
to protect the accused and make publicity
seeking congressmen get down to work by
closing the meetings entirely.
-Jerry Helman

SL Election
DENT LEGISLATURE faces perhaps
its most crucial election one month from
The compelling importance of this elec-
tion, though, is not in getting 10,000 votes
-it lies in the simple necessity of finding
legislators of a caliber capable of carry-
ing on SL ideas and working towards the
traditional goals 'of student government.
The cold facts are that unless an excep-
tional slate of candidates is elected this
semester, the Legislature is in for dark days
ahead. SL will lose the heart of its leader-
ship this year-and the necessary residue of
top-notch juniors to fill the gap is lacking.
Over the past couple of years, the quality
of the rank and file legislator seems to have
been in a decline. One finds today tremen-
dous initiative from the present, highly com-
petent cabinet. But going beyond the cabinet
and the committee chairmen, one finds little
reserve of dynamic potential in the organi-
Increasingly, decisions have been made
by unanimous vote. There is hardly ever
the vocal minority opposition Tom Walsh,
Dave Belin and others used to provide from
the floor. Although this often caused frus-
trating delays it provided an important
safety valve ensuring adequate review of
all decisions, preventing the development
of a cabinet dictatorship. There was a
time when SL rarely was able to cover its
agenda; the fact that business is almost
always briskly completed these days is not
an unmixed blessing.
SL has many members who work faith-
fully on specific projects; the lack is in
those who have any broad perception of what
their goals are. What is needed now are
members to provide a new spark of original
thought to the organization, not so much in
holding successful Homecoming Dances, but
rather in conceiving projects, formulating
policy and exercising a forceful leadership.
This is a real challenge to the campus.
Qualified candidates musttbe encouraged to
submit petitions-the election must not be
permitted to degenerate into another "popu-
larity contest." Perhaps a mediocre SL is an
inevitable backwash of the general decline
of social consciousness which has become
apparent since the departure of the veterans.
But this is not a situation the student body
can afford to accept with the customary
apathetic shrug.
-Crawford Young
WASHINGTON-Senator Taft has been
saying for a long time off the record
that, if elected president, he would appoint
one or two southern Democrats to his cabi-
He explains that it's the practical way
to deal with the present condition in Con-
gress. That condition is that a conservative
coalition of Republicans and southern
Democrats controls both house and senate.
Its latest feat: the house resolution de-
manding full disclosure of all details of
the Truman-Churchill talks last month.
With his usual candor the Senator says he
does not expect a landslide either way next
fall. Therefore, he reasons, any president
will have the old Truman trouble with the
coalition unless he acts to forestall it.
Political observers agree that, the way the
congressional cards now lie, it is improb-
able that either party can gain clear con-
trol of either chamber. This situation of
course has emboldened the anti-Truman
southerners who are seeking a way to put
their minority in the driver's seat.
Politicians raise several questions about
the contemplated Taft gesture of concili-
ation toward the South.
Who are the fair-haired Southern con-
servatives who stand to gain in a Taft vic-
tory the cabinet posts liberal democratic
presidents have denied them? Are they

helping him now to get the Republican nom-
Most Republicans have been noticeably
cool to Sen. Karl Mundt's open attempts to
acknowledge the facts of life by forming a
public alliance between their party and the
Southerners. In fact, the Senator recently
conceded defeat after considerable travel
and effort to put over his idea.
The reason given is that the proposal was
a dangerous trifling with the affections of
the Negroes and other minorities in states
like New York and New Jersey that have both
Fair Employment Practices laws and large
electoral votes.
Senator Taft may well agree with some
Democrats who argue that the civil-rights
issue is a sham in the North as well as in
the South. This group says that the Demo-
crats will keep the minority vote as long
as it stands for the social program that
inevitably raises the standard of living of
Negroes along with everyone else.
Nevertheless few men standing for office
in states like New York embrace a southern
conservative in public.
It is fair to add that Senator Taft has
always tried to push his party in the direc-
tion of real campaigning and real effort in
the South. His people are accused of buying
the southern G.O.P. vote, a well-established
practice among Republican candidates for
president. At least he has complimented the
southern voter by soliciting his vote in per-
son-a thing that candidates, Republican or
Democrat, rarely do.
The Taft family also has a record of work-
ing to uplift the standard of Negro life.
Tf4rr#1 + . fmin. 1a -n 1, Crm z

The Daily welcomes communica-
tions from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all
letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding
300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for
any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld
from publication at the discretion of
the editors.
Blood Ballyhoo .. *
To the Editor:
BLOOD is blood!
Good campaigns get it.
Ours hasn't and can't!
The original deadline for blood
donation blanks, Wednesday, Feb-
ruary 20th, saw less then ten per-
cent of the goal of .three thousand
pints realized. To think of beat-
ing the University of Texas' 2800
pints is ridiculous, at least using
present methods.
Certainly the University can
sponsor no more worthwhile acti-
vity than one designed to furnish
the needed blood for men in the
armed services. What some of
our officials don't seem to realize
however, is that people don't rush
in droves to give blood.
As Texas' successful experience
proved, a certain amount of hopp-
la, ballyhoo and social pressure is
necessary to form long lines at
the mobile units. Here is one is-
sue where the University can and
should unbend from its staid, con-
servative way of doing things.
It's not hard to think of plans
to increase donations. Some of
these plans were submitted to
University officials responsible for
the drive by a group of students
willing to spend time on the drive.
The students were never again
Though it might subject the
University to cries of "rah-rah"
and "collegiate", we suggest that
an allout blood drive be conducted.
-Merv Ezray
-Martin Packard
-Jerome Segal
* , ,
To the Editor:
DUE TO AN unintentionable er-
ror on my part, The Union
Social Committee did not receive
due recognition for their marvel-
ous work on the 1952 Gulantics
Without Norm Zilber and his
Union staff there would not have
been any stage sets, participants,
or an audience!
Both Dick Frank, President of
the Michigan Men's Glee Club (in
charge of Promotion), and Norm,
spent several months in prepara-
tion for the .Big Night, and they
deserve a great deal of credit for
the production . of a successful
-Kate Rooney
Special Projects Chairman
Michigan League
Adding Fuel ...I
To the Editor:
BEING ONE of those unfortun-
ate students who have a class
in Romance Lenguages, Satur-
day's editorial frightened me. I've
always felt that if the building
-really weren't safe, they wouldn't
hold classes there. Now, I think
that steps should be taken to limit
the use of the building. For in-
stance, classes might still be held
on the first and second floors. As
for the rest of the classes, there
are plenty of places they could
meet until the new wing is opened.
The Union and League, with their
meeting rooms, could accommo-
date them easily.
While writing this, I know that
my suggestion would be just too
much for the authorities to take.
It would be such an effort to
make this change! All I can say
is, Remember Haven Hall.

-Marian Glaser
* *. *

* 4

"Do I Understand There's More Cooking?"

uase of
iced Tenant

may any of his rights, including the right
not to be evicted when eviction is against the
law, be infringed upon. To act contrary to
this consideration is comparable to lynching.
In addition it might be well to inquire how
American a practice it is to remove the fami-
lies of even convicted criminals from their
place of residence.
And what has the fact that Allan is an
Atheist got to do with anything? There is
such a concept as freedom of religion in
this country. And that also means freedom
not to haye any religion at all. It was en-
tirely contrary to American principles to
even mention Allan's Atheism at these
So that the affair would not produce a
total loss the Common Council passed a re-
solution saying that the Housing Commis-
sion should not rent dwelling to any more
'Undesirable' people. A citizen's committee
protested against this resolution. "Who is
'undesirable,' and who is to say who is 'un-
desirable?' they asked. It is reasonable to be-
lieve that the Housing Commission might
judge anyone who disagrees with the Hous-
ing Commission 'undesirable.' The citizen's
committee didn't like this resolution very
The wording was changed. Now the reso-
lution says that no dwellings will be rented
to "admitted or proven Communists." The
citizen's committee doesn't like the resolu-
tion much better now.
It's nt a particularly democratic ideal
to segregate people according to their
views. But aside from that, what is "a
proven Communist?" A lot of people think
that anyone who ever belonged to a Com-
munist Front organization is a proven
Communist. I know some people who once
belonged to an organization on the At-
torney General's little list who today hate
Communism and are loyal Americans. Will
all potential tenents have to sign loyalty
oaths? I'm not a Communist and I would-
n't sign a loyalty oath; if I was a Com-
munist I probably would.
The login upon which the Common Coun-
cil based their case against Allan and the
logic behind resolutions such as the one
mentioned above is all too frequently found
in the nation today and constitutes as great
a threat to our wav of life a di nr vmi

side doors regardless of the in-
convenience caused. This sign
certainly reeked of pre - 19th
amendment to the U.S. Constitu-
tion days: it was an insult to the
intelligence of the U of ' M. stu-
dentbody. Thehold policy repre-
sented one of the last remnants
of the former status of women.
The very progressive and com-
mendable step taken by the Union
policy makers is a symbol of their
acceptance of the hard-fought fo
and newly won status of women.
It is heartening to see the accept-
ance by women of all ages of this
(formerly abrogated) Equality
Before The Door.
This simple act is of signifi-
cance when one notes the excel-
lent reaction from the Student
Legislature in defense of the fran-
chise of women. This franchise
is in conjunction with voting for
representatives to the Board of
Inter-collegiate Athletics. The
antiquated Regent's ruling which
rendered women ineligible to vote
for the Board completely ignored
the fact that the same sum is
deducted from women students'
fees to support the athletic pro-
gram as is from men's.
These moves by two prominent
student organizations indicate the
general trend toward the reali-
zation and acceptance of the
equality of U. of M. women.
-Valerie Cowen
* * *
Miss Snead .. .
To the Editor:
I-cwho read clear through Rich-
ard King's letter, we wish to ap-
plaud it. We rarely find such un-
derstanding statements of the im-
portance of grade school teachers,
or the'role of facts (rather than
spoon-feeding) in understanding
American history. and,- indeed, in
education in general.
The notion that the type of citi-
zen we wish to encourage is the
mature, active, questioning one,
ra.ther than the blind 103% Am-
erican who thinks with his red
corpuscles, is not the popularly ac-
cepted one at any level of the Am-
erican educational system today.
We are confident that many pre-
sent and future Miss Sneads agree
with us, however-and only wish
that they were freer to carry out
their ideas. It takes a sympathetic
administration to allow a teacher
to question, and to show her pupils
how to question. It is not always
the willful decision of the teacher
to use the quick easy method of
indoctrination. He or she is often
forced to do so by administrative
machinery, crowded conditions
and antiquated sets of rules (pre-
sent even at the University level
of instruction.) Therefore, not on-
ly should prospective grade school
teachers broaden their concepts of
citizenship and education, but all
members of the community should.
-Devia Landlee
Pat Murphy
Star Light, Star .. .
To the Editor:
ALTHOUGH I received part of
my education some years ago
at what is presently one of your
most formidable rivals-on the
gridiron!-I still have a great af-
fection for the University.
It was therefore of considerable
interest to me that you felt the
subject of Astrology sufficiently
important in the minds of the
student body to take notice of it,
and I wish to thank you for your
effort in giving space to some of
the things I had to say.
I am well aware of how diffi-

the conclusion I stand in utter
opposition to it. On the contrary,
these men have done a magnifi-
cent job-in their own line, which
is not to say that this qualifies
them for any assumption of om-
niscience-or even infallibility.
What I deplore about them is
their traditional dogmatism-even
in view of their repeated errors
of judgment. If the assumption
of these men is true-that they
represent the flower of our in-
telligence, then may God have
mercy on the rest! ...
He who has not an open mind
is insuring himself for a closed
casket .. .
I was told that you requested
permission to personally retain
the material. If it is of any per-
sonal interest to you, you are
most welcome to it-and to a sec-
ond one I sent later. In both, I
was merely trying to answer the
questions sent to me ,and they in
no way reveal anything of the real
nature of Astrology.
Thanks also for the very flat-

...oCelle to tie lior .

I know that I am not alone in
this legitimate gripe. Many other
activities besides the Michiganen-
sian such as the Union Opera,
Daily, and Student Legislature to
name only a few have had similar
experiences. It's a damn 'shame
when people spend 5 hours on an
attractive banner only to have
some amateur kleptomaniac satis-
fy his immediate whim and walk
off with it or to have a misan-
thropic sadist destroy it.
Perhaps the University could -
erect a permanent plate glass case
for all notices and signs on the
diagonal. It might help matters
somewhat. But who knows how
long it would stay? At any rate I
have put up another banner now.
"Please, Mr. Sun, watch over it."
-Neale Traves
Club Seeker ..
To the Editor:

AM A freshman here at the
University and have, along
with many new freshman stu-
dents, viewed many of the clubs
and associations with mixed feel-
ings. In "The Daily" we read oaf
the activities of the Young Re-
publicans, Young Democrats, and
other organizations with interest.
Several of us were recently dis-
cussing the situation and we won-
dered why a club to study and dis-
cuss the moral, social, and ethical
responsibilities of government ob-
jectively with no party or political
affiliation of any type was not
found on the campus.
My cohorts and I would be in-
terested to find if any students
are interested in such an organi-
zation-perhaps such a club exists
informally and they would accept
new members into their "bull ses-
Any communication would be
appreciated. I cani be reached
6417 South Quad.
-Al Smallman
Rushing Slow-Down
To the Editor:
THE moral seems almost too
obvious. Nevertheless, I should
like to suggest that the recent.
dearth of rushing candidates may
be an indication of student opin-
ion as to fraternities in general,
and the bias issue in particular,
as any possible opinion poll.
- -Paul D. Hellenga
Goodby O'Malley ...
To the Editor:


tering illustration which
panied the article!


-Harry Gray
The Empty Space .. .
To the Editor:,
A TEAR came to my eye as I read?
Friday's issue of The Daily;
and saw Mr. O'Malley, the hero of
the Barnaby comic strip, silently
float away into space, never again
to return to his little Godson Bar-
naby. While reading Saturday's
Daily I was amazed to see Mr.
O'Malley, along with Gus the
Ghost and McSnoyd, the invisible;
Leprechaun, conversing with Bar-
Having the utmost confidence in
Mr. Crockett Johnson, the creator
of Barnaby, I am sure that once
again, as they have many times in
the past, The Daily -has shuffled
the order in which the little fellow'
and his friends are to appear. This
makes it most difficult for even a
college "student" to follow the an-
tics of this fine comic serial.
Now that Mr. Johnson has de-
cided that Barnaby is old enough'
to get along without his Fairy
Godfather and thus discontinue
writing his adventures, The Daily
is faced with the problem of find-
ing a replacement for the lower
right side of its editorial page.
Since The Daily has had great
difficulty in the past keeping the
installments in a continuous order,
I suggest that the space left by the
absence of Barnaby be replaced by
a non-serial comic strip. I would
like to suggest that Peanuts, the
new and intellectually humorous
adventures of a little boy named
Charlie Brown, his kid brother,
Shroeder, and his dog Snoopy be
selected to take over Barnaby's
coveted position on the editorial
page of our college daily. Barnaby
is dead-long live Peanuts.
-Harvey Gordon, '52
* * *
Stolen * .
To the Editor:
It has come to my attention in.
recent months that certain in-
dividuals on this campus have a
mania for stealing publicity signs
for decorative purposes in their
rooms. Last weekend I hung an
'Ensian March 1st Price Rise ban-
ner on the diagonal with author-
ized permission. The banner which
cost $20 was hung between two
trees high enough so that no one
could reach it unless ingenious
methods of brachiation were
used; and they were. I often mar-
vel at the nimerous ways some

JACK MORLEY and I are bring-
JP ing "Barnaby" to a close. I
have written the concluding epi-
sode in a way I think gives my ba-
sic story a satisfactory and not un-
dramatic ending. Briefly, Barnaby
grows up (to be six) and his "ima-
ginary" fairy godfather makes a
reluctant departure.
This sequence as it evolves offers
something in the way of extraordi-
nary suspense, and, culminating as
it does in the end of the strip itself,
it seems to me to be capable of fo-
cusing momentarily a bit of added
interest on the comic page and
also on Barnaby's successor. Of
this you are the better judge, but
I hope that, for whatever reason,
you will see your way clear to
continuing the story to its last
More important, this letter gives
me the opportunity to say thanks
to you and, to the staff of The
Daily for having brought Barnaby
to its readers for so many years.
--Crockett Johnson



oral, Anal or.

. ..

To the Editor:
WHAT'S THE matter with Vir-
ginia Voss? I've been read-
ing her music criticisms in the
Daily sincehlast September and
she hasn't had anything good to
say forsany visiting artist at Hill
Auditorium. The sourness of her
comments seem to be in direct
proportion to the applause and
number of encores.
At first. it made me a little mad
to think she was not only insult-
ing the artists, but the audiences
as well for their approval. A
journalism major told me she was
just passing through a phase and
to pay no attention l
One semester; though, is long
enough for a phase. How about
someone helping Miss Voss up off
her brains and teaching her how
to give credit where it is due? As
it is, she looks pretty silly groping
through her phase with only one
sour line to peddle.
--Henry Buslepp
T hA O fnon .Door

Sixty-Second Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board of Control -of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Chuck Elliott ........Managing Editor
Bob Keith ..................City E,tor
Leonard Greenbaum, Editorial Director.
Ven Emerson .........Feature Editor
Ron Watts .............Associate Editor
Bob vaughn ...........Associate Editor
Ted Papes.............. Sports. Editor
George Flint ,...Associate Sports Editor
Jim Parker .....Associate Sports Editor
Jan James............women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut, Associate Women's Editor

Business Staff
Bob Miller.........Business Manager
Gene Kuthy, Assoc. Business Manager
Charles Cuson ....Advertising Manager
Sally Fish..........Finance Manager
Milt Goetz....... Circulation Manager



Back to Top

© 2021 Regents of the University of Michigan